History of US I
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American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 1: Natives 13,000 B.C.- A.D. 1492 Scholars believe that Native Americans used to live a very static, unchanging life till Europeans invaded. Many contemporary native people reject the scholars believes. Conservatives believe that Indians were warlike savages whose culture deserved conquest and transformation. According to the author, Native Americans and Europeans were both cruel in some level, however, when Europeans entered America, they escalated the bloodshed in a new level that was never seen in native land before. Native Americans demanded less from the nature than the Europeans. Many scholars believe that the first Americans migrated from Siberia. They did not live a social life, they were always on the move, so could not develop permanent villages or have any heavy possessions. When native Americans were traveling to America, they had no notion that they were discovering and colonizing a new continent; they simply believed it to be an extension to their home. There were three surges of colonization by the Alaskans. 1 surge- Paleo Indians, 2 ndsurge- Navajo and Apache, 3 surge- Inuit and Aleut. Paleo Indians lives mostly revolved around hunting and gathering small bands. They used to live by the river or the areas where they can hunt the most. After consuming a kill, they usually just move on to another kill. Free land: free from other humans and abounding with planet and animal life. Because of some environment changes and spread of skillful hunters, the biggest mammals started dying out in America. As a result, they had to start learning their environment more closely in order to find alternate food sources. American Archaeologists labeled them as “Archaic” to distinguish them from Paleo-Indian Ancestors. They had gender structured work roles: Men were responsible for fishing and hunting while women were responsible for harvesting and preparing wild plants. Men were more exposed to danger and women stayed home to take care and raise children. Archaic Indians developed their languages, rituals, mythic stories and survival strategies. Cultural differences within he Archaic Indians help start trading within themselves. The Indians of central Mexico pioneered the three great crops of North American horticulture: maize, squashes, and beans. Horticulture permitted to start villages and start permanent living situation. The new horticulture also promoted economic differentiation and social stratification as the food surplus enabled some people to specialize as craftsmen, merchants, priests, and rulers. Horticulture also came with negative consequences, as their plants could have been easily destroyed by natural disaster, they were more dependent on nature and lacked a lot of nutrition which caused them have more disease than hunter- gatherers. The Hohokam and Anasazi: two complex and populous cultures that emerged in the American southwest. They built a system of writing and towns based on hierarchy The irrigation works demanded extensive, coordinated labor to build and maintain, while the abundant crops enabled many people to live clustered together. The soil became useless after rapid usage as it lacked nutrition like nitrogen; which eventually causes them to set a crisis of crop failure. The Hohokam apparently concluded that their leaders could no longer win favor from the spirits of the plants and the rain. So they abandoned their towns and dispersed. Between 1150 and 1250, there were evidence of violence among the Anasazi. Skeletons from this period reveal a surge in violent death, mutilation, and perhaps ritual cannibalism. The Mississippi Valley became the most densely settled region north of central Mexico. Natives had a group of people called Shamans who used to have dreams and visions about certain things. Europeans never understood their beliefs Europeans believed in capitalism whereas natives were following animism Several Europeans claimed that Native’s way of living was much better but never really wanted to which communities. Assignment: 1. During the early process of the making of the “Atlantic World”—the political, geographic, and economic region characterized by European domination, their enslavement of people from Africa, and the ultimate subjugation and their exploitation of resources and people in the Western Hemisphere—how did Native Americans and Europeans differently view the land, people, and resources of the world they inhabited? How did spiritual beliefs and ideas about the cosmos shape their understanding of land, people, and resources? How did technology shape their separate understandings of their respective worlds? In what ways were Native Americans and Europeans ultimately more similar than we might think in the present day? - The Native Americans and Europeans viewed land, people and resources very differently from each other as the author Alan Taylor points out in his book “American Colonies” that Native Americans followed animism and Europeans followed capitalism (location 588). Native Americans lived a simple form of life compare to the Europeans. When Native Americans were moving to America, they simply thought of it as an extension to their home; whereas, Europeans were more focused on discovering a new land or colonizing a new continent. The author mentions that they both damaged their local environments; however, the Native Americans caused less damage than the colonizers (location 561). Because of their spiritual beliefs, the Natives also thought that they damaged nature needs to be repaired. They believed there are spirits among everything, even within plants and animals and offended spirits can cause severe harm to mankind (location 597). As the Natives believed in living simple life, they lacked technological and epidemiological resources compared to the Europeans. They also did not have vast weaponry or military power compared to the Europeans (location 570). The Natives