global studies week 5
global studies week 5 global
Popular in intro to global studies 1
Popular in Global Studies
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Sunday July 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to global at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Dr. Philip McCarty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see intro to global studies 1 in Global Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 07/24/16
Sugars as a global commodity Demands for sugar increases Not just a sweetener but needed as preservative Jams, candy, tea etc By 1750 sugar surpassed grain as the most valuable commodity By 1899 about 8 million tons produced per year Today 1.54 billion tons produced per year Today the average American consumes about 140 pounds of sugar per year ▯ Sugar and slaves After fall of Constantinople Portuguese began to use African slaves in Mediterranean African slaves were already being used to grow sugar when Columbus stopped at Canary islands on his first voyage ▯ Triangular trade- slaves, sugars, and textiles European sold textiles, liquid, iron, guns to buy slaves in Africa African slaves sold in Americans to buy sugar, rum and timber Sugar, rum and timber sold on European ▯ ▯ Scope of African slave trafe United all 5 continents as European trade Asian textiles for African slaves who in the Americas produce goods that expand modern consumer economics 14 M people landed as slaved o but many millions more die during middle passage, awaiting transport/shipment, in transit from interior to coast, in wars between African states. Effects of Slave Trade on Africa o catastrophic loss of African population o culled out young and healthy o the slave trade reorganized much of Africa itself o inhibited other kinds of socio economic and political development o created intertribal and interstate hostilities in endless war for four centuries o European used this spectacle of commercial free for all in human commodities to reinforce their prejudices about Africans ▯ Effects of slave trade on Americans Indigenous pop wiped out Entire regions re populated with displaced and socially dislocated slaves Patchwork of colonial empires left to fend for themselves with no functioning infrastructures Plantation societies based on race and racial hierarchies ▯ Effect on Europe and America Huge profits in Europe th Slavery thd racism were key to the success of 19 and 20 century European colonialism Great capitals of Europe flourished Agricultural and sceinfitic revolution Rising middle class, education and arts Enlightenment Democratic revolutions ▯ Crystal Palace, London 1851 ▯ ▯ ▯ Lecture 6- The scientific revolution and enlightenment ▯ Transition from medieval to modern era, rise of scientific knowledge, enlightenment- what it refers to ▯ ▯ What is scientific revolution? mid 16 century onward Conceptions of the universe Human beings place in nature Empirical methods for acquiring knowledge- use of controlled experiments Social organizations that support scientific experiments (German universities played key role) ▯ Scientific method Formulating hypothesis Collecting data through observation and measurement Testing and validating hypothesis Constructing theories ▯ Medieval vs modernity How is modernity different from what came before? Why does modernity seem like such a radical break with the past? what is changing about modernity today? To understand what is coming apart in the postmodern period, it helps to understand what modernity is. ▯ Medieval world view Aristotle’s elements Garden of Eden Authority and perfection in the past Human race seem as continually degrading Becoming more corrupt the farther we got from Eden Great chain of being To even try to change the divine order of the universe was a horrible sin ▯ Medieval world view To the medieval mind life was suffering o Death and diseases came early and often o You were born into your place in the order o There was nothing fair about life o Only the after life mattered Humans were hopelessly ignorant Human reason was fatally flawed Charity was okay, but trying to change the divine order of the universe and your place in it was hubris, a sin against both God and king ▯ Great transition The vain efforts of man to improve his lot was at best meaningless, at worst damaging Modernity represents a reversal of the medieval view of unavoidable degradation What is the motto of modernity? ▯ Progress We come to believe in individuals, in human reason and human progress Humanity could better itself and suffering Individuals could better themselves Our individual lives right here on earn right now, start to mater Individual knowledge, reason, self determination, political knowledge, and public education started to matter ▯ ▯ Italian Renaissance 1300s to 1500s