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Chapter 1 Textbook notes

by: Haley Eckert

Chapter 1 Textbook notes EES 220

Haley Eckert

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These notes cover the important material from Chapter 1 of the textbook.
Mineralogy & Petrology 1
Dr. Ranson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Eckert on Thursday July 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EES 220 at Furman University taught by Dr. Ranson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Mineralogy & Petrology 1 in Earth & Environmental Sciences Department at Furman University.

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Date Created: 07/21/16
Ch1 - Introduction 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction What is a Mineral  Mineral – a naturally occurring solid with a highly ordered atomic arrangement and a definite (but not necessarily fixed), homogeneous chemical composition o Usually formed by inorganic processes but increasingly recognized that may also be produced organically  Biomineralization – study of processes by which organisms produce minerals o Naturally occurring – must have been formed by natural processes (not made in labs, not synthetic) o Solid – excludes gases and liquids  H2O as glacier is a mineral but as liquid is not o Highly ordered atomic arrangement – internal structural framework of atoms or ions arranged in regular, repeating, geometric pattern  Solids that lack an ordered atomic arrangement are called amorphous  Ex: volcanic glass (obsidian) and limonite (mix of various hydrous iron oxides that form rust)  Mineral can become amorphous if lost of radioactive elements from decay change structure  Minerals are crystalline o Definite (but not necessarily fixed) homogeneous chemical composition – composition of mineral can be expressed by specific chemical formula  Ex: quartz is SiO2– most minerals are not this pure  Most minerals do not have fixed chemical composition but vary within certain limits  Homogeneous – mineral is of same composition throughout its volume regardless of location sampled  Mineraloids – substances that meet other criteria of minerals but lack long-range internal order o Ex: naturally occurring glasses like volcanic glass (obsidian) and fulgurites (lightning strike melts rock and soil to produce glass) o Ex: liquids, water, mercury  Defining a Mineral More Broadly – mineral studies are also used to investigate complex and heterogeneous makeup of Earth and other planets and processes that control their geologic evolution  Where do we find minerals and what can we learn o Minerals are products of complex Earth and planetary processes that take place over a wide range of temperatures and pressures o Beaches, ocean floor, cores of mountain belts, other planets, moons, asteroids, and more o Minerals provide clues to understanding origin, evolution, and behavior of planets in solar system Minerals As Integral To Earth Science  Petrology – branch of geology that involves study of rocks, their composition, and the processes that form them o Rock – coherent, consolidated, naturally occurring aggregate of minerals o Experimental petrology – synthesizing, melting, and/or growing rocks and minerals in laboratory to understand physical and chemical conditions under which minerals form and are stable o Closely linked to geochemistry through chemical elements contained in rocks o Linked to geochronology because geochronology techniques provide age dates for rocks  Geochemistry – deals with relative abundance, distribution, and migration of chemical elements (and their isotopes) in Earth and planet materials  Meteoritics – dedicated to study of chemistry and mineralogy of meteorite samples Ch1 - Introduction 2  Planetary Studies – study of rocks and other materials that were collected from scientific missions to other planets and moon (ex: lunar rocks and regolith) – also includes study of interplanetary dust particles that originate from comets, asteroids, and protoplanets  Paleontology – study of ancient life through fossils of plants and animals which are preserved in by replacement of minerals  Geomicrobiology – study of interactions of geology, mineralogy, biology, and micro- organisms o Minerals may provide life and growth source for some microbes o Microbes may manufacture minerals or convert one mineral to another  Environmental mineralogy and geology – apply geologic research to understanding and solving problems in our environment o Important to energy policy and usage o Seek solutions to environmental damage from mineral extraction and human pollution – commonly using minerals that may trap toxic elements o Focuses on interaction of minerals with biological systems (medical mineralogy)  Forensic mineralogy – minerals used to help solve crimes  Economic geology – study of distribution of valuable mineral deposits, economic considerations involved in their recovery, assessment of available resources and reserves, and impact of mining on environment  Geophysics – study of physics of Earth, emphasizing its physical nature and dynamic geologic behavior o Consider properties of minerals and rocks  Mineral Physics – link between geophysics and mineralogy o Together explore mineral behavior under extremely high pressures and temperature conditions (produced in lab) to understand fundamental physical and chemical processes that determine mineral properties  Structural Geology and Tectonics – evaluates rock movement and the resulting structures  Geochronology – study of time as it relates to Earth’s history Mineralogy As Important To Other Fields  Related to inorganic chemistry since minerals are composed entirely of chemical elements o Minerals help chemists understand complicated inorganic materials since minerals are nature’s own complex chemical solids  Material Science and Engineering – field focused on making new materials for specific functions (chemical, optical, thermal, magnetic, electronic, structural, etc) o Mineralogy was like the first material science  Gemology – study of gem minerals which are the most beautiful representatives of minerals on Earth  Soil Science – minerals and organic matter are main constituents of soils  Biology/Paleobiology – apatite is mineral in vertebrate bones and teeth and other organism require minerals for function  Nanoscience  Art – by knowing physical properties of minerals and rocks, artists utilize materials for specific purposes  Archeology – minerals found in ancient sites help scientists deduce trade routes, determine sources of materials used for food gathering and preparation, and interpret the wealth of societies Disciplines of Mineral Science  Descriptive mineralogy – measurement and recording of physical properties that help describe and identify a mineral  Crystallography – deals with atomic arrangement of solid materials o Focused on geometric form, external symmetry, and optical properties of crystals o Modern crystallographic techniques aim to determine internal structure of crystalline materials (crystal structure) Ch1 - Introduction 3  Crystal Chemistry – relates chemical composition, internal structure, and physical properties of crystalline materials o In many mineral groups, overall structure is relatively constant but chemical composition is highly variable  Classification – manner in which minerals are logically categorized, similar to what is done in biology or chemistry o ~4200 mineral species, each with distinctive names o classified by anion or anionic group (such as native elements, sulfides, oxides, carbonates, and silicates), then in groups with many species and complex structures (such s silicate group), then subclassifications are made based primarily on structural (atomic) arrangements  Geologic Occurrence – geologic setting in which mineral is found and its characteristic association with other minerals  Mineral Science – encompasses broad area of study that keeps expanding as more scientific discoveries are made and new experimental techniques and analytical tools are developed Naming of Minerals  Minerals classified on basis of major chemical component – anion or anionic complex o By anion: arrange minerals into oxides, sulfides, halides o By anionic complex: arrange into silicates, carbonates, phosphate groups o Most minerals contain only one major anion  Names originate from variety of sources – physical, chemical, locality, public figure, mineralogists, or anything else considered appropriate o Typically given name by person who discovers it and describes its properties  Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names of the International Mineralogical Association reviews all new mineral descriptions and judges appropriateness of new mineral names as well as scientific characterization of newly discovered mineral species


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