Week Three Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Benjamin Rottersman on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST2460 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Hill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Rise of Modern Asia in History at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 03/22/15
Week Three Notes Monday 0 For the Quiz 0 0 Samurai I This statement is significant because they were apart of the Japanese feudal system ad they held the code to society You want to be as specific as possible 0 Korea Yangban O O 0000 O O 13 of Korea is formerly enslaves monetary value and bought and sold begins to decline around 1750 although we are unsure why but this was not the norm in Japan and China Two orders of officials military and civil Fused the bureaucratic nature of the bureaucratic and the aristocratic natures of the samurai Existed around the year 1600 and was about 10 of the population More then 1015 of people claimed to be a member of this class Two ranks for class military and political Page 45 in text book This class was policed through written genealogical records This class looks out for themselves by tracking linage so they know who does and does not belong in the class Descent through he fathers and mothers side This class also have a civil service examination to test for people and what they may do in government I This test was based on the Confucian writings and was understood in the Chinese characters that it was written in Most men who are literate in japan can take the exams while in Korea you must have the lineage to take the exam 13921910 only 750 different families are represented only 39 of these represent slightly over half of these positions 0 Government Registration 0 Everyone is registered and what class they are born into 0 Hangul Alphabet O 0 Korean alphabet that is letters that you can use to write things out invented in 1443 Wanted this alphabet created because he wanted to be able to communicate with other cultures better 24 out of the 26 characters are still in use today There is a small amount of writings by women in Korea using this writing system which is very different from China and Japan This was a simpler writing system so more people could become literate and gave voice to people who did not have a voice before Provides a counter narrative from the people that were not the elites because thoughts that are not elites to write about their lives Lady Hyegyong 17351815 and Prince Sado 17351762 0 Sad story about an arranged marriage and a father killing his son 0 Lady Hyegyong writes about what Sado s father did to him not blaming the government or the king but her husbands insanity or what would appear to be this Wednesday Points for Attention 0 Chinese Dynasties O RaceEthnicity and Dynastic Rule 0 Class and Dynastic Rule 0 The Qing Dynasty Ch ing Remember there are no hereditary slaves in Japan and China only Korea property monetary value born into the system etc Chinese Dynasties 0 The Mandate of Haven I This is what rulers used to claim that they have a right to rule the ruler has a special relationship with haven and that gives him this right I The Duke of Zhou ca 1045 BC I Gave a speech about the mandate of heaven and in this includes how the mandate can be revoked from the ruler and someone else should be placed in power I This is nonexistent in Japan and Korea only China In Japan they have one ruler decent of the Sun Goddess East Asia in 1590 0 By this point in history the Ming Dynasty is weak from war environmental issues and the rulers are lazy and tired of ruling O The little ice age is occurring I Time when the world got slightly colder 0 These problems are allowing the Mongols and other bandits north of the Ming Dynasty are starting to grow and use this weakness to their advantage 0 The J urchens located north of Ming Dynasty China start controlling trade roots between China and Korea I Nurhaci 15591629 Hong Taiji 15921643 0 O O A J urchen that constructs a kingdom around himself Splits his land into eight lands and each portion had a banner Each section was required to supply military support and other things then when one of the eight is in trouble the other seven are able to come to support Hong Taiji takes over when his father Nurhaci dies I Not by eldest son Hong Taiji starts to build up his bureaucracy and as his military success grows he starts to grow his bureaucracy and the Manchu identity When he grows he tells everyone that you are all not as different as they think that they are all Manchu word previously nonexistent This is a magic trick because by using this word to unite everyone they are more willing to work together Declares himself a new dynasty by the mandate of heaven from the Ming dynasty to the Manchu Manchu I This is a group of people that are not pan chines semihunter gathers nomadic not Han Chinese speak Manchu and not Chinese Han I Manchu language has little to no overlap with Chinese based on the Mongolian script I Important to remember that compared to the Han Chinese they are a significantly smaller population 0 Roughly 1 of the Ming Dynasty 0 The Manchu Invasion of Ming China 1644 O O O 1644 is when the Manchu effectively move south of the Great Wall of China In China at this time banditry was a major problem even government and military officials were participating The government stopped paying and feeding the military the solders stopped working for the government and became bandits Solders were taking charge of areas where the local government had fallen as this happens people start to question the government and the mandate of heaven and then march on Beijing I This is using the story of Lee Chung from the textbook Wu Sangui 1612187 0 Commander of the Ming military at the great wall keeping the Manchus out of China he must decide does he go kill Lee and abandon the wall allowing the Manchus into China or does he continue to protect the wall The story is that Lee Chung had Wu s concubine or killed his father In response to this Wu opens the doors to the Manchu and together they take Beijing The problem is that the Manchu need to make good on the mandate of heaven they do not control anything south of Beijing yet also there are not many Manchu s How do the Manchu s as a minority establish their rule and legitimacy O Yangzhou I Was a wealthy city in China I 1645 the Manchu military arrives here where there is still an army loyal to the Ming dynasty I The Manchu military sends a message to the Ming military called The Yangzhou Massacre 1645 0 This is a mans diary talking about how the Manchu are butchering people in the streets and writes about the brutality of the Manchu They established their power through sheer and brutal force the violence at Yangzhou sent a clear message and after this there was very little formal resistance The queue I The Manchu hair style for men that the Manchu required I This was the shaved forehead with a long singular braid down the back I After 1644 all Han Chinese men on pain of death to adopt this hairstyle I This lasted to the beginning of the 20th century where men were forcibly required to cut this off I This forced men to physically show their dedication to their government I What is the historical significance of the queue 0 