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East Asia

by: Seleste Garcia

East Asia GEOG 203

Seleste Garcia
Texas A&M
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These lecture notes cover some of East Asia.
Globalization of the Village
Peter Hugil
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Seleste Garcia on Friday July 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 203 at Texas A&M University taught by Peter Hugil in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Globalization of the Village in Geography at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 07/22/16
East Asia 11/05/2014 ▯ East Asia ▯ • China world’s oldest coherent culture ▯ • China world’s most “developed” region historically ▯ • Impossible to “understand” China without understanding its long and complex history (see useful references) ▯ • China’s demographic growth now under control ▯ • First non-European region to “modernize” after success of Japanese industrialization (Marxist-- feudal--vs Weberian--Protestant--arguments about modernization) ▯ Physical Geography (11.1) ▯ • China highly mountainous to west, substantial desert areas to north ▯ • Japan at convergence point of three tectonic plates. Subject to major earthquakes ▯ • Japan also subject to tsunamis caused by earthquakes in Pacific Basin driving tidal waves ashore (see also figure 11.9) ▯ Climates (11.7) ▯ • Arid west and north. ▯ • Eastern China has similar range of climates to USA-- Hong Kong rather like Houston, Beijing rather like Chicago-- on eastern edge of large continental mass ▯ • Food systems have followed climate, with rice in south and wheat (which is made into noodles) in north ▯ Japan’s physical geography (11.9) ▯ • Japan tends to be either lowland plains or mountainous ▯ • Plains are centers of Japan’s intensive agriculture, & protected by very high tariffs ▯ • Lowlands also only locations for cities and their attendant industries ▯ • Lack of land for industrial development has pushed many Japanese corps to establish manufacturing elsewhere (USA, China) ▯ Landscape regions in China (11.11) ▯ • Two major regions, N & S. N China Plain bisected by Huang He R. N China fertile, ideal for wheat. Lack of energy means wheat converted to noodles for quick cooking ▯ • S China bisected by Yangtze R. Fertile soils w/ climate ideal for rice cultivation ▯ • Rivers (& food regions) connected by Grand Canal (completed 610 AD) ▯ Environmental Issues in East Asia (11.2) ▯ Environmental Problems in East Asia ▯ • Most serious is soil erosion on Loess Plateau. Loess a wind driven, loosely compacted yellow soil blown out of the Inner Asian steppe at end of Ice Age. Once one of most productive regions of China, soil erosion is caused by cultivation, soil carried downstream by Huang He (aka Yellow River) into Yellow Sea ▯ • China’s acute need to increase electricity supply doubly problematic in environmental terms--hydropower projects such as Three Gorges dam displacing millions and rapidly increasing coal consumption in “dirty” plants raising global CO2 output drastically ▯ • Deforestation, especially when combined w/increased padi rice production, also increasing CO2 output (probable cause of global warming 800 to 1200 AD) ▯ • Severe flooding on middle/lower Yangtze from deforestation induced soil erosion upstream ▯ Table 11.1, 3rd edn: East Asia’s demographics ▯ Table 11.1, 4th edn: East Asia’s demographics ▯ Table 11.1, 3rd pb edn: East Asia’s demographics ▯ TABLE 11.1 POPULATION INDICATORS ▯ Total Population Population Density (per Rate of Natural Fertility Percent Percent Percent Net Migration (Rate ▯ Country (millions) 2009 square kilometer) Increase (RNI) Rate Urban <15 >65 per 1000) 2005-10* ▯ China 1,331.4 139 0.5 1.6 46 19 8 0.3 ▯ Hong Kong 7.0 6,403 0.5 1.1 100 13 13 3.3 ▯ Japan 127.6 338 0.0 1.4 86 13 23 0.2 ▯ North Korea 22.7 188 0.5 2.0 60 22 9 0.0 ▯ South Korea 48.7 490 0.4 1.2 82 17 10 0.1 ▯ Taiwan 23.1 641 0.2 1.0 78 17 10 ▯ Source: Population Reference Bureau, World Population Data Sheet, 2009. *Net Migration Rate from the United Nations, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database. ▯ Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World, 3e — Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ▯ East Asia’s demographics ▯ • TFRs among lowest in world, nearly all declining ▯ • China reduced again, to 1.55 (CIA 2012 data), which matters when population 1.3 billion. ▯ • Only N Korea “above” 2 (2.01). Rest well below replacement (SK 1.23, Japan 1.39 & declining). HK 1.09, but constantly replenished from China ▯ • China’s natural increase still high because population young and large. Will start to level off c 2050. Note low % urban (tho up from 41 to 46% from 3rd to 3rd pb edn.) ▯ • Use of abortion to control pop growth a problem in that clear preference shown by Chinese for male children. Japanese used infanticide for much of their history, predominately against females ▯ Population Distribution in East Asia (11.15) ▯ • E Asian pop highly concentrated ▯ geographically in most fertile regions of China. Lesser concentration in S Korea ▯ • One megalopolitan region, Tokyo- Osaka in Japan ▯ (one of only 3 at present worldwide) ▯ • Two/three incipient megalopolitan ▯ regions? Hong Kong (v likely), Shanghai, Beijing ▯ Urban Japan (11.19) ▯ • Japanese urbanization mostly in lowland “islands.” Main of these lie between Tokyo to east & Osaka to west in Japan’s great megalopolitan region ▯ • Tokyo-Osaka megalopolis (the Tokkaido corridor, c. 300 mls long) contains c. 65% all Japan’s population. Unified functionally by world’s greatest high speed rail system. Electric “bullet” trains cruise at up to 185 mph. Trains are at 3.5 minute intervals--30 secs late unusual! ▯ E Asian Trains ▯ Language Geography of East Asia (11.24) ▯ Linguistic Geography of East Asia ▯ • Chinese unique among world’s major cultures in continued use of pictographic script. Mao tried to simplify to “thousand character” script cf several hundred thousand character Mandarin script ▯ • All great states need common system of communication. With alphabetic writing you need a common spoken as well as written form ▯ • Koreansusealphabeticsystem ▯ • Japanese use world’s most complex system with both pictographic and alphabetic scripts ▯ Japanese language structure ▯ • Four written scripts, two numbering systems ▯ • One script, based on Chinese characters, is called kanji (漢 漢 漢漢漢) 漢 ▯ • Two syllabic scripts used are hiragana (漢漢漢 漢漢漢漢 漢) and katakana (漢漢漢 漢漢漢漢) ▯ • The Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is now also often used ▯ • Arabic numerals now generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals also commonplace ▯ Historical Geography of China ▯ • Not world’s first unitary state, BUT certainly the one in longest continuous existence. Powerfully centralized since warring states period ended c. 221 BC. Warring states period perhaps akin to European history to 1945 ▯ • Chinese define themselves by their long-standing ethnic homogeneity as Han ▯ • Chinese state and culture has retained its centrality & identity by (a) excluding outsiders spatially (with the Great Wall) & (b) Sinifying successful invaders (making then adopt Chinese culture) ▯ • Ch’in first to build a wall and define state spatially (hence China) ▯ • Periodic incursions of steppe nomads typified by Mongol incursions of 1200s--Chingiz Khan able to take over unitary state (cf difficulty of taking over Feudal Europe) but his descendants Sinified ▯ Geopolitical Issues in East Asia ▯ • East Asian countries tend to be ethnically homogenous. Long term expansion of Han Chinese displaced all previous groups (e.g. Polynesians). Japanese also ethnically homogenous ▯ • Tendency, pronounced in case of China, to define non-Han as barbarians. Seriously affects external relations since traditional solutions to barbarians (exclude or Sinify) have not worked since mid-1800s ▯ • Japanese solution to barbarian outsiders (join them) now seems to be operating in China (tho first choice, which was to Sinify Communism under Mao, seems to have failed-tho note CP still runs China) ▯ • Main local issues focus on long-standing Chinese claims to dominate entire region versus impact of western imperialism (including Japanese). Chinese have retaken Tibet, claim Taiwan, but are still currently in one of their smaller geographic modes ▯ Key Geopolitical Issues in East Asia (11.29) China/India border tension Spratly Islands ▯ Expansion of the Chinese Culture Region ▯ Expansion of the Chinese state ▯ • Most critical success in early state formation in China was completion of Grand Canal c. 610 AD to unite north & south China. Most famines are