EnviroSci 101 Enviro 101
Popular in Environmental Science
Popular in Natural Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget De La Torre on Monday July 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Enviro 101 at Boston University taught by Mr. Klingebiel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Natural Sciences at Boston University.
Reviews for EnviroSci 101
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/25/16
Argument: worth the time and money? OUTDATED (and ineffective) 40 years not enough time to recover species that took centuries to decline harder for species that lost large portions of habitat to come back even if set aside areas with the intention of restoring and preserving habitat. never really the same, because land is changing even within reserves, climate is changing, all other critical factors playing out. rate of extinction of genetically diverse organisms rapidly increasing, reducing needed biodiversity, largely due to human impacts of development and expansion. extinction natural phenomenon, occurs at a natural “background” rate of about one to five species per year. Scientists estimate now losing species 1,000 to 10,000 times the background rate, literally dozens going extinct every day improve issue of adaptive management / lack of flexibility potentially successful recovery techniques are few and far between so time to change saving habitat method popularly used by ESA example, there’s an “experimental population” clause in the ESA says you can dedicate a population experimental. flexibility to try new methods without struggle from federal court as it is now. safeguards in place so those conducting such experiments not going to wipe out a species and help pass need better arrangements with the states. ESA says states and federal government “should cooperate wherever practicable,” but guidelines and involvement be more clear create better arrangements so that landowners can be enrolled in the endangered species recovery programs ESA listing bans interstate sales, doesn't stop all petshop sales and all non commercial imports species not residing in us, can’t directly protect them from poachers and loggers Slow Recovery Rate. ESA generally considered a success, many people wonder how useful actually is. Of 2000 species on endangered species list, only 28 of those species been delisted. ( less then 1% of all species have recovered after more then four decades of the law being enacted) so lack of progress makes people want to consider alternatives political controversies. normalizing and making the critical habitat process more effiecient, go a long way. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service become bogged down with critical habitat process. when list a species, have to draw a map of its critical habitat—a lot of debate about whether that is for its survival or its recovery—within that area, any project that will have a significant impact has to be reviewed. Animals already listed in many other programs such as CITES and USFWS statute is outdated and that it is not used as effectively as it could be. often those that serve commercial interests or are popular with the public — receiving the bulk of money. 2013 more than $10 million in state and federal money devoted to grizzly bear, $34 million to upper Columbia spring run Chinook salmon. $214 spent on the desert slender salamander and $400 on Alabama cavefish. ESA focusing on individual species, emphasizing regulation over incentives, pits land users against conservationists and “never really cultivated the view that we could harmonize human activity with conservation.” devote the majority of recovery efforts to species that play crucial ecosystem or evolutionary roles, and accepting that by doing so, others may go extinct environmental advocates call idea of making choices among species “the height of biological arrogance.” Another immoral. society will have to set priorities and make difficult decisions for humans take up more and more space on the planet, their need for food, energy and material goods swallowing up the available land, leaving less for other species. (ESA) entered 967 species on list and 421 more labeled as possible candidates and 4,000 others as species of concern only 22 species have been removed with a third of them becoming extinct regardless, a third recovering fully, and a third put on mistakably in terms of the controversial taking aspect of the law time needed to put endangered species on list too long. By the time most species get on the list, they are on the brink of extinction. private land owners have no real incentive, the right thing to do isn't enough, to prevent endangered species extinction. Private land owners have deliberately eliminated species and/or habitat for these species from their property before they are listed so as to avoid any legal conflict funding for the improvement of the endangered hot spots is slow to be appropriated. Congress sluggish in coming up with funds for general recovery programs. problem with the Fish and Wildlife Service and its regulation. service has poor record on considering cumulative effects and future planned impacts on species and habitat. Very Expensive Research, land surveys, and rehabilitative efforts(implementing laws) for threatened and endangered species require high costs Although the legal funding for the ESA ceased in October 1992, the Congress continues to funnel taxpayer money into its projects, without assurance of getting any measurable economic benefit. land surveying, law enforcement and security: all ongoing costs that must be taken on by taxpayers causing to wonder if money couldn’t be better spent elsewhere. taxpayer money getting funneled into projects that have no economic benefit. (instead of local dollars being worth double, Endangered Species Act dollars that are spent have very little economic impact) secure the most vulnerable species in an American landscape that is constantly changing. Totalitarian Laws, Very Restrictive, Imposing harsh penalties for violations “at any cost” element of the law too strict. placed to protect certain animals that are nearing extinction on our planet, it will make people who harm or kill them a felon. law has been highly successful in the revival of some creatures, like the bald eagle, it has also receiving a bit of heat from private land owners and ranchers all over the country The Takings Clause of the fifth amendment states, nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. (means any endangered species on an owner's private land must be compensated for) ESA of 1973 fell short of expectations and failed up to this point from a multitude of discovered flaws in the authorization of the law from the start. Taking includes harassing, harming, pursuing, hunting, shooting, wounding, trapping, killing, capturing, or