Chapter 4 Notes
Popular in Educational Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 4: Learner Differences and Learning Needs • Intelligence is a debated construct: Nature versus nurture: Psychologists have determined 50/50 split Involves: 1. capacity to learn 2. knowledge acquired 3. ability to adapt Cattell and Horn • Fluid intelligence: abilities grounded in brain development (hereditary) • Crystalized intelligence: abilities to apply problem-solving methods (environmental) Spearman • General intelligence (g factor): overall ability to perform mental tasks • Specific abilities necessary Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory 1. Analytic intelligence--componential intelligence -Metacomponents: think about functioning—planning, self- monitoring -Performance components: implement the strategies -Knowledge-acquisition components: new concepts 2. Creative intelligence—experiential intelligence using insight and automaticity to deal with new situations 3. Practical intelligence—contextual intelligence choose environment in which to succeed—adapt and reshape to problem solve Measuring Intelligence • Binet (1904)—developed test to identify children early in their school careers who need extra help • Concept of intelligence quotient: (mental age/chronological age) x 100 Intelligence Tests • Group testing much less likely to yield a valid estimate of abilities. • Flynn Effect: IQ scores are increasing ~18 points each generation Norms need to be revised resulting in questions being made more difficult • Few differences between preschool aged boys and girls • Some differences in specific abilities between school aged boys and girls Learning Styles • Learning preferences more accurate—preferred ways of learning • Think about how as a teacher you can accommodate many styles Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Eight intelligences logical-mathematical linguistic musical spatial bodily-kinesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist May also be a spiritual and existential intelligence I.D.E.I.A. • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) (originally I.D.E.A. 1975) PL-94-142 states must provide a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for all students with disabilities ages 3 to 21 13 categories of disabilities • Least Restrictive Environment a setting which is closest to the general education class (self- contained setting, mainstreaming, integration, inclusion) to meet individual’s needs not defined by services available but by individual need placement must be continuously reassessed I.E.P. • Individualized Education Program (written IF a disorder adversely impacts the child’s educational performance—determined by a team of professionals) • I.E.P.s include: present level of academic achievement and functional performance annual goals—short and long term objectives services provided to student: when, where and who implements how much time NOT in regular program how will participate in required assessments from 14 to 16 yrs. transitional services Section 504 (504 Plan) • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973—special accommodations for those who need them (especially medical needs/ADHD) to participate in school activities—disability must substantially limit participation R.t.I. Response to Intervention • 2004—regular education initiative • main goal to ensure that children receive research-based instruction and support as soon as they demonstrate a need for it • uses systematic and documented interventions and applies this data to help determine if a student has a learning disability Learning Challenges • Learning Disabilities: a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculation • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Inattentive, and/or hyperactive, and/or impulsive Research shows drug therapy is effective in allowing children to benefit from instruction BUT instruction in academics and social skills is necessary for learning to occur • Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties Emotional Disturbance/Mental Disorders direct teaching of self-regulation skills, school-wide programs • Autism Spectrum Disorders developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction Students Who are Gifted or Talented • Those who give evidence of high achievement capability intellectually, creatively, artistically or leadershipwise. • Accelerate or enrich?
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