focused on their day to day lives and had faith in nature and spiritual beliefs which is why they did not see the urgency of having such skilled military or technological advancement. Despite all these differences, the readings do show several similarities within these two communities. They both had gendered work roles, such as, men would travel and do all the physical work while women stay home to take care of the children and take care of other domestic work (location 393). They both also believed to be engaged in wars and violence. There is one other similarity that I see between the Native Americans and Europeans is that they both did not understand their culture, norms and traditions. The Europeans saw the Natives as “evil cannibals” and the Native saw Europeans as “cruel non- ritualistic” when it is just a matter of having different perspective on life. 2. What ultimately accounts for European “success”? Was European success in the colonial project guaranteed or inevitable, and if not, at what point did it become so? How significant was Native American and African cooperation in this process, and how do you think Native American and African resistance to Europeans might have shaped this process? Were Europeans really evil masterminds and Native Americans pure-hearted but foolish dupes, or is the history of colonization much more complicated? In what ways does our culture simplify the history of colonization, and why is it important to tell the more complex history that yesterday and today’s readings suggest? - Because of the Europeans’ belief in capitalism and vast advancement in their technology and military power, I believe conquering a new continent and settling was what ultimately credited to European “success”. I see European success in the colonial project guaranteed or inevitable due to the advancement compared to everyone else around them. Because of such advantages, Natives or Africans had little to no chance of succeeding if they wanted to oppose them; which is also why I believe their cooperation would not make much of a difference in the process because the Europeans would have gotten what they want either way. I believe that the history of colonization cannot be described as just by labeling Europeans evil masterminds and Native Americans pure-hearted but foolish dupes; it is much more complicated than that. They both had different point of view and goals in life which collided with each other when Europeans invaded Americas. 3. Finally, how can we know the answers to these questions, and which of our readings might give us a firsthand account of that knowledge? Do these sources really show us a “European mindset,” or do they show us the perspective of a particular European—and if so, who? (A rich man or a peasant? A king or priest? A woman? A child?) Why is that information—how and why a particular document is produced— important when studying the past? - I don't know if these questions could be answered with certainty since getting firsthand account of that knowledge would be hard to get. All the required readings have provided a plethora of knowledge about the Native Americans and Europeans that we might not have known before. Such as, “The Travels of Sir Jon Mandeville” and “The Iroquois Creation Story” tells us how Native Americans used to live simple lives and were attached to the nature whereas the Europeans were more into materialistic things (Mandeville, 9). “Mapping the New World” shows how Europeans and Natives view their world while mapping out the things around them. Michel De Montaigne’s “Of Cannibals” tells how Natives are probably not barbarians, they both just have different way of looking at things. Among all the readings, Mandeville’s reading seems to be a firsthand source but I find Montaigne’s reading most resourceful as the author mentions attaining the information from the trusted source and uses his observation skills to put it on the paper for everyone else. American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 3: New Spain 1500-1600 “Spanish atrocities to craft the notorious and persistent “Black Legend”: that the Spanish were uniquely cruel and far more brutal and destructive than other Europeans in their treatment of the Indians” (location 1239). When Taino natives started dying, the Spanish urgently needed more slaves. They learned about wealthy Aztec natives and decided to conquest it. Native people helped Cortés to fight Aztecs but did not realize that the Spanish will be more demanding than their previous ruler Aztecs (location 1266). Every year Aztecs hosted public ritual human sacrifices of captured people, their chests cut open and their still-beating hearts held up to the sun (location 1275). By his death in 1547, Cortés ranked as the wealthiest man in Spain, thanks to the revenues from his Mexican estates. As a New World conqueror, he had enjoyed the most spectacular social mobility of his century (location 1306). Europeans made the natives outcasts that did not agree with the dominant natives their allies and used them to win the wars (location 1320). Natives started believing that he Europeans brought some kind of super natural power to spread death, so they thought it would be better to submit to their rule; on the other hand, the Europeans thought that God was supporting their fight by spreading small pox to Indians when the Europeans got tired of fighting (location 1340). The Spanish asked the natives to give up on their traditions completely, and adopt to the Spanish culture by adopting the rituals of the Catholic faith. The Natives accepted it with apparent enthusiasm but continued to venerate their old idols in secret (location 1395). During sixteenth century, Spanish brought new emigrants to the New World. Most of them were single men with no women or wives, so they took women s wives among the Natives which caused them to generate a mixed offspring known as mestizos (location 1424). They established a racial hierarchy knows as “castas” (location 1428). The Spanish empire was