Practice MKTG 351 - 03
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Principles of Marketing
MKTG 351 - 03
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Marketing
This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jilene Melendez on Tuesday July 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKTG 351 - 03 at California State University - Fullerton taught by S. Broyles in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Principles of Marketing in Marketing at California State University - Fullerton.
Reviews for Practice
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/26/16
Empirical knowledge is knowledge that is based on experience and observation. Which of the following are characteristics of reliable empirical data? a It is rational. ) b ) It is testable. c ) It is repeatable. d All of the above are correct. ) e Only b) and c) are correct. ) A well-constructed hypothesis will: a ) establish many overlapping explanations for a phenomenon. b generate a testable prediction. ) c be based on evidence that cannot be challenged by scientific experiment. ) d ) lead you to the conclusions you know are true. e ) establish only two correlated explanations for a phenomenon. In an experiment testing the efficacy of cough syrup Brand X, researchers selected 500 participants for the study, and created a control and a placebo group. For this experiment to be considered controlled, a criterion is that: a there is no variation among the control group. ) b the groups must contain a large number of ) participants to ensure statistical significance. c ) there is no variation among the 500 participants. d the variation between the participants is randomly ) divided into the two groups. e None of the answers above are correct. ) If your hypothesis is "Estrogens in sewage runoff turn fish into hermaphrodites," what is your null hypothesis? a ) Testosterones in sewage runoff turn fish into hermaphrodites. b Estrogens in sewage runoff turn hermaphroditic fish into unisexual fish. ) c Estrogens in sewage runoff turn turtles into hermaphrodites. ) d ) Estrogens in sewage runoff will turn female fish into male fish. e Estrogens in sewage runoff have no effect in turning fish into ) hermaphrodites. Biology is to science as ________ is to ________. a ) the home team, the visiting team b ) American soccer, European football c baseball, tennis ) d basketball, sports ) e ) college baseball, professional baseball If the results of an experiment turn out differently from what you expected, then: a your instruments were probably at fault. ) b ) you didn't follow the scientific method. c ) you need to redo your experiment until you get the expected result. d your experiment was a failure. ) e you should explore the reasons for this in the "conclusions" ) section of your experimental write-up. The philosophy of Intelligent Design holds that there is strong evidence for creation by a divine being because some living things have parts that are so complex and complicated that they simply couldn't have developed through evolutionary processes; they had to have been created. Intelligent Design is not a science because: a there are no complex or complicated structures in nature. ) b most scientists don't believe in it. ) c scientists already know how all complex structures came ) to be through evolution. d ) several scientists do believe in creation science. e the idea that a god created complex biological structure ) is not testable or measurable. Kyle Lohse is currently a starting pitcher for the St. Louis Cardinals. Interestingly, there have been only nine players in major league history who have had the first name "Kyle," and ALL NINE HAVE BEEN PITCHERS. You hypothesize that there is a causal connection between having the name Kyle and becoming a pitcher. Which of the following is a reasonable testable prediction for your hypothesis? a Examination of the list of all minor league players named Kyle ) will reveal that they are all pitchers as well. A random, double-blind survey of American parents who b ) have named their child Kyle will reveal that they wanted their child to be a pitcher. A random, double-blind survey of little league coaches will c reveal that when they have a player named Kyle they make ) that player into a pitcher. d All of the above are reasonable testable predictions for the ) hypothesis. e Only b) and c) are reasonable testable predictions for the ) hypothesis. Why is it that creationism can never be accepted as a scientific explanation of the origin of life? a ) Because not all human beings believe in creationism. b Because the ideas of creationism cannot be tested through ) experiment and observation. c Because most scientists are not deeply religious people. ) d Because creationism, like evolution, is a theory and therefore ) cannot be proved. e None of the above; creationism can be accepted as a scientific ) explanation of the origin of life. The scientific method can be more powerful than other