Chapter 12 Notes
Chapter 12 Notes CEP 315
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 12: Motivation in Learning and Teaching Motivation • Internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior • Involves choices about behavior, time to get started, level of involvement, persistence, feeling about activity • Intrinsic—activities are their own reward • Extrinsic—external factors influence action • Locus of causality: location of cause for action internal locus—intrinsic external locusextrinsic Five Approaches to Motivation Behavioral: incentives to encourage or discourage behavior (think about behavioral view of learning) Humanistic: need for selfactualization…Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Cognitive: behavior determined by thinking Social Cognitive: expectation of reaching goal and value of goal Sociocultural: participation in communities of practice (members of community that values learning) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Deficiency needs—need for survival, safety, belonging, and selfesteem • Being needs—need for intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, and self actualization • Move among the needs—being needs not completely fulfilled For teachers, consider the child whose deficiency needs are threatened Classrooms that encourage selfdetermination: competence, autonomy, and relatedness, are associated with greater student motivation. Goals • Goal setting improves performance because: 1. It directs attention to task at hand. 2. It energizes effort. 3. It increases persistence. 4. It promotes development of new knowledge and strategies. Goals must be specific, moderately difficult, and likely to be reached in near future. Goal framing (explain goals as important for intrinsic value), goal acceptance, and feedback are important. Types of Goals • Mastery (task goals/learning goals): improve and learn no matter if performance suffers • Performance goals (ability goals or ego goals)—seem competent in eyes of others • Social goals—connected to a group • Can pursue several goals at one time. Student Beliefs • Beliefs about ability have two views: entity (stable and uncontrollable) or incremental (unstable and controllable) incremental beliefs are associated with greater motivation Attribution Theory: how the individual’s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation 3 dimensions: locus (internal or external cause), stability (cause is same across time and situation), controllability (person can control cause) Most motivating when students attribute failures to unstable, controllable causes. Learned helplessness causes three types of deficits: motivational, cognitive, and affective. The expectation is that, based on experience, all one’s efforts will lead to failure. Students may be masteryoriented (value achievement and have incremental— improvable view), failureavoiding (have entity—fixed view of ability; take few risks), or failureaccepting (have low ability and learned helplessness). Anxiety • Anxiety is composed of both trait (personal) and state (situational). • Anxiety interferes with focusing attention, learning, and testing. • Anxiety has cognitive and affective components. • To cope with anxiety: problem and emotion focused strategies, realistic goals Motivational Strategies for Teachers to Consider (TARGET) Task Can have attainment value (importance), interest or intrinsic value, or utility value Can be authentic (connected to reallife) Consider risk of task Autonomy: bounded or unbounded choice—giving range of options versus too many Recognition: recognize for improvement versus comparison to others. Grouping: cooperative, competitive, or individualistic Evaluation: deemphasis on grades and emphasis on learning Time: scheduling and pacing Some Strategies to Encourage Motivation in the Classroom • Use interest (situational and personal) and curiosity (novelty) • Organize classroom • Be patient and supportive • Challenging but reasonable work • Authentic tasks • Model problem solving • Scaffold • Use familiarity • Illstructured problems • Explain connections • Create finished products • Encourage participation
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