divided into three bureaucrats that was supposed to answer to the crown. But they all were jealous of each other and did not like each other, which created a flood of problem within the territory (location 1455). Lacking substantial navies, the Dutch, English, and French encouraged private investors to send armed ships to attack and plunder the Spanish shipping (location 1497). Assignment: Argue for the ways in which Spanish, French, English, and to a lesser extent Portuguese and Dutch styles of colonization differed from one another. Consider the different geographic zones that each of these groups occupied, and how local Native American groups shaped European colonial policies. Explore the cultural and religious differences of different European groups, and discuss how this impacted different colonial policies. Consider also the ways in which the African slave trade shape these colonial projects. Explore the differing kinds of relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, ranging from cooperation and interdependence to resistance and violent conflict. Answer: In the colonization of Americas, all the European groups share several similarities and differences in ways and reasons of colonization along with different outlook and approach towards the Native Americans. Geographically, the Spanish colonized in more lands than the others because of being the first one to land there Christopher Columbus set off in search of India in 1492. In 1494, Treaty of Tordesillas between the Spanish and the Portuguese secured the primary right to exploit the coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean for Portuguese, while the Spanish obtained Columbus’s western discoveries which was Florida, New Mexico and Peru (location 932). The French colonized in majority of East Canada, Midwest of America and Alabama/Louisiana area. The English established modern day Virginia, New England, and the Chesapeake. One of the similarities that Spanish, French and English shared was that they all tried to convert the Natives’ religion one way or another. The main goal of Columbus was to establish Christianity in the Americas and make it so strong that they can defeat Islam together. The Spanish queen and king also supported Columbus’ idea to spread Christianity till he took the brutality way too far. Hence, the pious Spanish monarch created new laws but eventually could not stop him (location 948). Even though French were primarily traders, they also tried to spread Catholic faith among the Natives, just like the Spanish (location 2333). The English, on the other hand, tried to establish Protestant Christianity among the Natives but offered a far more peaceful way of doing so than the Spanish. The Spanish, English, and French also battled against the Natives either for land or their resources. In this process, they all found valuable resources that made them rich in an unprecedented rate; such as, the Spanish found gold & silver, the English grew tobacco and fished, and the Dutch & French traded fur. Even if all of the European groups were religious driven in terms of colonization, they were also economically focused. During the fifteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese developed new ships, navigation techniques, geographic knowledge, and cannon primarily because of trading, but later they broaden their horizon and started planning to exploit newfound islands (Locations 754). The Spanish were extremely greedy and their purpose of colonization into Americas was to steal all the resources, turn native peoples into commodities, for sale as plantation slaves, and us the Native’s labor to finance themselves. According to Taylor, “the natives suffered from a deadly combination of microparasitism by disease and macroparasitism by Spanish colonizers, preying upon native labor” (location 988). On the contrary, the French and Dutch settled in Northeast area mainly for trading fur. The English came to America mainly for gold and ships, but later they focused in plantation and fishing. In the beginning of colonization, the Spanish thought it would be best to kill the Natives if they refuse to accept Christianity or enslave them to put them through hard labor ill they die. However, later they realized that the Native population have far more important value than their soil. That is when both parties started trading goods and sharing knowledge in several different things. As the author mentions in the book, “Indian relations were central to the development of every colonial region” (location 1217). Several local Native populations have also helped the Europeans to fight against the dominant Natives because they did not agree with them. For example, Native people helped Cortés to fight Aztecs (location 1266). Despite all the help and resources that the Natives have provided through their cooperation, he Europeans seemed to be split between reducing the violence towards them. For instance, the Spanish Queen Isabella, Prince Fardinand, and the pious Spanish monarch tried to put a stop to Columbus’ brutality towards the natives. Also, Cabeza De Vaca vouched to have a different approach on the natives and have alternatives to conquer the land such as native consent rather than using brute force; whereas, Hernando De Soto was full of greed and did not care about the Indians the way De Vaca did. Slavery was one of the most integral part of American colonization. All the European groups used African slaves for labor and colonization. The author mentions that, “Prior to 1820, at least two-thirds of the twelve million emigrants from the Old to the New World were enslaved Africans rather than free Europeans” (location 1100). They were sent to work on tropical or subtropical plantations raising cash crops— primarily sugar, rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton, and coffee— for the European market (location, 1102- 1103). Because of demographic advantage, they were also mostly immune to the new diseases brought by the Europeans. So when all the