ways of knowing because it is more: a reliable. ) b ) precise. c ) systematic. d intuitive. ) e Only a), b), and c) are correct. ) Science is self-correcting. This means that: a scientists correct their own biases before engaging in scientific study. ) b science actively seeks to disprove its own theories and hypotheses. ) c ) scientists have impeccable manners. d when scientists make mistakes in their statistical analyses, their statistical software always catches those ) mistakes. e science is incapable of producing mistaken beliefs if its studies are carefully done. ) In a well-designed experiment: a ) the prediction will be highly probable if the explanation is correct. b the prediction will be highly improbable if the explanation is incorrect. ) c the null hypothesis will not be tested. ) d ) the prediction will most likely be true. e both a) and b) are correct. ) How can science best help each of us understand the role of humans in nature? a Science can show us what is right and wrong. ) b Science can provide us with a set of moral precepts. ) c ) Science can provide us with a specific political agenda. d ) Science can provide understanding of how the systems of nature work. e None of the above is correct. ) Which of the following is usually employed before the others by an investigator using the scientific method? a ) devise a testable prediction b make observations ) c draw conclusions ) d ) conduct a critical experiment e ) formulate a hypothesis Which of the following questions CANNOT be answered by the scientific method? a ) Does hair that is shaved grow back coarser? b Did the United States act appropriately when it invaded Iraq? ) c Is eyewitness testimony in criminal proceedings reliable? ) d ) Does chemical runoff give rise to hermaphrodite fish? e ) All of the above can be answered by the scientific method. The purpose of the experimentation phase of the scientific method is to: a gather evidence to support or reject a hypothesis. ) b ) gather evidence to formulate a theory. c ) make predictive, testable statements about observations. d formulate a null hypothesis. ) e gather preliminary data from which a hypothesis can be made. ) Which of the following is the BEST description of a control group in an experiment? a ) The control group is a test group which is chosen at random. b There should be more than one control group in any experiment. ) c There can be more than one difference between the control group and test groups, but not several differences or ) else the experiment is invalid. d The control group is identical to each test group except for one variable. ) e ) The control group and the test groups may have several differences between them. Scientific study always begins with: a ) hypotheses. b conclusions. ) c experiments. ) d ) observations. e ) data. You note a fuzzy growth on some of the gels in your incubator. What is the name given to this step of the scientific method? a hypothesis ) b ) law c ) experimentation d theory ) e observation ) When a chewing gum manufacturer makes the claim, "Four out of five dentists surveyed recommend sugarless gum for their patients that chew gum," how many dentists need have been surveyed for the statement to be factually accurate? a five ) b at least one thousand ) c ) at least one hundred d ) at least five hundred e four ) Which of the following questions would be LEAST helped by application of the scientific method? a determining the most effective safety products for automobiles ) b ) evaluating the relationship between violence in videogames and criminal behavior in teens c ) comparing the effectiveness of two potential antibiotics d formulating public policy on euthanasia ) e developing more effective high school curricula ) Which of the following is an important feature of the scientific method? a There are many questions that can be figured out without experimentation. ) b If research results are not conclusive, the opinion of experts should be relied upon. ) c A researcher's methods should not be described once desired results have been obtained. ) d ) Anyone should be able to repeat an experiment. e Once demonstrated, conclusions cannot be changed. ) Which of the following is NOT an example of a theory? a Organisms are composed of cells. ) b Diseases are caused by germs. ) c ) Species evolve through natural selection. d ) Molecules are composed of atoms. e All of the above are considered to be theories. ) If your hypothesis is "Echinacea reduces the duration and severity of the symptoms of the common cold," what is your null hypothesis? a ) Vitamin C reduces the duration and severity of the symptoms of the common cold. b ) Echinacea reduces the duration and severity of the symptoms of the flu. c Echinacea increases the duration and severity of the symptoms of the common cold. ) d Vitamin C increases the duration and severity of the symptoms of the common cold. ) e ) Echinacea has no effect on the duration and severity of the symptoms of the