Lab in Advanced Research
Lab in Advanced Research
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Date Created: 04/20/14
o How is information lost from memory o What types of situations cause anxiety 0 Not trying to solve any problem or address any needs 0 Trying to understand certain phenomena Applied research 0 The goal is to solve an everyday problem o What is the best treatment for depression o How can the reliability of eyewitness memory be improved o How can anxiety in social situations be reduced Journaltojournalism Cyce Peer Review Cycle 0 For peers to catch our aws 0 From manuscripts to journal article o Rejection revision or acceptance from peers 0 Only use peerreviewed journals for your papers and project This class is only focusing on Theorybased data cycles Choosing a Research Question 0 Where questions come from o Testing theory explanation of behavior o Researcher s interests o Literature review on a topic Avoid These Pitfalls for Group Research Projects 0 One very persuasive group member has an idea only she is interested in 0 Old research literature 0 Measurement of constructs too simple 0 Research question too broad 0 One group member is not contributing as much as the others Ethics Steps in the Research Process 1 Choosing research question 2 Conducting a literature review 3 Making hypothesis 4 Designing the study 5 Conducting the study 6 Analyzing the data 7 Reporting results General Principles from Belmont Report 1 Respect for person a Autonomy vulnerable populations b Informed consent provide information about the study before it begins and allow decision of it they want to participate or not give right to withdraw c Give participants opportunity to ask questions 2 Bene cence a Risks and bene ts above minimal risk b Bene t to society or knowledge indirect bene ts c Potential benefits of study must outweigh risks d No inhumane treatment of participants 3 Justice a Fair balance between people who participate in research and people who bene t from it selection of participants must be fair b All groups must have opportunity to get benefits of research No group may be unfairly selected for harmful reasons Ethics in Reporting Research 0 Plagiarism 0 Properly cite sources 0 Report correct data Common Pitfalls 0 Problem Confusing deception with full information there can be confusion about what qualifies as deception in psychological research 0 Problem Failure to identify risks researchers often fail to see the possible risks to the participants in their own study 0 Problem Inadequate debriefing sometimes students designing a research study do not properly debrief participants at the end of a study Why Study Research Methods 0 Preparation for further research in psychology and other fields 0 Understanding information in everyday life 0 Interpreting scientific studies 0 Interpreting information in the news 0 General critical thinking 0 Testing our intuitions How do we know things 0 Intuition Relying on common sense 0 Deduction Using logical reasoning and current knowledge 0 Authority Relying on a knowledgeable person or group 0 Observation Relying on what one observes Steps in the Research Process 1 Choosing research question 2 Conducting a literature review 3 Making hypothesis 4 Designing the study 5 Conducting the study 6 Analyzing the data Types of Research Questions 0 Descriptive o Does a specific behavior occur o What is the nature of the behavior o What behaviors occur together cLw o What are causes of a specific behavior Making Hypotheses 0 heory Driven deductive reasoning 0 Data Driven inductive reasoning Scientific Approaches to Knowledge 0 Logical Positivism o Empirical observation and tightly controlled experiments o Scientists are detached observers o Scientist is the expert o Scientific knowledge accurately represents the true state of the world 0 Humanistic o Phenomena should be studied in their natural contexts o Scientists personal beliefs and values cannot be separated from the scientific process o Research participants are the experts o Scientific knowledge represents a socially constructed state of the world Making Hypotheses 0 The primary goals of a literature review o Review previous findings and theories to develop a hypothesis o Determine what research has been done to avoid duplicating previous research Goal of section and group project 9 39 Uquot39gtS quot Get into groups Formulate hypothesis Craft study design Draft introduction Learn how to use SPSS Collect data Analyze data Write up paper and poster Lecture and Section 2 Research Designs Announcements 0 Monday May 19 in class online quiz just to test the online taking method 0 June 2 in class Exam 1 0 Study guide is on gaucho space Research Designs Steps in the Research Process 1 Choosing research question 2 Conducting a literature review 3 Making hypothesis 4 Designing the study 5 Conducting the study 6 Analyzing the data itaicized are today39s topic Three claims 1 Frequency claims a Frequency or prevalence How muchhow often does something happen b Descriptive study Ex 50 of Americans don39t exercise 2 Association claims a The association between A39s effect on B b Relatedcorrelational statements diet soda causes depression c Can be cross sectional or correlational studies 3 Causal claims a Gives evidence to support causal claims A causes B b Experimental design is needed to test this claim for our group project we will be either focus on association claims or causal claims Types of Research Designs 1 Descriptive Studies a Prevalence Percentage 2 Qualitative Studies a Use nonnumerical data b Example case studies interviews focus groups written documents c Good for exploratory research Types of Research Designs Correlational Studies Experimental Studies Quasi experimenta studies we will use one of these for our group project Correlational Nonexperimental research that measures two or more variables to determine the degree of relationships between them Just measuring no manipulating Does not imply causation Three Criteria for Causation Covariance have to be related to each other A caused B Temporal precedence A has to come because B Internal validity rule out other possible variable that can explain the relationship of A and B rule out 3rd variable Problems with making Causal Conclusions Directional Problem before concluding that a correlation between variable 1 and 2 is due to changes in 1 causing changes in 2 it is important to realize the direction of causation may be the opposite thus from 2 to 1 o Example Do parents want to have dinner with teen or do the teen want to have dinner with them Third Variable Problem there s a third elementvariablereason for why the relationship occurs o Example Level of parents involvement and attention to the teen may be the factor to explain why teens benefit from eating more family dinners together Low External Validity unable to generalize it to a population outside of your sample How do we study Causality 1 2 3 Manipulation a of IV the cause Random assignment of groups or conditions levels of IV ensures internal validity A Random sampling ensures external validity i Where is the sample form Enough variety in groups studied Measurement of DV the effect never manipulate this or you39re faking data 4 Control of extraneousconfounding variables IV two levels A Need manipulation check check to see his participants