Native population was being dwindled by the diseases, they were the ones that survived and helped with plantation and other labor to survive (location 1118). American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 2: Colonizers 1400-1800 Europeans had a very progressive knowledge on geography, technology and weaponry. They enriched their country with those resources as well as started planning to conquest other areas. Explorer Jean De Lery said that the Americas were so different than what they have witnessed before that they can easily name it the New World. Colonization literally alienated the land from its native inhabitants. In particular, the colonizers accidentally introduced despised weeds, detested vermin, and deadly microbes. All three did far more damage to native peoples and their nature than to the colonists (Locations 706). Visionary Europeans hoped to weaken their enemy and enrich themselves by seeking an alternative trade route by sea to bypass Muslim merchants and Turkish tax collectors to reach sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia (Locations733). Europeans wanted to find ways to be not behind the Muslims. They published more books to so that people would read more about the expansions and the areas that they could conquer. During the fifteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese developed new ships, navigation techniques, geographic knowledge, and cannon primarily because of trading, but later they broaden their horizon and started planning to exploit newfound islands (Locations 754). Conditioned by the “reconquista”, the Iberians believed that the Guanche deserved to be conquered and enslaved for two reasons: they were neither civilized nor Christian. Making his own culture the standard of humanity, the Portuguese king assured the pope that the Guanche were “like animals” because they had “no contact with each other by sea, no writing, no kind of metal or money” (location 800). This also invoked to justify their conquest to Americas. They believed in the necessity of expanding Christian belief and believed that people that refused to accept Christianity should be enslaved to save their souls from hell (location 800). But, with more greed than consistency, the Iberians also enslaved Guanche who had converted to Christianity in the vain hope of living peaceably beside their invaders (location 800). Iberians attacked Guanche in their most inconvenient time when they were suffering from several different diseases. After Iberians won the war, the made Guanche their slaves, however most of them died inconveniently because of new diseases, so they had to get more African slaves (location 832). By 1500, the Portuguese annually bought about eighteen hundred African slaves, primarily to labor on the Canaries and Madeiras (location 832). By turning native peoples into commodities, for sale as plantation slaves, the invaders developed a method for financing the further destruction of their resistance (location 841). Columbus wanted to travel to East Asia to capture that area, make everyone convert to Christianity to ultimately stop Islam and reclaim Jerusalem (location 858). People think that fifteenth century Europeans believed that the world was flat, but that is not true. They actually agreed that they world was round. So, what deterred Europeans from sailing due west for Asia was not a fear of sailing off the edge of the world but, instead, their surprisingly accurate understanding that the globe was too large. They had really small ship that could not carry enough food and water to travel that far (location 886). Columbus miscalculated the distance which made him believe that he could travel to East Asia, not because he knew more geography than anyone else. He got lucky that he arrived at Americas to get fresh water which helped him survive. “It is one of the ironies of world history that profound misunderstanding set in motion Columbus’s discoveries” (location 895). Columbus treated Taino inhabitants just like Spanish did with Canaries, using them for forces labor. He rationalized that such treatment would benefit the Indians by exposing them to Christian salvation and Hispanic civilization. To justify their enslavement, Columbus emphasized their weakness (location 904). With the assistance of the pope, the Spanish and the Portuguese negotiated the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which split the world of new discoveries by drawing a north-south boundary line through the mid-Atlantic west of the Azores (location 932). In dividing the world, no one bothered to consult the Indians, for the Iberians and the pope considered them pagan savages without rights under international law (location 932). “Columbus’s slaughter and enslavement of Indians troubled the pious Spanish monarchs, who declared in 1500 that the Indians were “free and not subject to servitude.” But Ferdinand and Isabella failed to close the legal loophole exploited by Spanish colonizers. It remained legal to enslave Indians taken in any “just war,” which the colonists characterized as any violence they conducted against resisting natives (location 941). In sum, the natives suffered from a deadly combination of microparasitism by disease and macroparasitism by Spanish colonizers, preying upon native labor (location 988). There was a huge population collapse among the Natives because of European diseases and forces labor with little or no food, but no scholar can fully determine the initial population and the final population of the Native as the colonists never kept any form of evidence or paperwork (location 1006). “Colonists interpreted the diseases as sent by their God to punish Indians who resisted conversion to Christianity” (location 1081). “Prior to 1820, at least two-thirds of the twelve million emigrants from the Old to the New World were enslaved Africans rather than free Europeans” (location 1100). By introducing the New World crops to the Old World, the colonizers dramatically expanded the food supply and