regional, and best solved by transporting food from regions where crops did not fail to regions where they did ▯ • First comparable canal in Europe was France’s Briare Canal of late 1600s, uniting Paris & Orleans basins (NOT comparable in scale) ▯ • Han dynasty created most extensive wall (essentially current one) ▯ • Nomadic invaders have given different dynasties different claims to ▯ China’s inner Asian frontiers ▯ • Extensive overseas expansion in late 1300s, early 1400s. Ends just as ▯ European expansions begin ▯ • Most extensive claims to inner Asia are from Manchu dynasty of early 1700s, just before Chinese began to encounter expansive European states such as Russia (to landward) & Britain (from sea). Spatial collapse of period 1840-1945 thus particularly psychologically shocking--turned first to a local version of Communism, now to some local form of capitalism ▯ Chinese ship of the 1400s c.f. Columbus’s ship ▯ Growth of European Spheres of Influence 1 ▯ • Two major problems in 1800s: Russia to landward, British from sea ▯ • British incursions began w/Opium War of 1840. Europe had long bought Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain, for which Chinese took only specie (gold & silver). As Britain came to dominate Europe after 1815 also came to dominate China trade. Balance of trade only shifted in Britain’s favor with increase sale in China of opium grown in Burma ▯ • Some import substitution also occurred: Josiah Wedgwood reverse engineered porcelain; high count cottons (140 up) an effective alternative to silk ▯ • Opium Wars were about Britain’s “right,” under laissez-faire economic theory to sell opium to Chinese (or anyone) ▯ • (In some defense) opium was NOT illegal until early 20th C &, until aspirin (first commercial sales by German company Bayer, 1899), opium was only solution to headaches, menstrual cramps, teething etc. ▯ Imperialism in East Asia c. 1815-1945 (11.31) ▯ Growth of European Spheres of Influence 2 ▯ • Russia focused on warm water ports, need to reach Pacific at Vladivostok, construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad ▯ • Refusal by Russia to allow Japan treaty port rights in China (retention of Port Arthur) following Sino-Japanese War (1894-5). Russia leases Port Arthur from China ▯ • Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5, follows. Japanese attack Port Arthur 1904, destroy Russian battlefleet at Tsushima Straits 1905, keep Port Arthur but forced by USA to restrict migration to Philipines, Hawaii, California 1905 at Treaty of Portsmouth ▯ • USSR able to detach Mongolian People’s Republic (MPR) from weakening China as Soviet client state in early 1920s. China retains IMAR ▯ • USSR/Japan fight undeclared war after Mongolian invasion of Manchuria May/Sept 1939 (the Nomonhan Incident). Japan loses badly on ground and in air (helps that Soviet commander is Zhukov!) ▯ • USSR takes Kurile Islands from Japan, 1945 ▯ Japanese Development before 1945 ▯ • Initial contact with Europe by Portuguese/Dutch in late 1500s-1600s ▯ • Adoption, then rejection of Europe, esp. of firearms & Christianity ▯ • Japan “reopened” by American Commodore Perry in 1853 ▯ • Meiji Restoration (of Emperor) 1868. Japan westernizes. Copies “best practice” of time (Britain’s textile industry, navy, and Empire; France’s army-- thru 1870, then Prussia’s!) ▯ • Problem with textile industry is that, while Japan and indigenous silk producer, needs source of cotton (US main supplier thru 1920 or so, refocuses to India in 1920s, China in 1930s, USSR after 1945) ▯ • Substantial use of western “advisors” to 1930s, then indigenous development takes over ▯ • Heavy industrialization almost all toward military goals (especially naval), which focus on expansion throughout SE Asia and into China proper ▯ Japan as a rising naval power: 1 ▯ • Meiji Restoration 1868 (ostensibly of the power of the Emperor). Japan follows “textile first” model of industrialization based on domestic silk, American cotton ▯ • Between Meiji Restoration and 1895 Japan buys a modern navy, defeats China ▯ • By 1898 Hawaiians, esp. American planters, concerned about Japanese designs on Hawaii—helps promote annexation ▯ • 1902 Naval Alliance with Britain (worries USA) ▯ • 1895-1905--Japan buys an even better navy--defeats Russia at Tsushima ▯ Straits (see Mikasa) ▯ • Naval defeat of