know what they hypothesis is Experimental Study Jargon 0 Betweensubiect design each participant is exposed to one and only one of the experimental conditions levels of IV so that each condition is composed of different groups of participants 0 Withinsubiect design each person is exposed to all levelsconditions so that each condition is composed of the same group of participants Advantages of Within Subject Design 0 Reduce random error every person serves as hisher own control case 0 The manipulation is the only thing that39s different 0 Statistical test is more sensitive and clear 0 Fewer participants needed Disadvantages of WithinSubject Design 0 Contamination effects participants exposure to earlier conditions affect their interpretation or performance on subsequent conditions 0 Order effects participants behaviors are affected by timing of condition due to things like practice and fatigue 0 Counterbalancing to reduce these confounds 0 Something to consider Exposed to condition A then B vice versa Does it matter if exposed to A rst QuasiExperimental Design 0 Do not manipulate the IV 0 Comparison of pre existing groups 0 Assignment is no c random 0 Example Research compares girls and boys on time spent doing physical activity to examine if there is a relation between gender and exercise 0 Not truly an experimental No manipulation or random assignment 0 Less controls of extraneousthird variables 0 Does not allow for causal conclusions Examples of Quasi Experimenta IV 0 Demographic categories gender age ethnicity 0 Other categorical information membership to a group academic major 0 Natural experiments natural disasters vs not Common concerns in Quasi Experiments 0 Comparability of samples 0 Person confounds o Can try to control for potential confounds by matching samples QuasiExperimental vs Correlational Both are non experimenta quotNaturalquot demographics things that can39t be randomly assigned differences vs individual differences Categorical male female Race versus continuous Section 2 The Do s of writing an Article Define concepts Utilize previous research Make recommendations for future research Acknowledge limitations of study Clear introduction relate articles to hypothesis Use data Manipulationvalidity check Good examples of methodsmeasures section Clear diagrams and analysis Operationalize Type of Questions to ask Categorical female male other etc Continuous how many hours ofx per y can put anything Open ended richer data People can include more in their answer responses Needs to be coded before analyze Close ended easy to analyze Not a lot of diversity Can in uence people by how question is asked Dichotomous yn questions Nominal interested in category of response Rank order interested in order of answer choices Likert scale using scales to gauge intensity etc Things to Avoid Asking for predictions about the future 0 Double barrel questions two questions to in one 0 Questions that everyone will agree withdisagree 0 Vague numerical referents quota few timesquot quotsometimesquot 0 Leading questions makes participants believe that one answer is the best Things to do 0 Ask about recent behavior 0 Be clear and concise 0 Use correct grammar and words that people will understand no jargon 0 State questions in the affirmative avoid double negatives 0 Be careful in phrasing questions about sensitive topics 0 Be aware of question ordering asking them about their friends then ask about their social connections o Randomize the question order 0 Want reliability and validity o Validity I Internal Validity making sure you39re actually measuring what you say you39re measuring I External validity generalizability how much can you generalize it to other groups and samples o Reliability consistent reliable Big 5 Personalities OCEAN 0 Openness 0 Conscientiousness 0 Extraversion 0 Agreeableness 0 Neuroticism Measurement issues in research Announcements 0 Poster session Thursday June 12 12 230pm at the SRB Multipurpose room Lab Obiective 0 Formulate independentdependent variables as well as the research design and procedure of your group project 0 Begin to draft your introduction for final paper Causal Studies need to do experiment By Doing Research In This Class You 0 Learn how to evaluate information 0 Learn how to answer a question with the scientific method this is one important way of knowing something 0 Learn how to use a software package to do statistics 0 Learn how to write a coherent argument providing evidence to back up your statements 0 Practice presenting your ideas and answering questions By Understanding Research Designs You 0 Understand what type of evidence is needed to answer a research question 0 Understand when we can make causal statements How do we Evaluate Claims 0 Construct validity measurement 0 Narrow be specific about how you39re going to Operationalize and measure 0 Constants things that remain constant when measuring 0 Variable things that will vary in measuring We are interested in this for our studies 0 External validity 0 Internal validity 0 Statistical validity Operationalization of Constructs 0 Defining a variable in terms that are 0 Concrete 0 Measurable Keep in mind how you Operationalize to avoid un encodabe data 0 How do you define the construct you39re measuring 0 Clarify in your study what you39re studying be very specific with definition Consider giving examples 0 For more complex constructs consider using more than one question Questions Pitfalls to Avoid 0 Loaded questions do you favor eliminating the wasteful excesses in the state budget o Questions are that really wordy 0 Double barreled questions I enjoy studying and spending time with friends on weekends o Questions with two variables in one Makes it confusing because participants doesn39t know which variable their answer applies to 0 Negative wording restaurants should not have the be inspected each month 0 Obscure wording there s a non orthogona relationship between cell phone usage and bad driving What type of reliability test the extent to which scale items are answered similarly 0 Internal Test Retest Reliability do they say the same thing upon testing again 0 Interrater Reliability are two people seeing the same thing 0 Internal Reliability is there a consistency across items on a scale There are a lot of different ways to approach questions not just selfreporting surveys 0 Social desirability is something to look out for it compromises accuracy 0 Manipulate the study questions and images into something more experimental to help avoid this External validity 0 Do the findings generalize to other populations settings and situations and times 0 Considering asking if participants are UCSB students or not o You can decide later if this factor is relevant Sampling Who do you want to sample Things to keep in mind 0 Appropriate to answer the research question 0 Vulnerable SampleGroups 0 IRB concerns permission to recruit 0 Accessibility of participants Internal Validity 0 How well does a study rule out other possible explanations for why one variable causes another variable Statistical Validity 0 What is the strength of the association and statistical significance Lecture 4 422 Research Topics 0 Sensitivity 0 Anonymityconfidentiality recruiting sample don39t collect information on residence place of work 0 Informed consent 0 Feasible 0 Testable Qualitrics