their population (Location 1136). In sum, although disastrous for American natives, the post-1492 exchange of New and Old World microbes and plants provided a double boon to Europeans (Location 1154). American Indian selectively shaped their nature but Europeans new and unprecedented demands upon the American nature (location 1199). Despite all the difficulties, the Natives adjusted pretty well to the new circumstances and they were still very important to the Europeans for various reasons, such as, trading partners, guides, religious converts, and military allies (location 1217). “Indian relations were central to the development of every colonial region” (location 1217). American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 9: Puritans and Indians 1600-1700 “INSTEAD OF VIEWING the precolonial landscape as beautiful, the leading Puritans perceived, in William Bradford’s phrase, “a hideous and desolate wilderness full of wild beasts and wild men.” The New English saw the Indians as their opposite— as pagan peoples who had surrendered to their worst instincts to live within the wild, instead of laboring hard to conquer and transcend nature” (location 3916). “The New English saw the Indians as their opposite— as pagan peoples who had surrendered to their worst instincts to live within the wild, instead of laboring hard to conquer and transcend nature” (location 3916). “Economic interest encouraged colonists to spread out, to acquire large and dispersed farms. But this contradicted their religious desire to live in tight communities of near neighbors, watching over one another’s morals and meeting frequently for worship” (location 3926). To avoid becoming like Indians, the New English changed the land and converted Indians (location 3926). “The Puritans also worked to subdue, convert, and transform the Indians into replicas of English Christians” (location 3926). “In sum, both to benefit and to reassure themselves, the New English worked to dominate the external world of the forest, its wild animals, and its Indians” (location 3926). The Natives lacked political unity (location 3935). “In fact, Indian cultivation was more efficient, producing substantial yields from relatively small amounts of land and labor” (location 3944). “As in Virginia and Iroquoia, the Algonquian division of labor ran along gender rather than class lines” (location 3962). The Colonists thought of Indians as lazy exploiters of their hard working women (location 3981). “As a consequence of their mobile way of life, Indians acquired few material possessions, and they shared what they had” (location 3981). The Indians only had small amount of personal properties as they followed the mobile way of life (location 3981). “The Indians regarded most colonists as mean and stingy, enslaved by their property and their longings for more” (location 3990). “Roger Williams conceded, “It is a strange truth, that a man shall generally finde more free entertainment and refreshing amongst these Barbarians, than amongst thousands that call themselves Christians.” (location 3990). “Compared with the colonists, the Indians demanded less from their nature, investing less labor in, and extracting less energy and matter from, their environment” (location 3990). “The Algonquians possessed neither the market institutions nor the mentality of capitalism. There was no market in labor, for Indians did not hire one another to work for wages. Nor did they have the concept of “capital”— much less a market for exchanging it” (location 3990). “Because land was not a commodity for them, the Indians neither bought nor sold portions of their domain— until induced or compelled to it by colonists” (location 3990). “… A colonist marveled, “A poor servant here that is to possess but 50 acres of land, may afford to give more wood for timber and fire as good as the world yields, than many noble men in England can afford to do.” (location 4008). Puritans believed that Indians did not use their nature to its fullest potential and that their God would want them to enjoy the land in reward for punishing the Indians for their pagan indolence (location 4008). “A Puritan minister commented, “Their land is spacious and void, and they are few and do but run over the grass, as do also the foxes and wild beasts.” (location 4008). “John Winthrop explained, “As for the Natives in New England, they inclose noe Land, neither have any setled habytation, nor any tame Cattle to improve the Land by, and soe have noe other but a Naturall Right to those Countries, soe as if we leave them sufficient for their use, we may lawfully take the rest.” (location 4011). “The resolves of the town of Milford in Connecticut in 1640 were especially blunt: “Voted that the earth is the Lord’s and the fulness thereof; voted, that the earth is given to the Saints; voted, we are the Saints.” (location 4011). The Natives and the Puritans understood different concepts of “the deed”; hence, they got involved in violence (location 4027). “By clearing the forest, the colonists steadily eliminated the habitat for the wild animals and plants critical to the Indians’ diet and clothing” (location 4030). “In 1642 the Narragansett chief Miantonomi complained: You know our fathers had plenty of deer … and our coves [were] full of fish and fowl. But these English have gotten our land, they with scythes cut down the grass, and with axes fell the trees; their cows and horses eat the grass, and their hogs spoil our clam banks, and we shall be starved” (location 4030). Wampanoag tried to establish relationship with the Plymouth Colonists but that ended pretty badly because Plymouth Colonists betrayed the Indians (location 4044). The Natives helped the New English with fur to get out of debt (location 4054). “The first major conflict between the New English and the Indians erupted in 1636” (location 4063). The New English, along with some of their Indian allies, caused a surprise attack on the people pf Pequot territory and caused a massive overkill. The Indian allies