Russia the “greatest phenomenon the world has ever ▯ seen:” Teddy Roosevelt ▯ • BUT TR, bent on making US a great naval power, organizes Treaty of ▯ Portsmouth to keep Japanese in their place ▯ • Japanese simply step up naval efforts ▯ Mikasa ▯ Laid down 1899, British built. Modified Royal Sovereign class ship ▯ Kongo ▯ Kongo, laid down 1911, British built, modified Lion class. Sister ships built in Japan but not gun mounts ▯ Fuso ▯ Fuso, laid down 1912, all Japanese including gun mounts ▯ Nagato ▯ Nagato, laid down 1917, entirely Japanese, world’s best battleship at time ▯ Japan as a rising naval power: 2 ▯ • 1902 Anglo-Japanese Naval Treaty. In Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 Japan destroys world’s third ranked navy (after Britain & France) ▯ • By end of WWI Imperial Japanese Navy still world’s third ranked (UK 1, US 2): has some of world’s best & most modern ships ▯ • [Anti-immigration clause in Versailles Treaty annoys Japanese] ▯ • Washington Naval Treaty 1922 imposes 5/5/3 tonnage ratio US/UK/Japan on battleships–this enrages Japanese. Thereafter Japan invests heavily in aircraft carriers, cruisers, subs and airplanes: not so restricted by the Washington Treaty ▯ • At Washington USA forces Britain to choose—join US or continue naval alliance w/Japan. Britain chooses US ▯ • 1920s Japan expending 32% of GNP on Imperial Navy alone (!) ▯ • Imperial Japanese Army’s success in Manchuria (1931), China (1937) reduces ▯ Navy’s political power in Tokyo ▯ • Imperial Army’s 1939 defeat in Nomonhan Incident (by Zhukov) allows Navy to regain power in Tokyo. Result is two front naval attack on British at Singapore and Americans at Pearl Harbor in 1941 ▯ Japanese Development after 1945 ▯ • Loss to America in 1945 causes Japan to copy American “best practice” (Deming teaches IBM’s statistical quality control widely in Japan, but companies such as Sony & Toyota are first class homegrown innovators-- Toyota bases its production system on the highly innovative automatic loom of its parent company, Toyoda) ▯ • By 1980s Japan has caught up with the west, but now needs to innovate. Question if can, since focus of innovation now in research universities, no longer in “best practice companies” ▯ • Japanese k thru 12 education probably world’s best. Universities weak, especially in research ▯ • Sony suffering marked downturn. Toyota still very strong, but whereas innovation frontier in autos looked Japanese until 1990s has been European since (efficient small diesels, far better suspensions). Japanese skill is in production engineering rather than design, tho car companies in particular have set up effective design bureaus in west to better understand their market ▯ Table 11.2, 3rd edn: Economic Indicators ▯ Table 11.2, 4th edn: Economic Indicators ▯ Table 11.2, 3rd pb edn: Development Indicators ▯ TABLE 11.2 DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ▯ GNI per capita, PPP ▯ Country 2007 ▯ GDP Average Annual % Growth 2000–07 ▯ Human Development Index (2006)# ▯ Percent Life Population Living Expectancy* ▯ Below $2 a Day 2009 ▯ Under Age 5 Mortality Rate 1990 ▯ Under Age 5 Mortality Rate 2007 ▯ Gender Equity 2007 ▯ China 5,420 10.3 ▯ 0.762 36.3 73 45 ▯ ▯ 1 22 00 ▯ Hong Kong 43,940 5.2 0.942 82 98 ▯ Japan 34,750 1.7 ▯ 0.956 83 6 ▯ ▯ 1 4 00 ▯ North Korea 63 55 55 ▯ South Korea 24,840 4.7 ▯ 0.928 80 9 ▯ ▯ 9 5 6 ▯ Taiwan 78 ▯ Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2009. United Nations, Human Development Index, 2008. # Population Reference Bureau, World Population Data Sheet, 2009* Gender Equity – Ratio of female to male enrollments in primary and secondary school. Numbers below 100 have more males in primary/secondary school, numbers above 100 have more females in primary/secondary schools. ▯ Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World, 3e — Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. ▯ Economic Indicators ▯ • Japan’s very high GNP/capita seriously lowered by v. high cost of living, especially real estate. PPP/cap much lower at $35,200 (2011). Failure to grow of late because gvt handled recession of 1980s very poorly (no stimulus) ▯ • HK at $49,800 (2011) (& Taiwan) have shot ahead of Japan in PPP/cap. HK even ahead of USA ($49,000 in 2011) ▯ • S Korea ($32,100 2011), Taiwan ($38,200 2011) doing very well (CIA) ▯ • N Korea a disaster ($1,800 