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by: Neha simon

sample Biology 103

Neha simon

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gov notes
Intro to biological sciences
Luis Rodriguez
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neha simon on Friday July 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at George Mason University taught by Luis Rodriguez in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Science at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 07/22/16
Chap 6 Public opinion and Political action I. The American People.  A. Demography: the science of population change.  1. Census: actual enumeration of population  a. Required by law to be taken every 10 years.  b. Helps determine how much money/reps states get.  B. The immigrant society: million immigrants can come to US by law.  1. Waves of imstgrants in U.S  a. 1  wave: NW Europeans.  b. 2  wave: southern and eastern Europeans.  c. 3  wave: Asians and Hispanics.  C. The American melting pot:  1. Melting pot: many diff cultures blend into one  2. Minority majority: Hispanic whites will represent a min of the U.S. pop  and min groups will rep a maj.  3. Illegal immigration­ 10.8 million in 2009 a. Simpson –Mazzoli Act: ­ requires employers to keep track of the  citizenship of employees.  4. Political culture: Set of values shared within society.  D. The Regional Shift:  1. Reapportionment­ changing the number of members in the house of reps  based on census.  a. Changes every 10 years.  2. Since WWII the South and West inc in pop.  E. The Graying America: Baby boomers (1945­1964).  1. Fastest growing age group.  2. Social security is the 2  most expensive.  3. Senior Citizens vote more than other groups.  II. Political socialization: How a person learns or decides their political beliefs.  A. Process of political socialization 1. The Family: Powerful influence.  a. Young individuals tend to vote what their parents vote.  2. The mass media: Very influential.        a. Social media and TV stations.  3. School: The more education, the likely you’re to vote.         a. Have to take government.         b. Only learn the positives of the Gov.  B.   Political learning over a lifetime:             1. Individuals become more engaged in politics as they age.  III.  Measuring public opinion and political information.  A. How Polls are conducted.  1. Gallup polls: opinion polls.  a. Sample pop: small portion ppl.  Chap 6 Public opinion and Political action 2. Random sampling: everyone should have an equal probability of being  selected.  3. Sampling Error: level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll. a. more people interviewed the more confidence.  4. Random­ digit dialing: placing random calls to both listed and unlisted  numbers when conducting the survey.  B. The role of polls in American demo: helps political candidates detect public  preferences.  1. Polls create bandwagon effect.  2. Exit polls: Public opinion surveys used by major media to predict  electoral winners w/ speed an precision.  a. Heavily criticized, because declares winners too early.  C. What polls reveal about Americans’ political information.  1. public knowledge is low when it comes to politics.  D. The decline of trust in gov.  1. Since the 1960s  a. Water gate  b. Iran hostage crisis  c. Gulf of Tonkin 2. American believes gov solutions to problems are wasteful.  III. What Americans value: political ideologies.  A. Political Ideologies: Coherent set of values and beliefs about politics.  B. Liberals & conservatives? 1. Most Americans choose conservatives.  2. African American/ women= more liberal 3. Gender Gap: Women are likely to support democrats.  4. Religion: matters how religious a person is.  a. More religious = more conservative. C. Do people think in Ideological terms?  1. The American Voter: Examined how people rely ideology to guide  their political thinking.  2. Ideologues: connect their opinions and beliefs with broad policy  positions taken by candidates.  3. Group benefit voters: People who like the groups vote for them.  a. I like republicans! I like democrats! 4. More people don’t connect ideologies with voting. 1V.  Political participation: activities used to influence the selection of political leaders.  A. Conventional Participation: accepted modes of influences.  1. Voting. Maj vote.  2. Campaign.  B. Protest as participation: change through dramatic and unconventional tactics.  1. Civil disobedience: braking policy consciously to achieve something.  Chap 6 Public opinion and Political action C. Class, Inequality, and participation: 1. More economic status = more participation in politics.  2. Blacks vote more than whites.  3. Voter turnout for age group increase = politicians pay attention.   V.  Understanding public opinion and political actions A. Public attitude toward the scope of gov.  1. Regan said gov is the problem.  2. 1980­ Americans felt gov was to powerful.  3. Conservs believe that gov is too big.   


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