wanted to capture and adopt the Indian women and children so they were very bitter about the slaughter caused by the New English, calling them “too furious and slays too many people” (location 4072). “Captain Mason exulted, “God was above them, who laughed his Enemies and the Enemies of his People to Scorn, making them as a fiery Oven … [and] filling the Place with Dead Bodies!” (location 4065). “Captain Underhill sarcastically noted that “they might fight for seven years and not kill seven men.” (location 4072). “Lacking a collective identity as “Indians,” the natives continued to think of themselves as members of particular bands and tribes— which rendered them all vulnerable to colonial manipulation and domination” (location 4093). “Noting the power of colonial solidarity, in 1642 the Narragansett sachem Miantonomi urged a radical new idea: a common Indian identity in union against the invaders. He argued, “For so are we all Indians as the English are, and say brother to one another, so must we be one as they are, otherwise we shall all be gone shortly.” (location 4093). “Unable to unite, the various Indian bands became shrinking minorities in a land dominated by the rapidly growing colonial population” (location 4103). “During the 1620s and 1630s, the Puritan settlers did little to missionize the Indians, focusing instead on expanding their towns and farms” (location 4112). The missionaries cared about saving the Natives’ souls and wanted to save them from hell. Because the English could not conceive of permitting the Indians to remain independent and culturally autonomous peoples, they had to convert or die (location 4121). “Like the Franciscans of New Spain, the Puritan missionaries of New England believed that the first and essential step was to oblige the mobile Indians to settle down in permanent and delimited communities” (location 4121). The praying towns were the towns that converted and accepted the New English way to living life by giving up on their culture and traditions (location 4140). The praying towns did not attract the largest and most autonomous bands such as Narragansett, Mohegan, and Wampanoag; but it did attract the small and weak bands such as Massachusett, Nipmuck, and Pennacook (location 4140). “The New English called the bloodiest Indian war in their history King Philip’s War, after the Wampanoag sachem named Metacom but known to the New English as King Philip” (location 4166). The Wampanoag sachem named as Metacom, but known as King Phillip after converting, was secretly preparing for a war that he thought was inevitable. King Phillip’s war was very different than the Pequot war. This time the Natives killed many colonists including their women and children. The puritans saw this war as a punishment from their god for all of their sins from New England. So they thought to get favor from their god, they would have to destroy all the Indians in their god’s honor (location 4185). “Outraged by the Narragansett boasting, Roger Williams retorted, “God had prospered us so that wee had driven the Wampanoogs with Phillip out of his Countrie and the Nahigonsiks out of their Countrie, and had destroyed Multitudes of them in Fighting and Flying, in Hung[ e] r and Cold, etc.: and that God would help us to Consume them.” In this grim equation, destruction to the other measured God’s favor (location 4185). “Because about a third of the natives in southern New England assisted the colonists, King Philip’s War became a civil war among the Indians” (location 4194). “During the summer of 1676, the Indian resistance collapsed, as one demoralized group after another surrendered” (location 4213). After the Natives lost to the Colonists, the Colonists killed the Native men and sold the women and kids to slavery. “An eighteenth century missionary sadly observed that the colonists “took every advantage of [the Indians] that they could … to dishearten and depress them.” (the Indian allies) (location 4232). “By remaking the land, settlers destroyed the resources that Indians needed to preserve their autonomy” (location 4241). “By 1789 every native people along the Atlantic seaboard shared the Mohegan fate of living as a small minority on a changed land among invaders” (location 4250). American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 10: The West Indies 1600-1700 “By producing lucrative sugar, the West Indies rapidly grew to overtake the Chesapeake as the most valuable set of English colonies” (location 4262). “In sum, at an immense cost in human suffering, the sugar islands served as the great economic engine of the English empire” (location 4271). The Natives from Lesser Antilles and Caribs were guerilla fighters, so the the Spanish decided to avoid them. Barbados is one of the islands of Lesser Antilles that attracted the English colonists because of its Landscape, climate, location, and pigs (location 4297). The Barbadian planters brutally punished their servants (location 4326). The Barbadians started making sugar after their tobacco and cotton business was getting rough; but making sugar consists of a lot of hard work and precise timing. “While the expansion of sugar production on Barbados stimulated the economic development of New England, trade with New England permitted Barbados to complete its profitable specialization in sugar and slavery” (location 4368). “Free people did not volunteer for such degrading and debilitating work, and it became increasingly difficult even to obtain servants” (location 4376). “Desperate for servants, the planters accepted growing numbers of convicted criminals and political prisoners, sent to the West Indies as a punishment” (location 4376). White labor died down, because people thought it was degrading to white men, as they were considered above the color people, so that can’t do the same labor as punishment. “By 1660, Barbados had become the first English colony with a black and enslaved majority: 27,000 compared with 26,000 whites” (location 4405). “The slaves succumbed to the deadly