common cold. Superstitions are: a true beliefs that have yet to be fully understood. ) b proof that the scientific method is not perfect. ) c ) held by some humans but not by any non-human species. d ) irrational beliefs that actions not logically related to a course of events influence its outcome. e valuable during the observation phase of the scientific method but tend to impede the data gathering and ) quantitative analysis phases of the scientific method. Which of the following questions is NOT one that can be answered by practicing biological literacy? a Should you take an aspirin when you have a fever? ) b ) Is a diet without any carbohydrates (sugars and starches) healthy for you? c ) What causes global climate change? d What does it mean to say a person is allergic to bee stings? ) e All of the questions above can be answered through practicing biological literacy. ) Evaluate the following hypothesis and then select from the choices below the BEST reason why it would not be a good hypothesis for a scientific experiment: "Reading books makes you a better person." a What makes a person "better" is a subjective opinion that cannot be proven. ) b ) The term "books" is not descriptive enough and should be limited to a certain genre. c There are no observations that support this claim. ) d The term "person" is too broad and needs to be more particular. ) e ) The hypothesis is not formed into a question. All of the following are branches of science EXCEPT: a logic. ) b astronomy. ) c geology. ) d ) zoology. e ) physics. A relationship that has been established based on a large amount of observational and experimental data is: a a hypothesis. ) b an assumption. ) c ) a fact. d ) a theory. e a conjecture. ) In a scientific experiment, a control group: a gets the same treatment as the experimental group, but their population is different from the experiemental ) group. b is less important than an experimental group. ) c can be compared with an experimental group to assess whether one particular variable is causing a change in ) the experimental group. d ) must be kept in a laboratory. e ) All of the above are correct. Many would argue that both the theory of evolution and creationism are equally probable because, after all, they are both theories. What distinction (if any) is there between a scientific theory and a conceptual one that might lead you to disagree with this argument? a ) A scientific theory is based on many observations that prove it is correct. b A scientific theory is supported by testable and reproducible data. ) c Both of these types of theories involve a degree of faith. ) d A scientific theory is based on an observer's perception of their surroundings. ) e ) A scientific theory is always right. The raw materials of science are: a observations. ) b ) theories. c ) hunches. d hypotheses. ) e predictions. ) __________________ makes scientific-sounding claims that are not supported by trustworthy, methodical scientific studies. a Pseudoscience ) b Anecdotal evidence ) c ) All advertising d ) Statistics e Evolutionary biology ) Biological literacy is the ability to: a ) use the process of scientific inquiry to think creatively about real-world issues that have a biological component. b communicate ideas about biology to others. ) c integrate ideas about biology into your decision making. ) d ) All of the above are components of biological literacy. e Only b) and c) are components of biological literacy. ) Which of the following would be the most reasonable testable prediction for the hypothesis: "All birds can fly"? a ) In a double-blind study, take 100 random animals to see if they all can fly. b ) Observe all the birds outside your home for a week to see if they all can fly. c Locate places in the world where flight would be advantageous, and count the number of birds that live there. ) d Take a random sampling of 5 birds from around the world to verify that they can all fly. ) e Examine the list of all known species of birds and determine if any cannot fly. ) The scientific method will never prove or disprove: a the existence of God. ) b the beauty of Shakespeare's sonnets. ) c ) the usefulness of drugs on viruses. d ) All of the above are examples of statements that the scientific method will never prove or disprove. e Only a) and b) are examples of statements that the scientific method will never prove or disprove. ) In a recent study, patients treated with a genetically engineered heart drug were able to walk on a treadmill for 26 seconds longer than those not receiving the drug and showed no side-effects. Can we conclude that this drug is an effective treatment for heart disease? a No. It is not clear that the proper controls were made. ) b No. It is not clear that the drug is not a placebo. ) c ) No. It is not clear how many subjects were in the study. d ) Yes, there were clearly two equal groups-experimental and control. e No. Genetically engineered drugs cannot be tested via the scientific