Ottoman captured Constantinople in 1453 Spurred European exploration of the globe Many Greek scholars come to the west Both Arabic and Greek works translated into Latin Renewed interest in math science and nature Boosted the renaissance (rebirth) Reformation ushered in with Martin Luther in 1520s ▯ Movable type Johannes Guternberg invents first movable type in mid 15 century o Begins printing things like indulgences (receipts for sinning) o Prints Gutenberg Bible in 1452 Affordable across classes Enables new ideas to spread quickly in similar fashion o Means people all over world could be exposed to the same ideas on a much greater scale First newspapers- faster, cheaper and able to convey up to date information to a wide public ▯ Reformation challenged catholic church- Martin Luther 1517 95 thesis, problems with the church ▯ Printing press and reformation Allows for mass production of Luther’s writings o Fast production, wide distribution, low prices o Responsible to a great degree for success of reformation Bible, not church, god’s authority o Prints most popular bible in German vernacular Greater distribution of vernacular texts- leading to democratization of knowledge- expectation of literacy for all people Sold internationally by end of 15 century cf. Gilgamesh ▯ Leading to the scientific revolution The Italian renaissance contributes to the emergence of modern science during the early modern period Developments in the sciences including math, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine, chemistry Transformed views of nature, humans and human society ▯ Scientific revolution- origins Begins with rediscovery of Aristotle in 12 -13 th th century 1608- first spyglass comes out of Middelburg Netherlands o office of the VOC- dutch east india trading company o purchased by Galileo and he creates his own version aimed at astronomy o military purposes for the device already recognized throughout Europe ▯ Global origins Babylonian-mathematics count in units of 60 to produce circle, hour/understanding fractions, sq roots Egyptians- geometry to establish property lines and construct pyramids Ancient Greeks o Hippocrates-medicine unrelated to religion o Aristotle- classification and reasoning o Ptolemy’s geocentric theory of the universe Chinese- math and medicine, develop acupuncture, map major stars Indian- surgery, preventive medicine, amputations, plastic surgery, math, Hindu Arabic numerals in use today Arab- Avicenna the Persian medical genius, Ibn Khaludn pivotal social scientist Native American- astronomy, calendars, motions of planets, mathematical systems, ideas of liberty ▯ Copernicus (was a Catholic Priest) Replaced geo centric theory of universe with heliocentric theory th th Builds on arab muslim schools of 13 and 14 century Gets denounced by Martin Luther ▯ Galileo 1564-1642 Stresses need for careful experimentation, which can lead to the discovery of new principles He puts this to work mapping the stars, using modified spyglass Trialed ▯ Sir Francis Bacon 1561-1626 1620 Novum Organum knowledge is power experience, observation is the source of knowledge empirical induction systemized scientific method based on Galileo and Copernicus’ method ▯ Rene Descartes 1637 Discourse on the Method Uses Doubt as the key to knowledge I think’ therefore I am Hyper-rationalism ▯ Wars of religion Much of Europe was ravaged by religious wars Protestants fought for independence from holy roman empire Peace of Westphalia 1648 establishes autonomous nations outside divine authority The political situation stabilized Spinoza 1677 Great early rationalist Ethics Pantheistic view of the universe: God and nature were one This idea becomes central to the enlightenment from Newton through to Jefferson ▯ Sir Isaac Newton Newton provided a physical explanations of the universe of the Copernican universe Solidified ideas based in Aristotle’s and came up through Arab scientists and Galileo ▯ Netwons’ achievements Law of universal gravitation Showed that earthly objects and heavenly bodies obeyed the same set of knowable laws Leads to church having no place in teaching movements of the cosmos- gets even more removed from daily life ▯ Effects of the scientific revolution Change in conception of universe o Larger than anything previously imagined o Mechanical universe operated according to laws more uniform, not whims of the gods Change in humans place in universe o Humans no more at center than earth is o Natures laws can be known by the human mind Change in humans self understanding o Humans health and well being in this world are important- not just a focus on ones eternal soul ▯ Scientific revolution continues The scientific revolution had no clear starting point Not simply western It has no ending Science is till understood to be the driving force