combination of tropical diseases, a brutal work regimen, and the inadequate diet, housing, and clothing provided by their masters. Rather than improve those conditions, the Barbadian planters found it more profitable to import more slaves” (location 4405). There was no English law about how to maintain racial slavery, but the Barbadians developed their own slave code in 1661. They were always paranoid of slaved killing them in sleep and have different conspiracies against them. The Barbadians became the richest men through sugar plantation. During 1640s, the Barbadians were exposed to many diseases brought from Africa which killed a lot of their people. The white population kept decreasing and they kept getting afraid that their militia was not strong enough to fight against French invasion or slave rebellion. There were no lands left in Barbados, so people fled to other islands such as Jamaica where the governor offered free land to the emigrants (location 4520) The pirates stimulated the development on Port Royal, the third largest town in English America (location 4548). After Jamaica was not under Spanish attack, keeping the pirates became expensive and not beneficiary. People were also scared of the pirates which resulted in problem in getting slaves from outside while the warehouses clogged with unsold sugar (location 4557). After the death of Morgan, Port Royal was hit with earthquake that killed a large population. “By 1713, Jamaica was producing more sugar than Barbados and had become the wealthiest and most important colony in the English empire” (location 4577). “At the end of the seventeenth century, white emigrants from the West Indies, particularly Barbados, carried the seeds of that society to the southern mainland by founding the new colony of Carolina” (location 4595). American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 15: Awakenings 1700-1775 “DURING THE MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, British colonial America experienced a dramatic and sweeping set of religious revivals collectively known as the Great Awakening” (location 6873). “Most colonies’ founders believed that public morality, political harmony, and social order required religious uniformity” (location 6891). Not having enough Anglican parishes or ministers and not having access to sources discouraged a lot of people from following religion. Anglican clergyman and pastors were often under paid. Every different group of settlers found their own church to distinguish themselves (location 6946). 60% of the adults went to Anglican church, rest of the 40% of the adults attended rival Presbyterian, Baptist, and Quaker churches (location 6964). Evangelicals blamed Christian rationalism for the loss of former intensity in worship (location 6973). “Christian rationalism held that God created the natural universe and thereafter never interfered with its laws” (location 6982). “The rationalist concept of God appalled the evangelicals as cold, distant, and irrelevant, for they sought direct, individual, and transforming contact with the Holy Spirit” (location 6992). Very few people broke through to the New Birth, but many went back to their old ways to living their worldly life, and some ended up committing suicide (location 7019). Edwards published a vivid account entitled “A Faithful Narrative of the Surprizing Work of God” where he depicted God acting throughout the colonies, and perhaps the entire Protestant world (location 7036). George Whitefield was a young Anglican minister who was inspired by god and Edwards and traveled colony to colony to preach. He was a great preacher and performer. In 1739, Whitefield came to Pennsylvania where he met Benjamin Franklin, who he became really close with. Benjamin Franklin used his printing machine to help Whitefield to spread his words even farther than he expected. Whitefield was not very successful in preaching at South as the people did not believe his emotional speeches about conversion, but he was most successful at where almost all adults were literate, newspapers and religious tracts were most abundant, and a dense network of ministers prepared for his sensational arrival (location 7082). After Whitefield’s visitation on America, all the colonies had a large number of people coming to churches for full membership. Because of this increase within the male community in churches, everyone called it the Great Awakening (location 7101). Some women also became “exhorters” who were inspired by god who claimed a freedom from the social restraints placed on their gender (location 7130). Whitefield’s tour caused controversy between rationalists and evangelicals. “The evangelicals became known as New Lights, because they believed in new dispensations of divine grace, while their foes were Old Lights, who defended venerable institutions and scriptural traditions. Launched in acrimonious publications, their battle spread into ministerial conventions and colonial politics” (location 7149). “Where the New Lights championed the uninhibited and disruptive flow of divine grace by inspired itinerants, the Old Lights regarded Christianity as a stable faith that needed barricades against intrusive innovations” (location 7177). Between the fight of Old Light and New Light, the evangelicals divided among two categories, the moderates and the radicals. “With good reason, the Old Lights and the moderate evangelicals worried that the divisive drive for purity would shatter the religious unity and establishment of Congregational New England” (location 7223). “The radicals suspended social distinctions during worship, mixing together as poor and prosperous; Indian, white, and black; men and women. The radicals even tended to include converted women in the government of their churches” (location 7232). Many few people cared about converting slaves because they were scared that baptism may encourage resentment to slavery for the slaves (location 7278). Only the radicals demanded to convert the slaves, but did not address the issue