collecting any of the listed species. only exceptions to prohibitions are incidents of scientific, propagative, or economic hardship involving endangered or threatened species. penalties involved in violation of laws include fines to 100,000 dollars and one year in prison. extremely strict nature to preserve all species. a provision in the act states, “to halt and reverse the trend towards species extinction, whatever the cost” could mean setting aside some human rights in lieu of animal and plant rights Anyone who threatens a listed species ultimately becomes a criminal (convicted with a felony crime). provides no other option but to leave endangered species alone, or pay. lack of flexibility makes ESA a potential threat to tourism, land management, residents, and ultimately to the species it intends to protect. ] impedes the right to construct and build in places where listed species may be thriving or if such activity threatens the health and survival of listed species. Requires Land Restrictions that Hurt Companies and the Economy/Interferes social progress law puts higher priority on life of animals in natural habitats than immediate needs humans have. example, if community needs affordable housing to be developed in an empty land, it cannot happen if such a law is present. US continuing to develop at very rapid rate. in order to continue must have sufficient land to build on. act places restrictions on many areas, which hinder business growth protecting species protect land they inhabit and require companies to go through an abnormal amount of hoops in order to develop the land. growth, expansion, and health of the business will suffer, potentially hurting local economy. offers no variations or options for us to take. little flexibility built into the law means it can affect more than just local populations and businesses; could also impact land management, tourism and even the lives of the protected animals. Only congress can amend the ESA so making it harder to implement newer laws ad methods of conservation Conservationist view: species may need protection under the Endangered Species Act for many decades, if not permanently, and that efforts to protect a species or an ecosystem should begin much earlier than they do now to improve the chances of succeeding Threatens Private Property Ownership ESA mandates everyone to avoid doing any harm to endangered species and to leave them be regardless if such species threaten human life. does not sit well with owners of private lands who need to sweep property clean from aggressive or destructive wild animals such as venomous snakes and bane pests. stands to protect underthreat species, yet overlooks human rights to social and economic progress, and to an extent, survival. Humans, plants and animals all live under a single, unified habitat(there is a way for all of us to thrive without harming each other to extinction) saves endangered animals that may be dangerous. not all animals are harmless, friendly and safe, a number of species on the endangered list are capable of causing severe harm and even death to humans. creatures represent a threat to livestock and various businesses that are near them. Ranchers and private land owners struggling to manage these animals because there may be strict penalties if killed. conservationists encountering situations that act did not anticipate. Endangered species in some cases competing with one another, clashes that will grow more frequent as rising temperatures drive species out of their home ground and into new areas. And some endangered species are under assault from so many directions that the current recovery plans developed under the act are unlikely to succeed. The key deer example. With its migration routes blocked by development and habitat shrinking, the deer suffered the effects of illegal dumping and open pit mining. Many have been killed by car and truck traffic, and attacked by feral dogs. federal recovery plan calls stay in Florida Keys. But rising sea level and incursion of saltwater, fresh water supplies will disappear before islands themselves are underwater, without water to drink, chances for survival in original habitat may be slim. “If the projections of climate change and its impact on ecosystems hold true for the next 25 years, the act will simply be overwhelmed,” Other programs CITES bans the commercial trade of about 1,200 species and restricts it for an additional 21,000. the Wild Bird Conservation Act, WBCA. The WBCA does not allow the importation of almost all species of parrots, therefore listing parrot species under the ESA not necessary. All it does is cost tax payers money and clogs up the system. “ESA has been hijacked by the animal rights fanatics” do not know what they are talking about belief that organization originally formed for true conservation be led over the cliff by antiaviculture pied pipers. Rebuttal: Saving Animals, With Human Needs in Mind Some species with the largest areas preserved still declining example the northern spotted owl. enormous areas set aside on their behalf. spotted owl wasn’t doing so well anyway for a number of reasons, but problem arose: the bard owl, indigenous to Eastern U.S. but spreading across the continent because of land use changes. related to spotted owl, but bigger, more aggressive, more adaptable. It breeds with them, eats them, kills their young, usurps their habitat. government set aside areas, people feel like it took away their livelihoods and their communities. ESA promised to bring back species and others, now other owl comes in and messes everything up. conservationists who got into it because wanted to save owls, now they’re faced with the idea of shooting one owl to protect another. citizen participation, fairness to property owners, equal access to the courts, cost effective recovery plans, good science, and shared burdens. Private property owners must receive valid incentive for actions taken for the reproduction of endangered species on their lands. Find common ground btwn opposing communities and proposed legislation. providing important protection to declining species before they have reached the point where they need to be listed. providing financial incentives that reward private landowners for actions that benefit species so that they may volunteer to help the ESA's effectiveness by doing more than what the law requires. speeding up the progress in implementing recovery plans for listed species. need polishing before ultimately an effective tool for protecting not just the rights of listed species, but also, ultimately, those of humans and the entire population of natural creatures. complexity of these issues/ flaws in ESA cause a bad investment idea Increase efforts in Organizations such as WWF, IFAW, EPA
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'