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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Kenziej218

Chapter 12 Notes CEP 315

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About this Document

These notes are from the powerpoint and cover the important material from Chapter 12 of the textbook
Educational Psychology
Cathy Parisi
Class Notes
motivation, learning, Teaching, Education, Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.


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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 12: Motivation in Learning and Teaching Motivation • Internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior • Involves choices about behavior, time to get started, level of involvement, persistence,  feeling about activity • Intrinsic—activities are their own reward • Extrinsic—external factors influence action • Locus of causality:  location of cause for action  internal locus—intrinsic  external locus­­extrinsic Five Approaches to Motivation  Behavioral:  incentives to encourage or discourage behavior (think about behavioral view of learning)  Humanistic:  need for self­actualization…Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Cognitive:  behavior determined by thinking  Social Cognitive:  expectation of reaching goal and value of goal  Sociocultural:  participation in communities of practice (members of community that  values learning) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Deficiency needs—need for survival, safety, belonging, and self­esteem • Being needs—need for intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, and self­ actualization • Move among the needs—being needs not completely fulfilled  For teachers, consider the child whose deficiency needs are threatened  Classrooms that encourage self­determination: competence, autonomy, and relatedness,  are associated with greater student motivation. Goals • Goal setting improves performance because: 1. It directs attention to task at hand. 2. It energizes effort. 3. It increases persistence. 4. It promotes development of new knowledge and strategies.  Goals must be specific, moderately difficult, and likely to be reached in near future.  Goal framing (explain goals as important for intrinsic value), goal acceptance, and  feedback are important. Types of Goals • Mastery (task goals/learning goals): improve and learn no matter if performance suffers • Performance goals (ability goals or ego goals)—seem competent in eyes of others • Social goals—connected to a group • Can pursue several goals at one time. Student Beliefs • Beliefs about ability have two views:  entity (stable and uncontrollable) or incremental  (unstable and controllable)  incremental beliefs are associated with greater motivation  Attribution Theory:  how the individual’s explanations, justifications, and excuses  influence motivation  3 dimensions:  locus (internal or external cause), stability (cause is same across time and  situation), controllability (person can control cause)  Most motivating when students attribute failures to unstable, controllable causes.  Learned helplessness causes three types of deficits:  motivational, cognitive, and  affective.  The expectation is that, based on experience, all one’s efforts will lead to  failure.  Students may be mastery­oriented (value achievement and have incremental— improvable view), failure­avoiding (have entity—fixed view of ability; take few risks), or failure­accepting (have low ability and learned helplessness). Anxiety • Anxiety is composed of both trait (personal) and state (situational). • Anxiety interferes with focusing attention, learning, and testing. • Anxiety has cognitive and affective components. • To cope with anxiety: problem and emotion focused strategies, realistic goals Motivational Strategies for Teachers to Consider (TARGET)  Task  Can have attainment value (importance), interest or intrinsic value, or utility value  Can be authentic (connected to real­life)  Consider risk of task  Autonomy: bounded or unbounded choice—giving range of options versus too many  Recognition: recognize for improvement versus comparison to others.  Grouping: cooperative, competitive, or individualistic  Evaluation: de­emphasis on grades and emphasis on learning  Time: scheduling and pacing Some Strategies to Encourage Motivation in the Classroom • Use interest (situational and personal) and curiosity (novelty) • Organize classroom • Be patient and supportive • Challenging but reasonable work • Authentic tasks • Model problem solving • Scaffold • Use familiarity • Ill­structured problems • Explain connections • Create finished products • Encourage participation


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