2011 and actually declining) ▯ • China has a LONG way to go but its growth rate (like Japan in 1950s) looks good, even if likely to be unsustainable over long run! ▯ • Despite all claims that it is doing well in a bad economic period China’s PPP/cap declined from $6,600 2005 to $5,420 2007 because cost of living is rising, but in 2011 was $8,500 ▯ • China has too many internal problems and contradictions Japan never had (education of rural masses, rural/urban migration etc) to continue to grow at Japanese rates. Japanese education was universal and its population highly urbanized very early ▯ Table 11.3, 3rd edn: Social Indicators ▯ Social Indicators (& global comparisons-data from CIA Factbook) ▯ • Japan has world’s 3rd highest life expectancies at 81/87 and highest for any large ▯ country (US is 51st at 76/81) ▯ • Rest of E. Asia quite good ▯ • China (was 69/72 in 3rd edn, now 73/77) surprisingly good life expectancies for a large, poor nation, tho under 5 mortality rates remain a bit high ▯ • cf India (66/68), which is another very large poor country improving v. fast-- China’s male life expectancy now 7 yrs longer, female 9 yrs longer ▯ • cf Brazil (69/77) which we see as relatively “developed”--China’s male life expectancy 4 yrs longer, female same ▯ • Italy (79/85) & France (78/85) best countries in EU ▯ • China’s PPP/cap $8.5k, Brazil’s $11.9k, India’s $3.7k (Italy $35.6k, France $35.6k, Japan $35.2k, US $49k). One possible link to higher life expectancies may be socialized health care—wealth alone clearly not enough. All studies show France has world’s best health care—yet CIA shows France spends only 3.5% GDP cf 16.2% GDP for USA! [I’m not sure this is right—normal figures for developed EU show around 10% GDP on health care!] Globally, diets vary vastly, tho US consumes WAY too much saturated fats, refined sugars & our obesity index is high ▯ Economic Differentiation in China (11.39) ▯ • Strongly coastal pattern of wealth in China ▯ • Guangdong (greater HK) and Zhejiang (greater Shanghai) provinces 2 of 4 wealthiest regions ▯ • Liaoning Province in S. Manchuria & Beijing other wealthy areas ▯ • Potential for coastal region to detach from inland China? ▯ China’s rise to Great Power status? Defense or power projection? ▯ For defense have 5 ballistic missile carrying nuclear submarines plus ICBMs ▯ For power projection have 1 refitted Soviet aircraft carrier. Plans to build more unclear. ▯ Air Force uses mostly improved Soviet planes. Combat aircraft competent but NO strategic air power capability. Chengdu J-10 touted--BUT believed cast-off Israeli design ▯ Chengdu J-10 MRCA ▯ China’s “power projection”—former Soviet Varyag ▯ Photo of trials March 20, 2012. Half displacement of US carriers, not nuclear powered, shows no arrestor wires to retrieve airplanes (yet) ▯ Foreign Trade of East Asia ▯ • Initial leader of region, Japan, now out of land for urban expansion. Land intensive manufactures such as autos have had to move out, mostly to markets such as US & EU ▯ • Even Japan concerned about high labor costs, willing to move labor intensive plants offshore (China/Korea) ▯ • China emerging as huge new high quality, low cost (land & labor) producer ▯ Foreign Trade of East Asia 1997 ▯ East Asia’s Global Ties (11.39) ▯ Useful References ▯ • Albert Herrman, An Historical Atlas of China. I haven’t referenced an Atlas before, but this is a work by a great German geographer, first published in 1935 and massively up-dated with a prefatory essay by Wheatley ▯ • Paul Wheatley, The Pivot of the Four Quarters. The work on early Chinese urban history by a suitably inscrutable geographer. ▯ • Joseph Needham, Science & Civilization in China. Massive, multi- volume work. Completely definitive. ▯ • Yi-Fu Tuan, China. Great, short introduction focused on China’s environmental geography. ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 13: South East Asia 11/24/2014 ▯ Most complex religion ▯ most complex colonial region on planet esp for critical resources during period of organic world economy- ▯ don’t always win (Vietnam) ▯ we are separated from the organic world (real wood, cotton, leather)  world not based on organics until recently ▯ got into region bc kicked French out ▯ recovered “shatterbelt”, resources now available from organic chem ▯ PHYSICAL GEO & PLATE TECTONICS Fig 13.1 #2 ▯ 1883 island of Krakatau exploded tsunamis killed 30,000 ppl, year w/o summer in us after explosion in tambora 1815, winter of 1817 worst, no sun, huge famine, not in USA, IN Europe 1817-1818 terrible famines ▯ what’s so interesting?  