Chapter 7 Notes
Popular in Educational Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 7: Behavioral Views of Learning Behavioral Learning Theory • Theorists focus on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors. • The principle of contiguity states that when two or more sensations occur together often enough, they will become associated. • Classical conditioning—involuntary responses are trained to occur as a result of a stimulus that previously had no effect • Operant conditioning—voluntary responses are learned as the result of reinforcement or punishment Classical Conditioning • Neutral stimulus—stimulus not connected to response • Unconditioned stimulus—stimulus automatically produces and involuntary response • Unconditioned response—naturally occurring involuntary response • Conditioned stimulus—stimulus evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning • Conditioned response—learned behavior resulting from a previously neutral stimulus Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement—pleasurable consequence strengthens behavior • Negative reinforcement—removal of aversive strengthens behavior • Reinforcement increases behavior Punishment • Consequence causes a decrease in behavior. • Presentation punishment (type 1)—adding a stimulus after the behavior decreases the behavior • Removal punishment (type 2)—taking away a stimulus following the behavior decreases the behavior Reinforcement Schedules • Continuous reinforcement—reinforced for every response • Intermittent reinforcement—reinforced after some but not all responses ratio schedule—reinforced based on number of responses between reinforcers interval schedule—reinforced based on amount of time between reinforcers fixed schedule—number of responses or amount of time remains constant variable schedule—number of responses or amount of time changes Vocab • Extinction: removal of all reinforcement causes the response to disappear • Cueing: providing an antecedent (event preceding behavior) before a specific behavior occurs • Prompting: a reminder that follows a cue to ensure reaction to the cue • Premack Principle: a more preferred activity will reinforce a less preferred activity • Response cost: loss of reinforcers • Social isolation: removal of student from reinforcement (time out) • Contingency contract: teacher draws up individual contract with each student describing what student must do to earn reinforcement • Token economy: tokens are earned for appropriate behavior and can be exchanged for reinforcers • Selfmanagement: goal setting, monitoring progress, evaluating progress, self reinforcement Observational Learning (vicarious learning) • Bandura (1965) • By observing others we can learn. • The performance of those actions depends on reinforcement and punishment.