method. They require comparative ) observations. "Engaging in aerobic activity three times each week will reduce cholesterol levels" is a: a testable hypothesis. ) b ) substantiated explanation. c ) critical experiment. d scientific control. ) e All of the above are correct. ) Which of the following statements is CORRECT? a It is not necessary to make observations as part of the scientific method. ) b A hypothesis that does not generate a testable prediction is not useful. ) c The scientific method can be used only to understand scientific phenomena. ) d ) Common sense is usually a good substitute for the scientific method when trying to understand the world. e All of the above are correct. ) If your hypothesis is "Hair that is shaved grows back coarser and darker," what is your null hypothesis? a There is no difference in the coarseness or color of hair that is shaved relative to hair that is not shaved. ) b Hair that is taken off with a cream depilatory grows back coarser and darker. ) c There is no difference in the color of hair that is shaved relative to hair that is not shaved. ) d ) Hair that is shaved grows back finer and lighter. e There is no difference in the coarseness of hair that is shaved relative to hair that is not shaved. ) If you were to propose one additional step in the scientific method beyond the common last step of "conclusion," which of the following choices is a reasonable selection? a Reword your hypothesis to more correctly fit with your chosen conclusion. ) b ) Rerecord your results to fit your conclusion more precisely. c ) Create a further question, based on your new conclusion, that can lead to further experiments in the future. d Review your background information to make sure your conclusion fits with other similar conclusions. ) e Go back and make further observations to support your conclusion. ) In the steps of the scientific method, what is the process where a scientist writes down tentative explanations or statements about what he/she expects might happen under certain conditions? a conclusions ) b observations ) c ) hypotheses formation d ) theory formation e experimentation ) Which of the following is the BEST description of a control group in an experiment? a ) The control group is a test group which is chosen at random. b There can be more than one difference between the control group and test groups, but not several differences or ) else the experiment is invalid. c There should be more than one control group in any experiment. ) d ) The control group is identical to each test group except for one variable. e ) The control group and the test groups may have several differences between them. In controlled experiments: a ) all critical variables are manipulated. b ) all variables are held constant. c one variable is manipulated while others are held constant. ) d the independent variable is dependent on the dependent variable. ) e all variables are independent of each other. ) Which of the following is a limitation on scientific research? a Scientists have to reduce complex phenomena to simple testable hypotheses. ) b Scientific research cannot answer value-based problems. ) c It is difficult for scientists to fully understand their own motivations and subjective biases given the complexity of ) human behavior. d ) Scientific researchers have ethical and legal responsibilities that can constrain their work. e All of the above are limitations on scientific research. ) A group of individuals in a scientific study have lemon juice sprayed in their armpits, rather than "NoSweat" antiperspirant, in an experimental study to determine whether the brand "NoSweat" is more effective than other brands. This group is a ________________ in this study. a theoretical group ) b control group ) c randomized group ) d ) experimental group e ) hypothetical group Empirical results: a are based on observation. ) b are generated by theories. ) c ) rely on deductive reasoning. d ) must support the tested hypothesis. e cannot be replicated. ) By 1796 it had been observed that milk maids who had been exposed to cowpox did not succumb to the deadly plague of smallpox that was ravishing both Europe and Britain. From this observation, Edward Jenner was able to construct the world's first successful vaccine. Which of the following statements best fits Jenner's hypothesis that led him to his creation of the vaccine? a Cowpox and smallpox are caused by the same microorganism. ) b If exposure to cowpox gives immunity to smallpox in milkmaids, then exposure to cowpox should give immunity ) to smallpox in other individuals as well. c ) Exposure to smallpox always gives immunity to cowpox. d If exposure to cowpox gives immunity to smallpox in milkmaids, then milkmaids have an natural immunity and ) their blood should be used to develop a smallpox vaccine. e If milkmaids exposed to cowpox are immune to smallpox, then cowpox and smallpox are the same disease. )
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'