happened over & over again, bit over due for one…1 major event in lifetime, food with less food & security will suffer from explosion  per-me-ay extinction? What caused is still unknown- period of massive volcanic activity, caused climate change ▯ Alfred Wallace collected animals and birds discovered, birds same on both sides but animals weren’t … Darwin was looking at birds but at the same time he wasn’t – THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION- at least as strong as Darwin’s , Wallace sent Darwin rough draft of his theory- Darwin got mad bc who ever publishes first gets all credit, Darwin finished his research and publishes…its as much as wallaces theory as darwins ▯ #3  Krakatoa ▯ Eruption of 1883 was first environmental tragedy reported in near real time around world…1883 world is cabled up…1 rule for news…if it bleeds it leads ▯ Movie bled…shows shift in world ▯ Victorian era- letter form London- san Francisco 9 mo…1901 through telegram 9 sec ▯ 13.9 , 13.8, #4 ▯ Climates of SE Asia  Tropical monsoons kept area wet, allowed easy human mvmt by sea for past 2,000 yrs….  Brought lang, & religion  When roman emp ends, …becomes poor again, stop trade not living…turns into a hinduized world ▯ Swidden great for agri, but early agri on poor tropical soils (run-off & erosion were minimized) ▯ First form of agriculture , 10,0000 yr ago in mid east – tigris euphratis, started growing new crops, chinese grew rice..allowed much more human pop ▯ Grow lots of food if you irrigate, padi rice (flooded rice) ▯ Always changing water from irrigation, gets transferred by indian merchants ▯ Main cash crops, rubber and teak, gutta percha Rubber terrible for tires, ▯ Lots of ppl don’t pay attention to tires, its scarry, you should always! ▯ Rubber doesn’t do well in pressure and cold, don’t do good at insulating submarine cables ▯ 1 ST rubber plant found in brazil, then britsih took over ▯ Fig 13.3: Enviornmental probs in SE Asia ▯ DEMOGRAPHY OF SE ASIa ▯ SINGAPORE LOWEST tfr at .79., surrounding state of Malaysia Islamic but dropping fast ▯ Indonesia wolds most poplulous ISLAMIC state ▯ Highest birth rate TIMOR Leste ▯ Easier to keep birth rates in city, more educated, ppl in country do whatever ▯ *** ▯ 13.11 – PIPLUATION DISTRIBUTION IN SE ASIA ▯ 13.19 RELIGIONS OF SE ASIA  Most complex  world 1430-dominated by islam  1431 potuguese take over, then Spanish join  2 forms of Buddhism o Mahayana  theravada buddhissm – put your self in whatever spirit you believe in o replaced Hinduism in Indochina  hiduism- looks like Buddhism  phillipines collision point since 1500s b/w expansive Islam & Christianity ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 11/26/14 Fig 13.23: language complexity in SE Asia  Colonial lang survive esp- French Fig 13.26- geopolitical issues in SE Asia Fig 13.32-spratly islands Geopolitical issues in SE Asia  Spratly islands claimed by china,Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan.vietnam,  Area may have lots of oil  Struggle within phillipines b/w Christian majority& muslim  *  Indonesia o Internal srife b/w Islamic majority & Christians o Long thought peaceful o E end of timor now separated by Australia o Gotten along well Indo & Australia –when trading  Burma total mess “Sin Cities” in SE Asia  Russian mafia thought incolved o Clubs have Russian as well as thai girls  Thailand 15 ranking those “living with AIDS” th  Indonesia 19 . bali night club 13.27- colonial se asia  Started with Indians  No record of inslaminc  Chinese pushed south into Vietnam o Chinese viet war- viet won  Spain. Portugal, Holland , br,fr, us, japan all had colonies  Only Thailand colonized  French attempted to retun to viet  Us final colonial pwr 13.28- last ve Early sivaite temple- 7 layers= 7 layers of heaven Angkor –ag smart had 3 reservoirs so when dry period hit thy still had water Indian imagery at Angkor  Many exotic carvings  Chines noticed Fig 13.20: the chinese diaspora  1840s ciaos  chinese have long spread throughout region as merchant class  catholic church- thinks borrowing money= go to hell  islam= don’t lend money