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Chapter 8 Notes

by: Kenziej218

Chapter 8 Notes CEP 315

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About this Document

These notes are from the powerpoint and cover the important material from Chapter 8 of the textbook
Educational Psychology
Cathy Parisi
Class Notes
cognitive, learning, Cognitive Psychology, Education, Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.


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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 8: Cognitive Views of Learning Types of Knowledge  General knowledge—applies to many different situations  (example—writing, reading)  Domain specific knowledge– applies to one situation or topic  (how to prove a geometrical theory) Memory System • Sensory memory:  initial processing that transforms incoming  stimuli so can make sense  of it  lasts less than 3 seconds  how perceive is important  attention is critical—cannot remember what you do not attend to  Bottom­up processing—notice separate defining features and assemble them into a  pattern  Top­down processing—use context of what already know to make sense of information  (recognize patterns rapidly)   Working (short­term) memory • New information is held temporarily and combined with knowledge from long­term  memory to comprehend situation. • 15­20 second limit • Central executive—controls attention and mental resources • Phonological loop—holds verbal (sound) information • Visuospatial sketchpad—stores visual information • Episodic buffer—information from phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and long­ term memory integrate • To retain information in working memory—maintenance rehearsal (repeat information to  yourself), elaborative rehearsal (connect information you are trying to remember with  something you already know) Long­Term Memory • Unlimited capacity—permanent storage of knowledge • Declarative knowledge­­what • Procedural knowledge­­how • Self­regulatory knowledge—when (conditional) • Explicit memory—deliberate recall  episodic, semantic • Implicit memory—not conscious of recall but influences thought  procedural, emotional reactions due to classical conditioning, priming Storing Information  Elaborate—add meaning to new information by connecting with already known  information  Organize—order information   chunking  Imagery—information learned lends itself to verbal and visual images  Context—physical or emotional situation associated with event Retrieving Information • Spread of activation—remembering a piece of information stimulates recall of associated  information • Reconstruction—recreating information by using logic, cues, and existing knowledge to  construct a reasonable response • Forgetting—given the right cues, information should be available indefinitely Concepts  category used to group similar events, ideas, objects  defining attributes—required features of concept  prototype—best example of concept  exemplar—actual memories of members of category Mnemonics • Mnemonics are techniques for improving memory • Loci method—associate items with specific places • Acronym—use first letter of each word in a phrase to form a new word (HOMES) or  form sentences out of first letter of each word (chaining) • Keyword—associate new word with similar sounding word Distributed vs. Massed Practice • Distributed practice involves practice in short intervals with breaks in between. • Masses practice involves practice for one extended period. • PROS for distributed practice:  deeper processing, strengthen connections in brain  motivation for short period  serial­position effect is prevented (remembering items only at beginning and end)   CONS for massed practice:  overload, fatigue, lack of motivation


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