Info 0 Login12OLspring2014 0 Passwordshire Descriptive Statistics Statistics used to summarize or describe a set of observations 0 Frequencies and check for missing values 0 Central tendency 0 Mean median mode 0 Mean the average 0 Median the middle value 0 Mode value that occurs most often 0 Variability 0 Range standard deviation 0 Range the difference between the largest and smallest values 0 Standard deviation how much variation or dispersion from the average exists Mean and Std Deviation 0 Are the reports for continuous variables 0 The mean show the average between participants In SPSS Descriptives for Categorical Variables 0 Analyze Descriptive Statistics I Frequencies I Chartsbarcharts Descriptives for Continuous Variables 0 Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies Descriptives lnferential Statistics 0 Statistics used to interpret or draw inferences about a set of observations Inferring results of a sample to a population 0 Allows us to decide between Null Hypothesis Ho and Alternative Hypothesis Ha Null Hypothesis The differencesassociations between conditionsvariables occurred by chance Alternate Hypothesis The differencesassociations did not occur by chance they are likely to be 0 an effect of the independent variable that was manipulated 0 a real relation between variables How to choose the right statistical test Based on the nature of the IV 0 One IV or multiple IVs 0 How many levels in each IV two or more 0 Betweensubjects or within subjects design 0 Categorical variable or continuous variable Based on the nature of the DV 0 Categorical variable or continuous variable Stat test IV DV Correlation Continuous Continuous Independent Samples t test Two categories Continuous Paired Sample t test Two related groups Continuous ANOVA Multiple Categories Continuous Chi Squared Two or more categories Categorical Which statistical test would be appropriate for testing whether how attractive you rate yourself 1 5 is related to how many drinks you have at a social event 1 4 0 Correlation because both IV and DV are continuous in this question Correlation Coefficient 0 To examine the strength and direction of the relationship between two continuous variables 0 ranges from 1 to 1 0 R2 amount of variability shared between two variables square of r 0 Null hypothesi No association between the two variables When you get the results r 24 pOO8 for how many drinks do you typically have at a social event you get R2 06 because it is the square of 24 0 This means 6 of the variance in rating of how many drinks you have at a social event is explained by how attract you feel eiarirelgtiane Hale Iquotnew 5 39W39lEquotlquot D agree at the 39quota4lnieiirivg Haw niarIfy aliateI139Ienta4 anrinka ea we snei ar t1yaieaI5rItaaiaa rnweff art at a I artlzraetiee event eve Ef5 l39lL V aarI1til39i H li alI I39 Qilif 3 Paareari E errellien ll E li agree er p 5 the iaaI1ama ue taierne teH Era EquotE li Eli aitl ar 39lT1f IquotE f39 l1 N aftraetiwe P H 0 3 many Iilirilt39i l5 die yea F3quotagreen Cirr39eal ian 1 have ii at all Sign EtaiE 0 g i H 1 I Ir ea 33 3I R 6 thia is tlhe aauare at 24 i Iquot39iEHl lli Ig that E at the ma riahee ih ratings at haw many tlrirtlta treu have at a aawi7a retreat is estpiai nea by lhewlattrlaetihre taeu feel Eerreielien ie eigaitmnl at the 39lquotl Hamel tataiIed Cohen39s Convention for Two Measure of Effect Size d and r d Strength of Relationship r 028 Weaksmall 010 050 Moderatemedium 030 080 Stronglarge 050 In SPSS To do correlation 0 Analyze Correlate Bivariate Significance Testing Meaning of correlation is statistically significant at p lt 05 0 The probability that the correlation could have occurred by chance is low less than 5 0 Reject the null hypothesis Rejecting the Null Hypothesis Ho 0 Data like these could have come about by chance 0 Data like these happen very rarely lt 5 of the time by chance 0 We are pretty sure the data were not the result of chance Retain Ho 0 Data like these could have happened by chance 0 Data like these are likely to happen gt5 of the time 0 We are not confident enough to reject the null hypothesis because data like these could have happened by chance um 31 The Decision to Reject or Retain the Null Hypothesis Hm term Rtjccting the null hypothesis Rttaming tho null hypothesis Means the some as Thr result is statistically signi cant ihc result is not slalistl catty significant You may see on in other words published work The probability of p 0 OS getting a result this msmmu cntwmc or molt extreme by chance if the null hypothesis is true ls less than 5 the probability oi p 0 05 qettinq a result like this by chance it the null hypothesis is true is greater than or equal to 5 H5 In a research context may mean The dl rwnt v is signflc antly larger than zero the association is significantly strongec than zero We cannot conclude that the ditfererxro is larger than zero We cannot conclude that the relationship is stronger than Z fO Errors 0 Type I error reject the null hypothesis when we shouldn39t quotfalse alarm 0 Type II error retain the null hypothesis when we shouldn39t quotmiss Which statistical test would be appropriate for testing whether gender is related to minutes it takes to get ready on the weekend 0 Independent samples t test because Gender IV is categorical has 2 levels and time it takes DV is continuous Independent Samples tTest 0 To compare two means from two independent samples 0 Used for betweensubjects design 0 Null hypothesis No mean difference between the two groups on the variable of interest 0 Cohen39s d for effect size 0 httpwwwuccseduquot39facutybecker 0 httpwwwcognitivef Big 5 on SPSS class survey 1 Gauchospace gt class 2 Class survey save to desktop a Output file is the test that you run in your data analysis 3 Bottom left variable view 4 On type click to change all quotstring to quotnumeric 5 On measure change all quotnomina to scale 6 Click back to data view look to see if there is any missing data a Periods means someone did not answer the question i You need to tell your data what that means by looking in data view to find all the periods and for each go to data view go to the quotmissing tab click the click discrete view and type 999 7 Click column that has a period control F click replace tab find quot replace 999 click options entire cell replace all do for all of the columns 8 Transform tab on top recode into different variables 9 Bring all the negative questions to the middle box then rename them and click change 10 Bring big 1 3 4 6 7 back to the left box 11 Rename big 2 58 9 10 with an quotr at the end 12 Click old to new values old 1 new 7 36 44 13 Variable view Transform compute variable a big3big8r2 14 Analyze scale reliability variable pick all the quotr a Cornbach s alpha is a measure of internal validity When it is less than 05 reject the null Greater than 05 we fail to reject the null 15 Repeat all 1014 with values given on page 79 in manual if you want to do Sef Esteem Demographic 1 Change all but quotcity to numeric because city has words 2 Change the quotstring to scale 3 Analyze gt descriptive stat gt descriptives 4 Options we want are mean std dev min max range In SPSS To do oneway ANOVA one IV with more than 2 categories one DV that is continuous 0 Analyze Compare Means Oneway ANOVA Move grouping variable to Factor Move DV into Dependent List Select