to fellow interest of others in Islamic person who is Islamic Colonization in SE Asia 1500-1899  Europe expansion transformed region after 1500  Spanish had to cross pacific from phillipines to mex, then back to spain b/c treaty of tordesillas  Portugese sneaked into E Timor  Dutch e india co chased Portuguese out, established most extensive colonies in region o Portuguese don’t get it $$ b/c of Catholicism o Dutch have great idea about global expansion- $$ = work, that’s how you glorify God  Such found spice island not on a cash  * Colonization in SE Asia 1800-1970’s  british took straits of Malacca after Napoleonic war  british run world after Napoleonic war o invest in other economies  flos-ag circles, cotton, food, capital,  British used Burma to grow opium & reverse terms of trade w/china  French interested for lots of reasons-  * History of Europeans expansion in pacific  Spanish controlled seas of region 1500s to 1700s but never mapped it  Cook’s voyages (1770s) defined pacific region. He mapped from Australia to sandwich islands and on to pacific NW  Cooks second-in-command, Vancouver brings squadron home after cooks death, later explores pacific NW gave British some claim to Alaska & Cali coast  European commanders had very real probs maintaining discipline on long voyages from home into regions where indigenous pop had very diff attitudes to sexuality & private property  Region again”fought over” in later 1800s for telegraph routes  * Demographics  pop of region minimal  tfrs 2 largest states at european/n American levels  are 1.77 and 2.06 only bc of considerable increase in immigration  for NZ is great concern over declining pop and migration of old stock NZers to Britain & Australia  abonded “white Australia” policy for soame reason, tho more pop has meant less out migration  most migration into austrailia & NZ from reast of oceania  despite vast empty areas, Australia, NX most urbanized states on earth 14.18 populations  Convicts- most ppl transported for minor crimes like – in debt, young women having loose morals –hung for stealing  W Australia convict settled 1850-68  Pursued “white Australia” policy til 1960  * 14.20  British brought over mammals- dogs and rats-humans first mammals  furtur than Australia need more than boat  NZ and oceania settled much later by sophisticated seafaring polunesian cultures NZ flora & remnant of godwana – vegetation  Not like American- looks like alien  NZ broke off from gondwana very early before modern flora and fauna  Ferns dominated (Dubious) evolutionary strategies in NZ (or anywhere)  Birds are every where- flys to avoid predators  Maoris found giant birds up to 14 feet tall (moa) plus many smaller species (kiwi)  Last moa prob killed by Europeans- skeleton found & shows marks of steel NZ is geologically highly unstable  Earthquakes worse than cali  Fault moved over 1 ft. in 1750s causing earthquakes and tsunami, killing everyone Maori settlements highly fortified, well-defended  Maori & other Polynesian islanders politically sophisticated formidable warriors and sailors  Prone to inter-tribal warfare  British allied w/ tribes against maori wars, ended 1840  S Island & best ag lands of N Island ceded to Britain at treaty of Waitangi, 1840  Treaty of Waitangi- divided N & S  European diseases kills them pop down to 42,000 by 1896 Australian & (oceanian) ag  Grapes-*worlds best wine in Australia*  S Aust developed major wheat region before br repal of corn laws o Corn law-Heavy tariff on wheat- profitable to grow wheat in Ireland, when potatoe famine hits british backs off on tariffs  Suited to cane sugar in N,NZ to dairy farming  * Europeans intro new crops, domestic animals  s Island NZ deemed ideal for brititsh agric. Maoris gone  sheep on freeway 13,2d Economic indicators (2012 data)  Non-oil states  Singapore very wealthy by worlds standards $61,400.  