behind innovation Science is till the language of modernity The enlightenment Definition- illuminate darkness, liberate, criticism, question authority Attempt to assimilate, extend, popularize and apply 17 scientific and philosophical heritage Attack on religious absolutism, theological superstition, Christian orthodox, directed as Tyranny, priest- craft, nonsense Sources: philosophes (journalists, talkers, not sythematic philosophers) who drew inspiration from 17 c-Bacon, Descartes, Locke ▯ Enlightenment Ideals Cluster of ideas at the center of the enlightenment Reason: turn not to faith, tradition, or church but the mind for whatever one believes Individualism: belief in the value and potential of common persons Liberalism- lack of prejudice, tolerance Experience- the material beneath corruptions of religion, society, conventions with and on which reason works: nature, human experience, the past Progress- critical use of reason to advance toward more humane conditions ▯ Goals of enlightenment To improve the human conditions Overcome ignorance, superstitions Replace intolerance and parochialism with understanding Apply science not just to nature but to human society Use human reason to govern society ▯ Enlightened thinkers Creation of new cosmopolitanism, ethnic of worldliness Construction of new kind of worldly self: the intellectual The intellectual= person who converts experience into ideas ▯ Lecture 7-The enlightenment, nationalism and democracy ▯ ▯ John Locke (1689) Father of liberalism Religious tolerance o Separation of church and state, power form the people, not God Tabula rasa- blank slate Social contract theory o Natural rights: life liberty, property Opposed the aristocracy and slavery ▯ Liberalism defined Locke-ability to self govern Centrality of the individual Giving freely, generous, not sparing Not prejudice, closed minded Generous and broad sympathies Not limited to established, traditional, orthodox or authoritarian attitudes, regarding traditional beliefs as dispensable ▯ Thomas Hobbes Leviathan 1651 Right is grounded in power; obligations grounded in fear Human life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short The bellum omnium contra omnes – war of all against all ▯ Boron de Montesquieu 1721 Spirit of laws: republic (elected leaders) preferable to monarchy (king) or despotism(dictator) Best government characterized by separation of powers (executive, legislative, judiciary) Separation of church and state ▯ Rouseau 1762 Contrasted state of nature with state of society Social contract argues that all human beings born free and equal; state exists to protect these natural rights Advocate of democracy- people will follow their conscious to choose what is best for the community Legitimacy of government comes from consent of the governed ▯ Jefferson Declaration of independence 1776 Hostile to every form of tyranny over mind of man We gold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal….life liberty and pursuit of happiness Bill establishing religious freedom (1786)- uniformity of opinions it the enemy of the truth ▯ Adam Smith’s wealth of nations 1776 Father of modern economics Individuals are free agents o Free agents act in their own self interest Pursuit of self interest produces public good Hands off or Laissez Faire” economics o Reason and rationality drive commerce o “as if guided by an invisible hand” ▯ Kant 1781 Critique of pure reason Enlightenment= mans release from his self incurred tutelage (protection) Motto of the enlightenment- dare to know Kant’s Copernican revolution: the human mind is crucial to understanding- freedom the only thing required ▯ ▯ Positive consequences of enlightenment project Emphasized the value of the individual Encourages democratic thinking Laid foundation for nationalism Promoted scientific/philosophical inquiry Spurred growth of liberalism, both economic and social liberalism ▯ Negative consequences Concept of reason overemphasized mechanical and technological at expense of feeling and faith Rationality often used to exploit nature and control human beings The reliance on reason frequently a mask for power and domination ▯ Enlightenment was Global Europe reaped the economic, natural and cultural resources of the globe Many of the ideas on which the enlightenment were based came from different cultures around the world It was fueled by cultural contact and exploitation It was funded by colonial expansion and the concentration of global resources in Europe ▯ Core tensions in Liberalism Liberty of the individual is the ideal Balancing individual freedom and collective good is the dilemma What is the role of government? What is the responsibility of the individual? You see this tension in every election and policy debate ▯ Role of government Most of us agreed o Defend