quotBonferroni in Post Hoc Select Descriptives in Options Goals of Psychology Research To determine effects and relationships X on Y X associated with Y 0 Why are there effects and relationships 0 What factors can change the effects and relationships Mediation 0 A mediator is a variable that explains the relationship between the IV and DV 0 Mechanism pathway Moderation 0 A moderator is a variable that affects the direction andor strenqth of the relation between an IV and a DV 0 In statistical terms interaction 0 quotIt depends 0 What can change the relationship Boys vs Girls Age 0 Gender is a very common moderator Factorial ANOVA 0 To compare means of different groups in a study involving multiple IVs 0 Allows test of main effects and interactions 2 x 2 Designs 0 Two IVs 0 Each IV has 2 levels 0 Can look for 2 main effects one for each IV 0 Can look for 1 interaction between the two IVs 0 2 x3 Design has 2 IV the first has 2 levels the second has 3 levels 2 x 2 ANOVA IV Gender 1 male 2 female Are you involved in any clubs 1 Yes 2 no DV Overall attractiveness selfrating 1 Are there main effects of gender and club involvement on sef ratings of overall attractiveness 2 Is there an interaction between gender and club involvement on sef ratings of overall attractiveness o Taking the average tells you the main effect Interaition lEffett if Gender by Elm b Ilwlvement sn verall i ittrattiueness Illa IF5391 Ilivuurlla amluhumll E H L in E a E I39llquot Ell a F II9 rl91 p lIH 0 Y axis is the DV 0 X is one IV color is the 2 39 IV Ilnterbtion lEffect f Eentler by Club Iirwbluemient on verll Attrattivenesa EEK EFut 45 1 1 7 T E 1 3 1 1 E 15 1 ll n F r91p lII 39ll 0 Here both of the averages are compared and it shows the interaction In SPSS To do Factorial ANOVA eg 2 X2 0 Analyze General Linear Model Univariate Enter 2 IVs in Fixed Factors In Options click on Descriptives For Continuous lV s 0 Determine a criteria and divide the group into 2 groups ex higher vs lower 0 Use median mean or specific rating 0 Problems with this 0 Reduces variability 0 People are near the cutoff A study found that when participants were exposed to a citrus smell they were neater than those not exposed to a citrus smell The results were similar for men and women 0 The findings show a main effect for the variable quotexposed to citrus smell A study found that the more speed dating you participated in per month the higher your selfesteem but only for collegeaged students and not for middleaged adults The findings show 0 An interaction effect for frequency of speed dating and age group it depends if you39re talking about middle aged or college aged Writing APA Style Writing an APA Style Paper 0 Sample APA style paper in Lab Manual pg 62 former 120L student paper and pg 103 0 Bem s quotWriting the Empirical Journal Article 0 httpowlengishpurdueeduowresource56002 Scientific Writing How accuracy clarity simply directly 0 Does not mean boring For whom quotDirect your writing to the student in Psychology 101 your colleague in the Art History department and your grandmother What Makes a Good Title 0 Limit to 10 12 Words 0 Should identify main variables in the study 0 No extreme jargon Samrpli Title Fae iJ 2IgIu1E I1 I H E3LA39 1 3 jl E H 539aquotf39aii HCH l7I ul E F 3939Ji Ew 0 0 0 quotH The 53 I39rlLiquot li 39Ee39E1quot Elv39I I c39i a E aquot r I i1 iis ml FillE5s 11a Ti TiLuI ML sE Hf H95 LL ilj P maxi a lilll vi a Abstract 0 Concise summary of article 0 150 words 0 Contains elements from all sections 0 introduction method results discussion 0 Should describe the research question what you did what you found and the implications 0 Best to write last 0 Most important part Sample Abstract TTR CTl39E39ESS D SELFESTEEM I Introduction A bstnct Research has shown that beauniul people mam more bene ts in lnfe thus rncreasmg their selfesteem The mam arm of thus study was to eurttme the relrtiomhtp between selfnted artractxveness and level of selfesteem among college students A secondary aim was to Method detenmne tf chfferences tn gender or erhmc background ytelded different results for selfrated phystczl artrzenveness One hundred and one college students completed an oulrrte survey which rnclucled the Rosenberg 1 196539 SelfEsteem Scale The results mdicated that selfrated physical 1 Resuns anraetrveaess ts strongly and posrtively correlated mth selfesteem Howetrer oerther gender nor ethane lnckground had a szgmfnczrtt effect on selfrated physrcal attractiveness Lxmtutsotts and future research constdernnons on the relattomlup between selfrated physncal annctweness and selfesteem are drscussed Dtscusston A Pa per 5 Ike an Heiurglaes em intrediiietieun General te specific 1 f39iiquot Eth d Si Results Very epeeifie Tenure Stud Iieeuesiein Sxpeeifie tea general Introduction First give a very general introduction to the topic 0 What is the significance of what you are studying 0 What is the purpose of this study Second describe the background literature and theory 0 What is the theoretical framework for your research 0 What previous research lead up to your research 0 Limitation to existing research Third get to the specifics of your study 0 What is the relationship between your research and previous research 0 How does your research address gap in previous research Fourth state the hypothesis Sample Introduction AI IR L ll 39fL 5 AL 5211 SIU1 3 VV hat B B 113939 3921 Key Th Rcimonliip Bet an mc 1 cn Jud 1i39Estccxr we k 3171 ps39caolo1391l xc39cruxcrlt ha quotc Itvmd3911 Lunlj 3T13C3911 xzidxudmls 39I now What we c39 al113 d pxvd an3 txca d mot 3 uebi39 that Its artxactzrc ptoplc d3111 IfquotI By dOnt plticn39u1 11101 bcnctits anJ uniIs i J1 U3939l z 139 p lt39lC inn hhl 1 139c ltJpl k OW nu tlxlu gxcstcx 512ltJccut i tnucd to cu sr39m z13939c 39uJniJus ii39x391 rcu x us tiz 1111 In 1 xcldcd n39J ltsllh llhuli1LImushi 39 c Cl139Z 5ls39 l Hlk39l cums 1uJ lcxcluig J I39uMM lt1uu cu AJI1m 1quot ix l 11c1 tcn 39Ut39 lll39 39l39iquotll39 391cc1clmuuZu 1Ic zuuu1 muuslcn39 and i s39L iclswznIn I1oI t unuhm Aquot 4 1lllC39 tic 1quot II The yxcxcm umlj cmuuncil tizc s tLUllquotCquotCCU clxvcd 1hf31 How this my s7139 HC Hit nctagc scilt39cltm study fills the gap Method Subheadings 1 Participants 2 Design 3 MeasuresMateriaIsApparatus 4 Procedure Write in the past tense Participants 0 How many 0 How recruited 0 Demographics 0 Compensation Saimplle Parlicipnts 1IE39 I I quoti L Hi w me my Equot iIquotl IuTquotIJii III39 Thee a 4ui Ttiiiiu39nJii a Kmi tihia 3939il i1aI3Ijquot 39t eiie liII i 39lI ji iET gI TIIfIlJE FE slnlclen1iquot Ialgae M 3154 3quotenis 31 155m ii males and l fE139Il l Equotis t trsr pai7tiaipated 15 3 ma11i1ltei11eut fun itE ill Lab in mixtimiscersl EaniunlI Pajpelmloggr uurnIn an lfhia JniiimeraiIj irlquot 39quot ifui1iii Earning r u aw p K b 1 F IquotE39quotIquotIl lllfEEll zquotltf Ii439Ei1i39I39IIiE Here 39Iqii39rn all m39e1 the IJl lIl li 1t39 wit m M iiruml mime Ellie 39t Coast 5 East Canat 1 EilIiilt1i39v5t 1 South and liIir1iJtiil u f 139I1 39Ig quot i3939l i 3151 u Ii39391r5a in tnrrue of c zinicitgr I1 L flill 15 E irf1 39r39 Ii mi1iiiim quotiia l1iIee 3 iii39 riaii 5mris1i1 a 39l4 quotisiIni A11iciiaiuei i lL aaii iI 9 h Iiierl Race 51 other mj p iEip llt arhetraine i5m11t11e qmetiiiu1 DIEiT I IiigTEIiIlquotll Iquotquot5 MeasuresMaterialsApparatus 0 Describe the stimuli