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Chapter 1 Study Questions

by: Alexis Collier

Chapter 1 Study Questions BIOL 2110K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > BIOL 2110K > Chapter 1 Study Questions
Alexis Collier
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Human Anatomy/Physiology I
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Collier on Tuesday July 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2110K at Georgia State University taught by Borek in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 07/26/16
1. Give a Definition for Anatomy, and one for Physiology - Anatomy - study of form and structure - Physiology - study of function of the body parts 2. All living things share common basic characteristics; they are: - Organization - complex structure and order - Metabolism - sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body - Growth/development over time brain becomes more sophisticated - Responsiveness - ability to sense and react to stimuli - Regulation - be able to adjust or direct internal bodily function in the face of environmental changes (homeostasis) - Reproduction - produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair 3. Define cytology and histology - Cytology - study of body cells and their internal structure - Histology - study of tissues 4. The levels of organization are (in correct order) - Cells --> Tissues --> Organs --> Organ system --> Organism 5. How many systems are there in the human body? Which system is a function of one of the system and not really a system? - 11 organ systems - Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive (M and FM) - Immune system is not really a system 6. Does each system work independently of each other? - No, together to maintain homeostasis 7. Define homeostasis. Is homeostasis static? - Homeostasis - body’s ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in response to changing conditions - Not static because our internal environment fluctuates up and down, homeostasis moves up or down to bring it back to its set point 8. The body is regulated by pathway consisting of 3 intercomponents they are: - Receptor - body structure that detects a change in a variable; typically consists of nerves - control center structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates change through the effector - effector structure that brings about change to after stimulus 9. Which of the intercomponents monitor the value of a variable? Which one compares the value of the variable against a set point? What does the effector do? - Receptor maintains the value of a variable - Control center compares variable against a set point - Effector brings about change 10.Describe negative feedback using the above 3 parts and positive feedback using the above 3 parts. a. Negative feedback: resulting action is in the opposite direction of the stimulus i. Sensory receptors in skin determine if its cold (receptor) ii. hypothalamus determines body temp is low (control center) iii. blood vessels constrict causing a shivering sensation and conserves body heat (effector) b. Positive Feedback moves effector/action in the same director of stimulus i. Sensory receptors in skin or breast detect the baby suckling(receptor) ii. Hypothalamus signals posterior pituitary to release oxytocin (control center); iii. Oxytocin in blood stimulates milk ejection from breast (effector) iv. Stimulus (suckling baby) increases the action by releasing milk 11.Which of the feedback systems is used more frequently in the regulation of the human body? - Negative feedback 12.What is located in the ventral body cavity? - Partitioned into the superior thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity - Thoracic = lungs and heart - Abdominopelvic = abdominal cavity (stomach and intestines and pelvic cavity (bladder etc...) 13.What is located in the dorsal body cavity? - Posterior aspect - Cranial cavity (brain) and vertebral canal 14.What type of membrane covers and lines the organs and body cavities? What is the purpose? - Serous membranes cover and line the organs and body cavities in the ventral cavity - The membranes secrete a liquid that reduces friction; also encases and protects the organs 15.What is the name of the membrane surrounding the organs in the lower ventral body cavity? - Peritoneum surrounds the organs in the lower (abdominopelvic) ventral cavity - Parietal peritoneum is outer layer of serous membrane; lines internal walls - Visceral peritoneum is inner layer and covers most of the organs - Peritoneal cavity is potential space between the serous membrane layers and is lubricated by serious fluid 16.What is the name of the membrane surrounding the cavity in the upper ventral body cavity? - Pericardium - two layered serous membrane around heart 1. Parietal pericardium outermost layers and forms sac around heart 2. Visceral pericardium forms hearts external surface - Pericardial cavity is space between layers and contains serous fluids 17.What does it mean for organs to be retroperitoneal? - Situated behind the peritoneum - Organs are retroperitoneal if they have peritoneum on their anterior side only


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