Malaysia lesser $17,200  British effectively removed communist guerillas in 1960’s  Singapore –island city state- but get too many eco benefits from being in EU  Thailand affected by Japanese expansion but less than most o Never colonized tho British run  Rest of region poor  American attempts to replace France  Philippines remarkably poor given is US client state ($4500) thus many leave to become migrant workers Eco Indicators (2011 data)  Bruneli very wealthy- highly stable former british protectorate with well managed oil industry  Indonesia poor  **** Social indicators  Very variable life expectancies  Burma/Myanmar high (74/79) considering its ongoing “civil war” and military repression, tho this recently seems to be beginning to end  Cambodia low life expectancies (61/66) tho recovering- probably an artifact of genocide of pol pot era  Poorer life expectancy in Laos (61/65) than Cambodia harder to account for  Females outlive males 4 to 6 13.37: SE Asia’s Global linkages  Huge FDI inflows to Singapore  Huge aid to & E. Timor 13.2.1A: china’s involvement in the region  China always manipulated neighbors Australia & Oceania -Different worldviews, Texas has its own worldview  Region defined by myth rather than reality: tropical plenty & endless resources  Planet’s most radically different flora & fauna being destroyed by immigrants  Impact of European diseases devastating to local peoples  Small pox- real killer o Hits Honolulu kills population in 2 weeks, not total wipe out  New Zealand first successful resistance to European colonization (Maori wars)  Hawai’i ethnically 14.1: location & Physical Geography Location & Physical Geography  Open ocean  Need Chronometer to locate islands of pacific since need to measure longitude as well as latitude  Pacific became “Spanish lake” after treaty of Tordesillas, failed to find any pacific islands  Exploited the Mexico- Philippines route  Dutch “discovered” Tasmania  Cook mapped region in 1770’s, thus much of it fell to the British 14.4: environmental issues in Australia & Oceania  Sea-level rise will move ppl  Main data from atmospheric co2 comes from Hawai’i  Tropical deforestation in papua new guinea  Serious probs for much of oceania slight rise in sea level  Desertification, soil salinization from cultivation in Austria  Loss of new zealand’s glaciers from global Europeans introduced new crops, domestic animals  Sheep & deer  Deer, one of most destructive intro, now herded or shot from helicopters  * 14.32: languages in oceania  English dominates Hawaii and oceanina  * 14.36: geopolitical issues  claims  * 14.39  green land unclaimed Australia’s resources  gold rush 2 nd only to S Africa in late 1800’s  1492- one main target of imperial Japanese navy’s drive  japan expanded set goal on Australia  exports: weapons, fuel, uranium, coal  most of Australias exports going to Japanese & chinese  * economic indicators  Australia wealthy $43,3000, NZ - $30,200- have ppp per capita as high as Europe  Hawaii -48,836 & guam- 28,700 not apart of us eco & geopolitical sys would be like Fiji  Australia eco large enough to be independent world eco but MAJOR supplier is china  * Social Indicators  Highest life expectancy  High skin cancer rate  NZ high life expectancy reduced by maiors  * Foregin trade of Australia  worlds most balanced trade pattends  japan & asia most sig regional partners, esp Japan as buyer of raw materials  need to expand exports to USA to revover british market lost when Britain entered eu Hawaii & rise of America as a great power  major stopover on the route to china  whaling area  naval control of pacific Honolulu en route to china  major stopover after cape horn  whales were tapped out in Atlantic, NE whalers turned to pacific  1 US navy ship to visit Honolulu, 1826 was to arrest mutinous whalers King Kamehameha, unifier of Hawaii  * 1 Hawaiian “crisis” 1843  Britain annexation of 1843 & American response  British assurances to America & treaty w/ france to support Hawaiian sovereignty Deomographic disaster. Smallpox & hansen’s disease- either immune to it or nah. The “leper colony on Moloka’i 2nd Hawaiian “crisis, 1881  “blaine doctrine” – (“the only solution to the problem of the hawiian monarchy will be an American solution”) first samon crisis-1887-89  why important geopolitically? o Germans backed king tamasese who usurped the throne from king malietoa in 1887 o 1888- german warship attempted to enforce tamansese’s power o king kalakaua of jawaii offered help to maletoa o german chancler rd o * 3 Hawaiian crisis-1893-98  revolution of 1893 & annexation of 1898- to resounding silence from Britain Hndaii 1893-98 2 samoan crisis, 1898-9. The view from imperial german navy  unhappy ratings that America has taken whit is now American samoa


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