or measures used in the study 0 If experimental how did the stimuli differ for each experimental condition 0 Cite sources 0 Give examples and provide enough detail so that the reader could generate the same or equivalent stimuli MeasuresMaterials Iunn lquotl 39439r HIu39Hrms vx39 2 1 ci 12 Il ll ll39 lH39 39 39 n39l1u lcu I xc Ll z cu 39la ij 2 cu cl 11 1 i quoti39ic In 39 Cl Cl 1 ii 11 x 1 391 l 11 ll ll l l ill c ll 139 l i 39 1l 39 ll 1 l xC I391C rll I strrul cllc c I ll 39 1 r39 cl I 39 513 39cc 1 L L 39 lc ll 39quot3911 x 1 51 L3939ZlllC lll 3911 c 1 IC 1111 II ch ll 1 ml I 11 39 1 71 I x Ll 39 Ill 1 1 39l l 139 In us Ill CC139 lLquot l 39 39 In 391 39c pic 39 ll p 395 39 I ucil39 ya lt ill I I 39 v39icc v I 1 I l39 39 S uwi l I 3 39 i ii rrquot 1r A I l39 el E l my 4 l Iquot H iu l 39 nl l3939 1 and 41 Procedure 0 Describe what happened to the participants from the beginning to the end of the experiment or procedure 0 Paraphrase or quote instructions to participants Results Section 0 Describe your results don39t try to explain them yet 0 Use consistent terms for your variables 0 Report both descriptive and inferential statistics 0 Write in the past tense 0 Connect results to hypothesis Discussion 0 Review hypothesis and indicate if they were supported by the results 0 Integrate your results into broader literature 0 Describe any implications to your findings why are your findings important or interesting 0 Describe any limitations to the study 0 Suggest future directions for research 0 End with a conclusion paragraph o What39s the takeaway message Common Limitations Reported 0 Sample size is too small o Only ucsb students o Heavily female Better ways to address limitations 0 How was construct measure 0 What may be limitations of methodology Sef report online survey 0 How good was experimental manipulation o Manipulation check Sample Discussion Discussion ll sllfllilll xlud ciuuucJ the xclulmxxsliip hciuccllxcll1 llcJh IL 11 lui u cncn ml 1 cmgc wcllcxlccm um 2 qucnuxmuic lrum 1 lXll lC ux cull39c luJL391l lhc results nl lic cuncm xud Iuxllm lhc unJcItn1dmg that 1 xclaui1sl1xp bcxxxc11 pli 139l uucIi cnc and sellcxtccm cit Hmc39ct tlunlm Ylt39L39ll3939h rcgmling ph c39l 39llIlk I1quot I1c for ditfctent gcmlcr md cIhn1 1l group is ug39gclcd Snmc cplmaIiun lur Ihc Lick ul dnlcrcnccs wuld hc lhc xmall and uncqu1ll39 h1lm ctl sample size or the imil1r imcrcxh nl p cl1ulugf39 mdcm lhc ulncnl limlm39 uzmmrx thc xxlm is lciumul Ix gumlquot plicmm39x39uu am Ill llll1lplHlHl139l iurum u people l1u cxpcncmc mmc m39x 39m1ill139nc 1 luglicx scllcxlucm Integrating results into broader literature SPSS Pt 2 how to get results from correlation study Analyze correlate bivariate SE body image gt ok Analyze correlate bivariate reset Cons health gt ok a P value of 5 50 chance that the correlation is a coincidence b 067 is a positive correlation but it s a really small correlation 39gtS quotquot Random notes from section For procedure make sure you talk about how you got your participants and what kind of experience they had during the study Lecture 6 Tables and Figures Discussion 0 Review hypotheses and indicated if they were supported by the results 0 Integrate your results into something bigger 0 Describe why your findings are importantinterest and other implications of your results 0 Describe any limitations 0 Suggest future directions for research 0 End with a conclusion paragraph what is that take away message Sample Discussion L W llhuisslnn Llt unu39 lllx mi ri mt l div 51 iv xx l71l ll 1 l mi win gig and x39 igc 39Lt39ca39n ix39 qti39 i39ni39 31 11 x c rI lc 39 39iln39 ll iiLl gt3 v39l tmicizl lIi I39ll39liquotls39l39ll39l397l2Iul1 39lc39 1 l z3939iiv 39 l39 ii 39xu 39 cm i391l clt39c39i1L I39 ll quotL l inflict i39t I39li1t1v I39k 1 gt119 3939g39 1i lillill 39397 quot7 39l5 quot3939lquotquot39 39397 quot 393939s ax Vir quot39l lii39iI In 1 ll ll39t2it39a39 nnll lu Ilt nnl39 r Ul u39lll Iui Ii39 xix I fin 39nn39i39 illlcls in l 39cTI 39 Il3939Hl l llt inx39 f l lIlquot 13939391llli 39lI39 1 l ll392l39ll 3939 I l2o39Zlquot11 lllquotl mi Viz V I Inl39I l II39l39i l Iquot illlIulI39 lquotu1 J1quotln39x 39ux WK 39Igi l1 P 139 I l l39lll xlls39sll I 1 j muc u mu u um lln nu xc III to o m l gtlon l Ilu Hutu um mu llllllII39339cu nl m can llnulxm39 mol luau llrnull nl lnollv l oIul 3939 lmol lllgul lllr lln it uh a Hat cl lllo suulll col 3 uo ll IIll IIa l39 n1 v39lIlllllI vl lluv 1IIt ll39Illl nl Ill l lIuI I I 1 nl Il39 llIII lllalt 39 o l Ilvlllol Ill 1 c39nuIIlI lu flu a a lnl llllIl a M ml I lll In llllmlu n ol lc llIl 39 luv ll IIvvl llllllu lllnul sm n Ill l lousl llul ml o lo ss Lilli un su uI oil lln 390 0 Inc l Ilia M 0 HI lllluoll3939 no IllI xl l Ills Illlll llll bl0lIllIollquot139lll llllv luIl l HIII luII HoleI 3900 quotaltoIllltIx lquot39ll1n39l KZ ll ix munrlmI In nI lll III IlaHa cal lllv llLltllI no Io39nllu IIHo39oIlll1 l u I lli1l llh H yrllun 39Il l larmr m H IllI139G ll39 Iln crlll I Ila1 zlI 3 L 39 Ilu I1 Illo slow lllI lnlonulc oclllvln llnlg Hl In 039 llml n lnl Il lnn 1IHIIIulIlHllllllluluo nll tlunlm w l lm Holland Hendriks 8 Aarts 2005 Smells like clean spirit Psychological Science 1 Use strong verbs a Replace linking verbs such as quotas is quotare quotbe with stronger verbs b Exs quotare consistent with quotrepicates quotis 2 Be clear and AVOID science Jargon 3 Use tables with a Small datasets an important influence and influences b Showing precise numbers Exampiie Main 51Zudy UEiIfiEE5 TilhlE fl k f i i 3I lii3939i39 M SB HE I fI5E 5mlE Q 151 E 1 5 iE3FIT 39H39Eiquot5i 39I1h Etil BE 1 ii39I39III39quotEi395i 39I39ih L115 1 T Eiriimnessh 5 L23 1 iquot iquotIllI39l1IEf inf iFEIIElzilii lit iFI39iEI I395 Hllli 5411 EH54 p quotHi l5iEl39II3IEIE Ee Bmem Ftale Hg Fers naiw l1IJIllIE51aIEli EK3TTIJ p I e HIHIIE E ammiane irmnemrmm amiinig Mam hlhrinbl 1 2 3 4 1 5ElfEEIE1 I E39l I I39IHquotIi39FiliI39i U 3 I lZIquota iEi395iiII1 llT39i 5E39 39 quot 4 F liiee ri i 399 5239 39 quot39 53939lquot quot39 45quot 19 41quot 5 Faehn k Frierdrs EI2 i pi J15 iiiiii J11 iiiiiiiiiF1 4 Use Figures and graphs a b To see trends not readily apparent with tables ex Interactions c With larger data sets NO PIE CHARTS d Examples Tallnlen 1 Mean 5iE irmuremIi39 by EemzleraridEfI1b I t Male Eeimle Mam sinrie fl Lin 1 43 Tizital ii Elull1n 411 15 133 liw hieifimt Hl Elulzl 31 1 353 liw hieifimt Mean score total 3quot3911 Eic e Ihhlh I emalha gialalne FuE11Iah 455 39 45 Hz 5 E 152 35 E E 6 H6 v a 3 5 3 E 155 25 E E E 2 rquot P 2 L55 15 1 1 quotlquotE lIIl Wlu llll quotl39E5C1IiIia HDCIIIII IE IIiIun uh ir 39 39 39 i39quot39quot3939frLrII39IIw rgmi nte inzliun giafer V an Ps 39I I1 39 Effect I IIIIIII F I I EIfEIIIIII39f Id IEILIII l39uEl1IE11 I Icliirnlilll Common Mistakes 0 Duplication in text of material in tables and figures 0 Presentation of tables and figures that are unintelligible 0 Presentation of tables and figures with no or minimal discussion Using Figures in the Introduction 0 To show conceptual model 0 To show possible outcomes of hypothesis APA Style for referring to figures in text 0 quotThe results showed an interaction between gender and club involvement on sef ratings of overall attractiveness see Figure 1 0 quotTable 1 shows the descriptives for the main study variables 0 All tables and figures are placed after the References 0 Place tables