Chapter 3 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 3: The Self, Social and Moral Development • Bronfenbrenner (1989): Social Context of Development • Bioecological model: Each child develops within microsystem (family, school, neighborhood) within mesosystem (interactions among microsystem) within exosystem (social settings in which not directly involved i.e. parents’ work) within macrosystem (larger society with laws, values) Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development • The child faces a developmental crisis, which can be resolved in a healthy manner or an unhealthy manner 1. Basic Trust versus Mistrust Birth to 18 months 2. Autonomy versus Shame/Doubt 18 months to 3 yrs. 3. Initiative versus Guilt 3 to 6 years 4. Industry versus Inferiority 6 to 12 years 5. Identity versus Role Confusion Adolescence 6. Intimacy versus Isolation Young adulthood 7. Generativity versus Stagnation Middle adulthood 8. Ego integrity versus Despair Late adulthood Comparing the two theorists Piaget Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete operational Stage Formal Operational Stage Erikson Basic trust vs. mistrust Autonomy vs. shame/doubt Initiative vs. guilt Industry vs. inferiority Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation Generativity vs. stagnation Integrity vs. despair James Marcia-Theory of Identity Formation Expanded on Erikson’s theory: 1. Identity achievement: explores realistic options, makes choices, and is committed to pursuit 2. Moratorium: delay in commitment, common and probably healthy for adolescents 3. Identity foreclosure: commitment without exploration 4. Identity diffusion: no exploration or commitment, apathetic or rebellious • Self Concept: individual’s knowledge and beliefs about themselves (cognitive structure) varies from situation to situation and throughout life evolves through constant self-evaluation Self-Esteem: feeling of self-worth that incorporates all self-concepts (affective structure) includes culture and values Moral Development • Theory of Mind: understanding that other people have own thoughts, feelings, beliefs - perspective-taking ability • Kohlberg (1981): Based on Piaget’s ideas 1. Preconventional Stage: own needs are basis for judgment 2. Conventional Stage: expectations of society and laws determine judgment 3. Postconventional Stage: personal principles of justice