ANTH 1030 - Introduction to World PreHistory
ANTH 1030 - Introduction to World PreHistory ANTH 1030-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Tuesday July 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1030-001 at University of Utah taught by Brian Codding in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see World Prehistory: Introduction in ANTH at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 07/26/16
Week 1: Introduction to World Prehistory Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Anthropology: the biological and cultural study of all humanity, ancient and modern. Concerned with living societies Four-Field Origin: Archaeology (past) Biological (physical) Cultural (social) Linguistics Note: behavior = what people do; material = what people leave behind. Archaeology: the study of past human behavior based on surviving material finds. text-aided: practiced with the aid of historical documents. prehistoric: findings of ancient societies that were non-literate. Archaeologists reconstruct what people did from the materials left behind Archaeological record: the archives of the past; made up of surviving finds resulting from ancient human behavior. World Prehistory: archaeology, geological evidence, linguistics, biological data, oral traditions, historical records, etc. Uniformitarianism: the theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes; the same processes that operate now have always operated and occur at the same rate. Contrasts with catastrophism and punctuated-equilibrium. Radiocarbon Dating: the determination of the age or date of organic matter from the relative proportions of the carbon isotopes, carbon-12 and carbon-14, that it contains. Main Chronological Methods Historical records Dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) Radiocarbon dating Potassium-argon dating Culture (inclusive): that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. May be called a society's traditional system of belief and behavior Manifested in individual or collective behavior Cultural System: complex system comprising a set of interacting variables - tools, religious beliefs, etc. - that function to maintain a community in a state of equilibrium with its environment. Cultural Process: refer to the processes by which human societies changed in the past. (Main examples below): Invention: involves creating a new idea and transforming it. Diffusion: the label for those processes by which new ideas or cultural traits spread from one person to another or from one group to another, often over long distances. Migration: involves the movement of people and is based on a deliberate decision to enter new areas and leave old ones. Culture as Adaptation Approach - most archaeologists believe that human cultures are best interpreted as adaptations to the subsistence and ecological requirements of a locality. Unilineal Cultural Evolution - belief that human societies evolved in a simple, linear fashion, slowly ascending an evolutionary ladder of human progress toward that ultimate pinnacle, industrial civilization. (processual) Multilinear Cultural Evolution - general framework; assumes that each human society pursues its own evolutionary course, determined by the long-term success of its adaptation to its natural environment; cultural ecology is the core. (processual) Evolutionary Ecologist - behavioral adaptation. (processual) Cultural Ecology: the total way in which human populations adapt to and transform their environments. Prestate Societies: societies on a small scale, based on the community, band, or village; sometimes divided into three loosely defined categories. Bands: associations of families of no more than 25-100 people. Tribes: clusters of bands that are linked like clans. Clans: group of people linked by common ancestral ties that serve as connections between widely scattered communities. Chiefdoms: kin-based but more hierarchical, with power concentrated in the hand of kin leaders. Tend to have higher population densities (generally between 5,000- 20,000). Often there is a local specialization in craft products. State-Organized Societies (civilizations): operate on a large scale with centralized political and social organization, class stratification, and intensive agriculture. Complex political and government institutions, and based on social inequality, e.g. Greece, Rome. Evolutionary Ecology: based on the proposition that variation in the behavior of individual or organisms is shaped by natural selection; predictions are testable. Contingency Model: in optimal foraging strategy, exploitation of foods as opportunity arises, independent of their abundance. Prey Model: assumes that foragers will try and maximize the net rate of energy capture. * Hawke's Ladder of Inference Ideology/Religion/Spirituality - what people thought and believed. (top rung) Social/Political Institutions - how people related to one another Modes of Production - how people made a living Formation Processes - how material was deposited Material Record - the observed phenomena (bottom rung) Note: Every step higher on the ladder results in more uncertainty. This is because with each rung advancement on the ladder, the farther you get from the material record, which is the only observable fact. Note: use-life --> taphonomy --> investigation Use-life = item is manufactured --> used --> discarded Taphonomy = deposition --> passage of time --> degradation Investigation: excavation --> sampling --> recovery Antiquarian: avocational collectors and hobbyists. Cultural History: reconstruct cultural sequences. Note: cultural-historical archaeologists believe that changed occurred due to three reasons. inventions diffusion (learning things from others) migration Processual Archaeology: explain the processes underlying cultural change. Sees culture as adaption Post-Processual Archaeology: interpret past social relations and beliefs (reach the top of Hawke's ladder). Believe in symbolic expression by "agents" examine ideology, motives, and non-environmental aspects of culture change Evolution by Natural Selection 3NS4NS = 3 necessary and sufficient 4 natural selection Phenotypic variation Heritability (genetic and environmental) Differential survivorship in response to scarcity as a result of a phenotypic trait (super fecundity) i. Super fecundity is the point of inevitability where a population will run out of its food supply Pleistocene Epoch: "age of humanity," the most recent interval of earth history during the time that human beings first populated most of the globe; beginning about 1.6 mya. Primate: a mammal order that includes tree-living placental mammals. Anthropoids: apes, humans, and monkeys. Prosimians: lemurs, tarsiers, and other "pre-monkeys". Bipedal: walking on two feet.