Chapter 14 Notes
Chapter 14 Notes CEP 315
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenziej218 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 315 at Rhode Island College taught by Cathy Parisi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology at Rhode Island College.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chapter 14: Teaching Every Student Characteristics of Effective Teachers • Clarity and organization • Warmth and enthusiasm • Knowledge: in academic content, in how to teach the content, and in how to match instruction to student differences Pianta and Colleagues Continued Research on Effective Teachers They found three dimensions important for preschool and elementary teachers. affective—emotional support for students cognitive—instructional support behavioral—classroom organization Planning Planning is multileveled. Teachers first plan by year, term, unit, month, week, then day. Decide on time for each area of curriculum. Planning reduces uncertainty but needs to be flexible. Collaboration is helpful. Objectives in Planning Mager (1975) focused on behavioral objectives: Describe the student behavior. List the conditions under which the behavior will occur. Give criteria for acceptable performance. Example: After reading the passage silently the student will answer the comprehension questions verbally with 80% accuracy. Gronlund (2009) Described Cognitive Objectives The objective is stated in general terms that are thought based with sample behaviors that provide evidence the student attains the objective. Example: The student will understand the steps to problem solve mathematical word problems. 1. Verbally state each step. 2. Solve a problem utilizing the steps. 3. Explain the steps to solve a sample problem. 4. Describe what to do in the sequence of steps. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives • A classification system of educational objectives • Three domains: cognitive, affective, psychomotor • The Cognitive Domain: Six objectives: Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation NOT a hierarchy of skills Bloom’s Taxonomy was Revised in 2001 Remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, creating Affective Domain: Receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization by value Psychomotor Domain: Voluntary capability, ability to perform a skill Teaching Approaches Direct Instruction (explicit teaching): Systematic instruction—best for basic skills Teacher is focus, information goes from teacher to student. Often begins with advance organizer. Rosenshine (1988) identified six teaching functions: 1. Review and check previous day’s work. 2. Present new material. 3. Provide guided practice. 4. Give feedback and corrections. 5. Provide independent practice. 6. Review weekly and monthly. Seatwork, Questioning, Discussion Seatwork is often overused: should be supervised practice after instruction. Alternatives: journal writing, working with partner, projects, computer activities, making up problems, writing Recitation: teacher poses question, student responds, teacher reacts Convergent questioning has only one correct answer while divergent questioning has many possible answers. Wait time is involved (at least 35 seconds). Discussion: Students are focus, but teacher facilitates. Advantages: participation, ability to express self, justify opinions, tolerate different views, ask for clarification, take leadership role, pursue interests Disadvantages: unpredictable, exchange of ignorance, dominance, nonparticipation Differentiated Instruction and Adaptive Teaching Involves grouping: withinclass and flexible Students in class are divided into groups within the class based on ability to accommodate student differences. Students in class are grouped and regrouped depending upon their learning needs (assessment is continuous). Adaptive teaching challenges all students and supports them but removes supports as students become more independent. Direct instruction for those novice learners leads to modeling and guided practice for more developed learners and finally to discovery learning/independent study for selfregulated learners. For students with learning disabilities, INCLUDE I dentify classroom demands. N ote student strengths and needs. C heck for potential areas of student success. L ook for potential problems. U se information to brainstorm instructional adaptation. D ecide on adaptations. E valuate student progress. Teacher Expectations Sustaining expectation effect: The teacher is fairly accurate in the initial assessment of student but fails to recognize improvement. Selffulfilling prophecy: The teacher has an expectation that has no basis and behaviors make the original expectation true. Pygmalion effect: High teacher expectations result in exceptional student progress. Where do expectations come from? Gender, intelligence test scores, previous teachers, medical reports, psychological reports, prior knowledge of family, appearance, previous achievement, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, actual student behaviors
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