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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Boise State University taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 07/23/16
Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Socialization: Lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture. Humans need social experience to lean their culture and survive. o Personality: Person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking and feeling Built by internalizing our surroundings Human Development: Nature vs. Nurture o Biological: Nature: Some people are born criminals, women are naturally emotional, men are naturally rational o Social: Nurture: Biology has no part in human behavior, life depends on the functioning of the body Understanding Socialization: Sigmund Freud: Studies personality and mental disorders, developed the theory of psychoanalysis o Basic Human Needs: Sexual and emotional bonding (Life instincts, “eros”) and secondly, an aggressive drive (Death instinct, “thanatos”) o Model of Personality: Id: Basic drives, unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction Ego: Conscious efforts to balance innate pleasureseeking drives with the demands of society, arises when we become aware of our distinct Superego: Cultural values and norms internalized by an individual Jean Piaget: Swiss psychologist who studies human cognition: Piaget’s Stages of Development: o Sensorimotor: Individuals experience the world only through senses (Birth2) o Preoperational: Individuals first use language and other symbols (26) o Operational: Individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings (711) o Formal Operational: Individuals think abstractly and critically (12+) Lawrence Kohlberg: Moral reasoning o Preconventional: Children experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure (Piaget’s sensorimotor stage) o Conventional: Young people lose their selfishness and conform to cultural norms. Asses intention in reaching moral judgments instead of looking just at wha people do (Piaget’s formal operational stage) o Postconventional: People move past society norms and consider abstract ethical principles Carol Gilligan: Theory of Gender and Moral Development o Boys have a justice perspective, relying on formal rules of right and wrong o Girls have a care and responsibility perspective judging a situation with an eye toward personal relationships and loyalties George Herbert Mead: Theory of Social Self o The Self: Part of an individual’s personality composed of selfawareness and self image The self is not there at birth, it develops Develops with social experiences and interactions with others Social experience is the exchange of symbols Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other person’s point of view “taking the role of the other” o The Looking Glass Self: Selfimage based on how we think others see us o The I and the Me: By taking the role of others, we become selfaware o Development of the Self, Generalized Other: Widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves Erik H. Erikson: Eight Stages of Development… Remember from Psych Agents of Socialization: Nurture and Childhood Race and Class Gender What Children Learn Peer Group Mass Media Television and Politics Television and Violence Socialization and the Life Course: Childhood Adolescence Adulthood o Early: 1840 “do it all” o Middle: 4065 Old Age: Middle 60s o Gerontology: Study of the aging and elderly o Aging and Biology o Aging and Culture: Gerontocracy: Form of a social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power and prestige Ageism: Prejudice and discrimination against the older people o Aging and Income Death and Dying Resocialization: Radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment Personal Institutions: a setting in which people are isolated from society and manipulated by an admin staff
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