first and then figures How to do charts in SPSS 0 Graphs gt legacy dialogs gt choose bar line or pie Lecture 7 TA Presentations Molly Asha Meta anaysis on social relationships and mortality that shows that positive social relationships have an effect on health equivalent to quitting smoking and exceeding losing weight or increasing physical activity Increased cortisol production mediates reaction to both physical and social stress Chronic activation can take toll on health Tested using saliva samples one partner of couple was stressed and others were split in two gave 2 supportive notes or none Results 0 Those with low anxiety task notes did not significantly affect cortisol levels 0 high anxiety supportive notes significantly reduced cortisol levels research on bullying problem design 0 study 1 nonexperimental gt study 2 gt nonexperimental study 3 gt intervention Study 1 Kids videotaped walking around asked to fill out survey about their dominance teachers asked too videos were blurred and kids watch and rated videos Can kids judge the dominance of others OOOO Study 2 0 Same video 0 Kids asked to play aggressive game and pick their opponent o Are kids more likely to pick low dominance opponents Study 3 0 Low dominance kids told to power pose or not 0 Same type of video was filmed o Other kids were asked who they want to play against 0 Does the power pose make low dominance kids less likely to be targeted Research is still being done No results yet Kimin Interested in cultural psychology How to study cultural psychology 0 The same behavior with different reasons between cultures 0 Ex individualistic America vs collectivistic Japan Results Study cultural difference in predictors of quotGreen product choice o Measure and material new ecological paradigm NEP scale o Perceived descriptive social norms about environmental behaviors Americans had higher environmental beliefs and higher social norms Patrick Connie Children39s conflicts o Conflicts give kids the opportunity to recognize the existence of differing viewpoints to justify their own stance while considering an opponent39s perspective and to compromise Tasks were designed to assess kid39s understanding of specific mental states Kid39s understanding of other s intentions may be more relevant during conflicts This study is looking at quotthe relation between preschool kid39s intentional understanding and conflict resolution stages Looking at intentions because they play a causal role in motivation actions are predictive of behaviors to reach specific goals At the moment what he has is o Compare to low intentional understanding kids do high levels of intentional understanding differ in their conflict resolution strategy use o Do kids with hi intentional understanding use more other orientated strategies Are there group differences between Southeast Asian and East Asian American students with respect to ethnic identity sense of belonging academic satisfaction and social satisfaction Do ethnic identity sense of belonging and satisfaction with academic and social experiences predict academic achievement Do these predictive models differ between Southeast Asian and East Asian American students Results East Asian Americans had greater social satisfaction academic satisfaction and feelings of sense of belonging compared to Southeast Asian Americans Practice Quiz Answers Jan wants to study Facebook use and its relation to feelings of loneliness She hypothesizes that more time spent on Facebook causes people to feel more lonely What kind of study would she need to do to claim causality 0 Experimental In the 10 item Rosenberg Selfesteem scale we used in class some of the items were positively worded and some of the items were negatively worded To make sure the composite scale made sense what did you have to do to some of the items 0 REVEFSE COd some items A nu I hypothesis predicts no effect whereas an alternative hypothesis predicts an effect Calculating a measure s internal reliability eg for a 10 item measure of selfesteem means that you are tesing 0 How well the items correlate with one another Test retest Reliability how reliable is it across time Interrater Reliability when raters are consistent in their judgmentrating on a participant The need to balance the potential risks and benefits to participants taking part in a research study is done to address which principle of the Belmont Report 0 Principal of Beneficence Principle ofJustice can39t target of population to be at risk ex Tuskegee men got all of the unethical treatment and none of the benefits 1 a b C d Introduction and Ethics Describe the four scientific cycles theorydata cycle data used to test falsify and refine data empirical observation objective replication systematic in order to understand causality two competing theories EX loveattachment theory amp Har1ow s evidence supporting that we prefer comfort to receiving food qualitative research collect data from new phenomenon and theory rises out of data not theorygtdata not all research studies have a theory but usually there is one and we collect data about it test a theory EX does stereotype threat actually exist and affect performance compare theories which best explains women s math performances extend established theory to a new outcomephenomenon can stereotype threat also help explain athletic performance apply a theory to change behavior can I create instructions that relieve stereotype threat for women during math tests basicapplied research cycle Basic to understand fundamental process of a behavior Addressing for example what is the freq of clinical depression in the general population how is information lost from memory what types of social situations cause anxiety Applied trying to solve an every day problem instead of just understanding can overlap with basic what is the best treatment for depression how can reliability of eye witness testimony be improved how can anxiety in social situations be reduced peer review cycle from manuscript to joumal article rejection revision or acceptance journal journalism cycle when research studies not necessarily peer reviewed get picked up by broader media and spur other studies Ex Mozart Effect having babies listen to Mozart seemed to slightly effect spatial performance but was blown out of proportion to boosting overall cognitive performance on intellectual tasks Three general principles guide ethical research Respect for Persons autonomous choice to participate do not take advantage of vulnerable populations informed consent and right to withdraw J ustice study must include everyone women minorities and everyone must be able to benefit from knowledge fair balance bw ppl who participate in research and ppl who benefit from it Beneficence consider risks you are exposing people to and any possible benefits can be direct or indirect and risksltbenefits If you do research above minimal risk must justify why minimal risk refers everyday life bc life is risky it can change with different environments How are the 3 principles applied in research For example how do these principles guide informed consent What is informed consent How do the 3 principles guide the selection of participants How do the 3 principles guide the assessment of risks and benefits What do risks and bene ts refer to 4 Is this part of the APA ethics code Psychologists