the nation from attack o Maintain public order o Educate citizens so that they can participate o Encourage commerce and trade Regulate currency, banking, copyright Transportations and communication infrastructure Train the workforce Research and developments o Protect the rights of individuals ▯ Individual/ collective rights Everyone wants rights Whose rights? o Landowner, investor, corporations o Peasants, employee, consumer And which rights? What is a right? o Property-rights o Political-vote o Economic- minimum wage o Social- gay marriage o Health0-Obamacare ▯ Legacy of liberalism Emphasized freedom of the individual Economic liberalism led tot the free market system Political liberalism inspired the democratic revolutions, civil and human rights o Social liberalism, religious freedom, rights to associate, criticize authority Created a secular society (public sphere) Led to the rise of the nation state All these are pre requisites for modernity ▯ Rise of middle and working classes ▯ Push for democracy through revolutions all the way from 1688 to 1918 ▯ ▯ England’s glorious revolution, American, French, Haitian revolutions (1688-1791) ▯ Glorious Rev King James II involved in 30 year war o Church of England since henry VIII 1634- king leader of church and state English parliamentarians overthrow English parliamentarians overthrow Ends monarch’s absolute power o Separates legal power o Entails freedom of speech Becomes commercial empire- sets state for industrial revolution ▯ The American Revolution Based in Enlightenment thought o Jefferson, Madison, Franklin Founded on a series of negatives o Destroyed entrenched privilege with democracy (power derives from the people under an electoral system) o Ended monarchy with republic (govt of laws not men) o Prevented governmental abuse with bill of rights o Dismantled established church, nobility, social stratification, inherited system of manners o Separated church and state ▯ Problems with Burgeoning Nationalism Who was originally included as citizens? Who was excluded? o Male land owners and slave owners- originally included as citizens ▯ Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address ▯ ▯ Global effects of the American revolution Signaled the end of divine monarchies Revolts for individual and civil rights all over Europe Altered attitudes of great nations toward their colonies Decisively influenced the French revolution of 1789 (Jefferson in France at writing) Inspired the creation of French declaration of rights of man and citizen of 1791 ▯ Democratic revolution: The French Enlightenment writings containing new ideas about human nature, society and authority Produces the declarations of rights of man and citizen o Born free and equal o Rights to liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression o Deserve freedom of thought, religion, due process, taxation by consent, separation of powers of government ▯ Liberty, equality and brotherhood motto ▯ ▯ Democratic revolution- terror, and dictatorship Reign of terror instituted to create a republic of virtue Over 16000 killed by guillotine Pressures of war and economic crisis 70% of 40000 who died in the terror were peasants and laborers destroyed illusion that democratic change is peaceful order ultimately restored by means of Napoleons dictatorship Napoleon most responsible for spread of French revolution ideas Global spread of French revolutionary ideas Produced revolutions in Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Spain, Switzerland, many states of Germany, fought in the name of liberty but led to dictatorships Nationalist movements then arise to protest Napoleonic rule ▯ The Haitian Revolution- overthrows slavery ▯ Haiti in Colonial context deep conflicted history of colonialism o Spanish French and English o slaves greatly outnumber French situated in the political and economy of global slave trade that depopulated Africa, repopulated the new world o some of the most brutal treatment of people rebellion begins with cultural service spawned the global abolition movement o lead to the American civil war ▯ Democratic revolution in Haiti After 250 years of slave rebellions, Haiti sent a delegation to France to secure rights promised in declaration of rights of man and citizen 1793 the slaves were entirely rebuffed revolts resisted British and Spanish intrusions 1796 Toussaint L.Ouverture named LT. Gov 1801 he established a Haitian constitution ▯ Achievements of Haiti First state populated by former African slaves that abolished slavery and gained independence Defeated colonial power Forned a modern nation state Developed a constitution based on US and French constitution Toussaint became a symbol, a liberator hero for black people throughout the Americas
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