It s a Manchu hairstyle 0 Han Chinese men could be punished for not having one 0 Imposition of it symbolized Manchu political dominance 0 Best answer 0 It affects Chinese history down to the present Manchu Garrisons in Major Cities 0 O O O Hangzhou Manchu Garrisons I Spread throughout the empire to help maintain control through military power Located in major cities river crossings and other important places These were hereditary meaning the children of the solders would also serve in the garrisons that their fathers had In order to maintain power they can not just use military force looking back at the diary The Yangzhou Massacre 1645 the writer states that the military man was asking the writer what class he was in They use military and the old elite of the Ming dynasty The Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor 1607 I Also known as the 16 maxims of the Emperor I This was written with things like filial piety follow the law frugality were included in this This was his claim to be a confusion emperor however this is Manchu in the sense that no pervious dynasty felt the need to do this to the extent the Manchu did Friday Points for Attention O O 0 Japan 0 O 0 Civil War and Reunification in the 16th Cen Centralization and Decentralization under the new Tokugawa Shogunate Control and Freedom Mountainous land and water separating the islands of Japan made the idea of central control of Japan almost impossible One could control their native regions but not the county as a whole Each regional ruler used the Emperor as a figure head but not giving him any power to rule In the 1500 s a country that has no power and in practice has no unified government and is subsequently divided into hundreds of lands that are all fighting with each other There was the idea that if an individual could get enough power he could control everyone 0 The Tree Unifiers 0 So famous that they get called by their given names 0 Oda Nobunaga 1534 1582 Even during the civil wars in the 16th century he takes the violence to a new level Attempts to destroy any force that opposes him he does not care about social status religion wealth he destroys everyone Became the dominant war lord due to his introduction of fire arms into combat Record states that he was an extremely unpleasant person Was assassinated by one of his allies during a tea drinking ceremony at a temple Leaves behind a firm basis for the unification of Japan 0 Toyotomi Hideyoshi 1537 1598 Assumes Oda Nobunaga s place Was the son of a solider in Oba Nobunaga s army Had a positive program on how to end the civil wars and create a government which Oba Nobunaga did not have Lays the foundation for a system that lays until the 19th century 0 O O Majority of his laws are in the 1580 s Lawsideas include 0 Territories that he conquers must demilitarize 0 Starts demolishing castles that he has taken 0 1588 first law in the sword edicts these laws disarm the countryside 0 Provides reasoning behind his laws like having swards make it difficult to collect taxes and give rise to civil war 0 1591 completes the process of laying out a social structure that will prevent civil war 0 This claims that you are locked into a hereditary class status Pacified Japan but this was not enough later in life there were possible signs of mental health or because he was so successful he started to get carried away and decides his destiny lies in Japan and not China by taking the Japanese Emperor to the Chines capital and make him the spiritual center of Japan China and Korea 0 Hideyoshi s Invasions of Korea I 1592 gives an ultimatum to the Korean King saying let me and my armies march through your lands we are going to Beijing I Decides to invade Korea this is a devastating loss for the Japanese I The Korean capital is occupied by the samurai but there are not enough to maintain control and when China comes to the aid of Korea a peace treaty is struck I 1597 a second invasion is sent to Korea because he believed he was getting a woman out of the peace treaty this war ended however when Hideyoshi died I When he died he left no heir to the thrown he does not trust Ieyasu and gives him the order to abandon his ancestral territory and to go settle a relatively unsettled area Tokugawa Ieyasu 1543 1616 O O O O Settles Edo modern day Tokyo because Hideyoshi told him to This land turns out to become an exceptionally important place He is excused from not having to send troops to fight the war in Korea so by doing this Ieyasu has a military while everyone else is fighting in Korea Displaces his rivals with his military and establishes a government that exists almost unchallenged from 1600 1868 The Tokugawa Bakuhan System 0 O O O Baku short for Bakufu I Tent government Han meaning domain Builds a home for his central government in Edo but he allows for the rest of the country for the other lords to maintain their power This is his attempt at balancing centralized and decentralized government He freezes the boundaries of Japan into 250 odd domains Each Domain has a Daimyo who s rights are certified by Ieyasu s government I This means that they have their own court cases maintain their own military and taxes and make their own laws as long as it does not con ict with the central government I The central government controls foreign policy and marriage between different Daimyo families Tokugawa only controls 25 of Japan while the other 75 is controlled by other people it is interesting that the Daimyo s do not get together and conquer him Nihonbashi Bridge of Japan O O The city Edo now Tokyo becomes one of the biggest in the world by 1570 has at least a million people living in it This metropolis is used to anchor their government into the central government 0 Alternate Attendance O O Mandate that leaders must maintain residence in Edo The rules for this are that 1 out of every 2 years must be spend living in Edo and the other in their home land While in Edo he must leave his wife and children in Edo they can never leave even when you go home Eventually the children of the leaders identify with Edo and not their home land Leaders were spending over 50 of their wealth keeping up appearances in Japan 0 The Highway System 0 O 0 Because people were always traveling to and from Edo the need for highways was created between major cities and rest stops This creates industry of tourist stops trade and other industry These roads also Bakufu central government set up roadblocks and they inspect people for weapons and for people who appear to be high status leaving with their women and children when they are not meant to be 0 Urbanization O O 0 These things create the most urbanized location in the world at this time the 1800 1630s on ward laws included mandatory registration of all that are not members of the samurai class to register with the Buddhist monks There was a system of mutual surveillance this was done by grouping different families together and having them watch each other 0 Art at this time 0 O 0 1630 s last major revolution and after this there is nothing major until the 1860 s Because of this stability people were able to enjoy life and society Mixed gender social gatherings the fine clothing that woman wore showed their place in society
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