do not fabricate data Yes stated in 810 Reporting Research Results Research Designs 1 Distinguish between a descriptive getting a description of what is happening in a sample but not making inferences ie opinion polls pew studies gallop polls ex Who uses social networking sites b qualitative use nonnumerical data and good for exploratory research ie case studies interviews focus groups written documents ex 911 calls to predict homicides c correlational non experimental research that measures two or more variables to determine degree of relationship bw them correlation does not imply causation There are three criteria for causation temporal precedence or directionality no third variables or high intemal validity covariance Ex teens benefit from eating more family dinners third variable problem don t know about parental involvement earlier in life also directionality problem d experimental used to study causality Manipulation of the IVs and Random Assignment of groups or conditions levels of IV trying to equalize everything else so the only variable is the IV in question Measurement of DV the effect between subjects experimental design two group study Exppl who were emotionally aroused ie stressed out had heightened levels of sexual attraction within subjects design each participant is exposed to all conditions so that each condition is composed of the same group of participants Ex women with makeup are more competent study Advantages reduces random error each participant is hisher own control case fewer participants are needed Disadvantages contamination effect order effects can use counterbalancing to reduce these confounds e quasiexperimental studies IVs are not manipulated and not necessarily randomly assigned compare pre existing groups 2 In a quasiexperimental design IVs are not manipulated Give an example of an independent variable that cannot be manipulated Ex 1 Research showing that number of suicides in general population increases right after a particularly prominent suicide This has been shown by looking at of suicides for several weeks or months before prominent one and then seeing how it changes immediately after the prominent suicide This does not manipulate IV suicides or attempt to control extraneous variables Demographic categories ie gender birth order ethnicity age Natural experiments ie natural disasters Common concerns w quasiexperimental comparability of samples Quasi V Correlational both non experimental designs one is natural differences vs individual differences The next four questions refer to choices A B C and D below A Are psychology majors more social than engineering majors B Do children who watch Sesame Street show more prosocial behaviors rated as 1 7 1 not prosocial to 7 very prosocial than those who watch Sponge Bob C Does a person s height relate to herher income eamed D Do parents who do yoga exhibit more patience with their young children compared to parents who don t do yoga 3 Describe why C is the best example of a question best answered with correlational analysis out of the four choices below it is asking if two variables relate to each other and not claiming that one causes the other 4 How many levels are there in the IV in D 2 parents who do yoga and parents who don t do yoga What kind of statistical test would you use to test A 5 Is prosocial behaviors in B a continuous or categorical variable Distinguish between a continuous vs categorical variable Continuous 6 What is the pearson correlation coefficient Explain why correlation does not imply causation A measure of strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables 7 Two problems for why correlation does not imply causation are the directionality problem reverse or bidirectional causation we do not know which thing caused the other third variable problem a potential variable that is not the IV that could be playing a role in manipulating the DV response 8 What kind of study do we need to do to claim causality experiment that manipulates IV and measures DV 9 What kind of study uses manipulation of IVs and random assignment of conditions experimental study 10 In the Two Group study in class Group 1 was supposed to give a mini lesson while Group 2 was supposed to listen the independent variable was level of stress Group 1 high Group 2 low What kind of manipulation check could you do to test whether the manipulation telling half the class they would have to give a minilesson actually worked Goal was to stress out half of the class manipulation check asked on scale of I 3 how stressed you were so if manipulation actually worked then members of Group I should have answered higher in stress than those in Group 2 11 Distinguish between a betweensubj ects design and withinsubj ects design see question 1d 12 What are the advantages and disadvantages of a withinsubjects design see question 1d Measurement Issues 1 What does it mean to operationalize a construct 2 What are a frequency claims Describes a particular rate or level of somethings claims how common something is and focuses on only ONE variable such as depression happiness test scores Ex half of Americans guzzle soda every day b association claims Argues that one level of a variable is likely to be associated with a particular level of another variable correlated EX shy people are better at reading facial expressions or women s pre wedding jitters linked to higher divorce rates c casual claims Argues that one of two variables causes the other one Ex a whiff of rosemary gives your brain a boost 3 What do the four validities refer to a construct do the measures of the variable measure what they are supposed to How well a study s variables are manipulated or measured b eXtemal do the findings generalize to other populations settings situations and times c internal no third variable problem in a relationship between variable A and B the degree to which we can say that A rather than some other variable like C is responsible for the effect on B d statistical minimizing the probability of type I and type II variables 4 What are different types of extemal validity Population Setting TaskStimuli SituationsTimes Statistical Testing 1 What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics a descriptive statistics used to summarize or describe a a set of observations frequencies make sure to check for missing values central tendency mean median mode measure that indicates a typical score in the distribution variability range standard deviation difference bw highest and lowest scores measure representing the avg difference between the scores and the mean of the distribution b inferential hypothesis testing main analyses correlations ANOVA t tests used to infer something about the entire population of interest Allows us to decide between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis What is mean average score in distributions can be greatly affected by extreme scores b median score in the middle c mode score that appears most often 3 a N 9 What is a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis null differenceassociations bw conditions or variables occurred by chance b alternative the differencesassociations did not occur by chance shows an effect of the IV that was manipulated a real relationship bw variables 4 According to Cohen s conventions what size correlation is a smallweak