Chapter 8 Notes
Popular in Educational Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 8: Cognitive Views of Learning Types of Knowledge General knowledge—applies to many different situations (example—writing, reading) Domain specific knowledge– applies to one situation or topic (how to prove a geometrical theory) Memory System • Sensory memory: initial processing that transforms incoming stimuli so can make sense of it lasts less than 3 seconds how perceive is important attention is critical—cannot remember what you do not attend to Bottomup processing—notice separate defining features and assemble them into a pattern Topdown processing—use context of what already know to make sense of information (recognize patterns rapidly) Working (shortterm) memory • New information is held temporarily and combined with knowledge from longterm memory to comprehend situation. • 1520 second limit • Central executive—controls attention and mental resources • Phonological loop—holds verbal (sound) information • Visuospatial sketchpad—stores visual information • Episodic buffer—information from phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and long term memory integrate • To retain information in working memory—maintenance rehearsal (repeat information to yourself), elaborative rehearsal (connect information you are trying to remember with something you already know) LongTerm Memory • Unlimited capacity—permanent storage of knowledge • Declarative knowledgewhat • Procedural knowledgehow • Selfregulatory knowledge—when (conditional) • Explicit memory—deliberate recall episodic, semantic • Implicit memory—not conscious of recall but influences thought procedural, emotional reactions due to classical conditioning, priming Storing Information Elaborate—add meaning to new information by connecting with already known information Organize—order information chunking Imagery—information learned lends itself to verbal and visual images Context—physical or emotional situation associated with event Retrieving Information • Spread of activation—remembering a piece of information stimulates recall of associated information • Reconstruction—recreating information by using logic, cues, and existing knowledge to construct a reasonable response • Forgetting—given the right cues, information should be available indefinitely Concepts category used to group similar events, ideas, objects defining attributes—required features of concept prototype—best example of concept exemplar—actual memories of members of category Mnemonics • Mnemonics are techniques for improving memory • Loci method—associate items with specific places • Acronym—use first letter of each word in a phrase to form a new word (HOMES) or form sentences out of first letter of each word (chaining) • Keyword—associate new word with similar sounding word Distributed vs. Massed Practice • Distributed practice involves practice in short intervals with breaks in between. • Masses practice involves practice for one extended period. • PROS for distributed practice: deeper processing, strengthen connections in brain motivation for short period serialposition effect is prevented (remembering items only at beginning and end) CONS for massed practice: overload, fatigue, lack of motivation