Introduction to Psychology- Scientific Method
Introduction to Psychology- Scientific Method Psych1315
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Anderson on Friday July 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych1315 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Provenzano-Hass in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 07/22/16
Chapter 2. Psychology’s Scientific Method Section 1- Scientific Method 1. Observe Phenomenon 2. Formulate hypothesis and predictions 3. Testing through empirical research 4. Drawing conclusions 5. Evaluating the theory Step one: Observing o Phenomena = variables (anything that can change) o Theory- idea that explains observations Step two: hypothesis o A hypothesis is an educated guess Step three: testing o Operational definition- provides description of how a variable is going to be observed and measured in a study Step five: evaluating the theory o Direct replication- doing the study exactly how it was done originally o Conceptual replication- different methods or different sample types o Meta-analysis- summarizes a large body of evidence from the research literature on a particular topic Section 2- types of psychological research Descriptive research o Describes phenomenon- its basic dimensions and defining it, how often it occurs, etc. o Methods 1. Observation 2. Surveys and interviews 3. Case study a. In depth look at a single individual b. Performed when, for practical reasons, the aspects of an individuals life cant be duplicated and tested in others Correlational research o Used to determine the relationship between two variables/ whether or not two variable change together o Correlational coefficient Degree of relation between -1 and 1 (0 = no relation) Closer to -/+ 1 = stronger relationship -/+ indicated the degree of the relationship o Correlation does not equal causation That variables change together tells us nothing about the cause of either variable Third variable problem- unmeasured variable accounts for relationship; third variable is called a confound Cross-sectional design- variables measured at a single point in time o Value of correlational research One variable allows you to predict another Quasi-experimental study- compare individuals exposed to a variable with those not exposed Experience sampling method (ESM)- have people report their experiences at intervals Event-contingent responding- report when they engage in a particular behavior o Longitudinal designs Obtaining measures of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time Experimental Research o Used to demonstrate causation o Independent and dependent variables Confederate- a person who is given a role to play in a study to manipulate social context o Quasi-experimental designs- examine people in various groups not assigned randomly o Cautions Validity (soundness of conclusions) External validity- does it represent real-world issues Internal validity- degree to which changes in dependent variable are genuinely due to manipulation of the independent variable Bias Experimental bias- expectations influence outcome o Demand characteristics communicate how participants are wanted to behave o Confounds are systematic biases Participant bias and placebo effect o Influenced by how they think they’re supposed to behave Double-bind experiments- neither experimenter nor participants know who is experimental group v. control group Section three- research samples and setting Population- entire group you want to draw conclusions about Sample- subset/data pool Random sample- lessens bias and approximates the makeup of the population Naturalistic observation- observation in a real-world setting o Labs can cause people to behave unnaturally o Internet also considered a “natural setting” Section four- analyzing and interpreting data Descriptive statistics- mathematical procedures developed to describe and summarize data sets in a meaningful way o Measures of central tendency Mean Mode Median o Measures of dispersion Range Standard deviation Inferential statistics o Indicates whether a difference is the result of change and whether the data sufficiently supports hypothesis o Chi-squared Section five- conducting clinical research Ethics guidelines o Informed consent o Confidentiality o Debriefing o Deception- cant harm participants, who will eventually be told the truth at the debriefing Section six- thinking critically about psychological research Avoid overgeneralizing about psychological research Don’t apply group results to individual needs Look beyond a single study Avoid attributing causes where none have been found Consider the source of the psychological information Section seven- the scientific method and health and wellness Writing about your life or a trauma can lead to better health
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