r0 10 b mediummoderate r03O c largestrong rO5O 5 In a ttest should the IV be continuous or categorical The DV IV for Independent Samples 2 categories DVcontinuous IV for Paired Samples 2 related groups DVcontinuous 6 In an ANOVA should the IV be continuous or categorical The DV IV multiple categories DV continuous 7 In a chi square should the IV be continuous or categorical The DV IV two or more categories DV categorical 8 What is a directional hypothesis vs nondirectional hypothesis Directional ie one tailed assume that by manipulating IV there will be one specific change in DV You can predict if this will be positive or negative Ex If you ask someone to say la la la while trying to remember a list of words IV you can assume this will have a negative impact on their ability to recall the words DV Nondirectional ie two tailed assume that by manipulating IV there will be a change in DV but you cannot predict if this change will be positive or negative EX If you ask someone to roll a ball in their hands while trying to remember a list of words you can t assume whether this will have a positive or negative impact on memory recall 9 What does it mean for a correlation to be statistically significant at p lt 05 The probability that the correlation could have occurred by chance is low specifically less than 5 chance 10 What is a Type I error and Type II error Type I rejecting the null when we shouldn t false alarm Type II retaining the null when we should not miss 11 An independent ttest is used to test whether there is a significant difference between means from two independent samples used for between subjects design null there is no mean difference between the two groups of the variable of interest 12 An ANOVA is used to test whether there is a significant difference between two or more independent samples when there is only one IV means ANOVA is also used if you have multiple IVs Factorial ANOVA compares means of different groups in study involving multiple IVs and allows test of main effects and interactions 13 When would you use a paired ttest compare two means of two variables for two groups that are related OR to compare two means obtained by repeated measures ie pre and post test within subjects design 14 What kind of test is used to compare whether observed frequencies in categories differ from what would be expected by chance For example whether there are more females who brushed their teeth vs males Chi Square Xquot2 Writing an APA paper 1 In a 2 x 2 design ANOVA design how many IVs are there How many levels are in each IV 2 IVs and 2 levels in each IV 2 In a 2 x 2 design ANOVA what is the main effect referring to An interaction main effect effect of IV on a DV averaging across the levels of any other IV one IV dominates ex males in clubs saw themselves as more attractive than males not in clubs no effect for women interaction how 2 IVs interact with each other ex do gender and club involvement depend on each other for attractiveness ratings 3 What is a mediator variable Give an example Mediation a mediator variable explains the relationship between IV and DV it is a mechanism or pathway X9Zmediator9Y IVfamily dinners DVless risky behaviors Why is there a relationship between these two Mediator explains WHY there is an association such as better conversationcommunication with family 4 What is a moderator variable Give an example Moderation a moderator variable that affects the direction andor strength of the relationship between an IV and DV statistically it s an interaction and is specified as it depends Moderator CHANGES the relationship between IV and DV moderator examples for family dinner and risky behavior are different ages in adolescence more effective to start sitting together when younger thus age can chance the relationship gender is another example 5 Bem says a paper should follow an hourglass shape Describe what sections go into this hourglass shape BROAD Intro and other literature9NARROW specific hypothesis methods participants results9BROAD discussion 6 Which of these doesn t belong in the methods section participants research design measures limitations of the study statistical analyses procedure hypotheses 7 In the results section should you discuss what the results mean No this is for the discussion 8 ANSWER ON PAPER STUDY GUIDE Using the table below ll in the blanks to the paragraph above In this results section where you lled in the blanks what is the inferential statistic that is reported 9 In what section of an APA style paper do you report limitations of the study discussion 10 In what section of an APA style paper do you summarize the entire study abstract 11 You have written a method section for an experimental study If you had conducted a correlational study which part of the method section will be most similar A Participants Design Materials Procedure 2 What are three topics that should be included in the Discussion section of an APA paper Method of research implications of findings interpretation of results Justification of analysis limitation of findings implications of results Interpretation of results implications of findings limitation of study Listing of procedures limitation of study description of future research COP H553 Tables and Figures 1 When should you use a table vs a figure If you have an interaction it is better to use a figure bc you can immediately see the interaction for smaller data sets or qualitative data you should use a table when you have specific numberscorrelations good to use a table 2 Be able to recognize an interaction from a figure Be able to know what the IV and DV are from a figure 3 If you found an interaction in your analyses would a table or graph be better to show the interaction graph 4 What kind of graph should you never use in an APA style paper pie chart 5 Be able to identify the important components of a good graph e g labels for Xaxis y aXis title it s clear what the numbers mean Simple format no pie graphs labels 6 What are 3 common mistakes made with figurestables in APA style research papers Not referred to in text Complete replication of text redundant Unclear or ambiguous Lab 1 Describe different question types a open ended allows respondents to say anything they want in their own words broad and should elicit a longer response than a few words useful when wanting to ask about the frequency of sensitive or socially disapproved behaviors or if you are unsure of appropriate response options b dichotomous 2 possible responses c rankorder rank preference in order from best to worst d Likertscale when questions ask participants to indicate their level of agreement on a 15 scale measures self esteem and personality Lab 2 What is PsycINFO a popular database used by most psychologists to fin relevant research articles Contains all citations and conference proceedings reports dissertations books and book chapters in psychology and related disciplines Lab 4 What does it mean to reverse code an item used to make sure participants were paying attention when answering the questions and not just answering all agree or all disagree the reverse coding makes this clear What does reliability of a measure refer to internal consistency of the item being studied based on correlations between items on a measure which tell us how well the questions assess the same characteristic