of slavery (location7287). Quakers are the only ones that stood against slavery and the cost of that was that people constantly leaving the community because either they want slavery to exist or does not want to get involved in politics or got kicked out for keeping slaves (location 7296). No one also did not pay attention to converting the Indian after 1675’s praying Indian incident. They thought of it as a waste of time and energy on the savages. But the great awakening encouraged the evangelicals to target the Indians to convert (location 7305). Evangelicalism made Indians see Christianity as their own. It acted as revitalization rather than a cultural surrender. It acted as a bridge between tradition and assimilation into the dominant society (location 7315). But this did a little to no help to reduce racism, Samson Occom, an Indian preacher is a prime example for that (location 7324). “In sum, the Great Awakening accelerated a religious dialectic that pulled seekers and their congregations between the spiritual hunger to transcend the world and the social longing for respect in it” (location 7379). 1 Tasfia Kamal History of the US I Professor Mitchell 07.12.2016 Final Examination Question No. 1: The Europeans traveled the Atlantic Ocean to reach the Americas in order to colonize and gain economic and religious benefit. Columbus primarily started his voyage to spread Christianity so that he can take down the Arabs. Soon after arriving, Columbus realized that the New World had a plethora of opportunities to offer. The explorers found miles and miles of lands that has never been used by the Natives. As a result, they started using the New World’s lands and keep bringing people to colonize in the New World. Author Alan Taylor provided a brief portrayal of Native’s lifestyle before the European arrival in his book “American Colonies”. According to the author, the Natives used to live a very simplistic life compare to the Europeans. Europeans believed in capitalism whereas Natives believed in animism (Taylor location 550). As the Natives were not familiar with the idea of ‘market economy’; they had shamans who were in charge of distributing the food and land among the people which is why they always have plenty of resources left unused. The Europeans decided to use those resources for their benefit by trading with the Natives. Europeans had a very progressive knowledge on geography, technology and weaponry. Thus, they decided to trade their weaponry and technology with the Natives in 2 order to get land ownership for plantation (Taylor location 1029). Throughout the time, several European colonizer groups got involved with the Natives in numerous different kind of trades; for instance, the Spanish found gold & silver, the English focused on plantation and fishing, and the Dutch & French traded fur. In return of all the goods from the Native, the Europeans also traded alcohol such as rum and whiskey along with technology and weaponry. As mentioned above, religion acted as one of the most important factor of colonization when Columbus first landed in the New World. Soon more devoted people started arriving to the new land to share their word of wisdom and spread Christianity. According to author Taylor, Europeans never understood the Native’s culture, and thought of them as barbaric since they showed a little to no similarity with the Europeans (Taylor location 996). Hence, the colonizers believed that they were helping the ‘barbaric animals’ by civilizing them and saving their souls. The author states, “They believed in the necessity of expanding Christian belief and believed that people that refused to accept Christianity should be enslaved to save their souls from hell” (location 800). As a result, the New World sees several different European groups arriving to the new land to share their religious belief to others; for example, Spanish, French and English tried converting Natives to Christianity, French tried to spread Catholic faith, some Puritans tried to spread Protestant Christianity etc. The Colonists wanted to convert the Natives and have them reject their culture completely. As the Natives were mostly helpless and in a tough situation by the Europeans, some Natives surrendered and converted to Christianity. Here, it is evident that religion played a huge role in dominating the cultural influence on the Natives by the Europeans. Europeans also seemed to have political influence on the Natives as they introduce the concept of settling on a land. Author Jill Lepore’s chapter “Mapping the World” introduces the readers 3 that the traditional Native American culture did not subscribe to the idea that land can be “owned” in the European sense (Lepore, 30). Taylor also agrees with Lepore by saying that the Natives only had small amount of personal properties as they followed the mobile way of life (location 3981). He also says, “Because land was not a commodity for them, the Indians neither bought nor sold portions of their domain— until induced or compelled to it by colonists” (location 3990). Thus, the Europeans shares political ideas with the Natives by introduces the concept of land ownership to them. The colonizers realize the necessity of slave labor as they started investing in large plantation more and more. As a result, the Europeans shipped thousands of African American men and women to work at their plantations. The author Jill Lepore explains how many African men and women were taken away from their families to be shipped in several cargos overseas to bring in the new land (Lepore, 129). These slaves worked under their slaveholders at the large plantations such as, rice, sugar, indigo, tobacco, and cotton (Lepore, 125). Not only African American but also a large number of Native Americans were involved in the slave business. The Natives that refused to accept Christianity were sent off as slaves to be ‘punished’ and work at the plantation. As Natives were comparatively less equipped and had technological disadvantage over the Europeans, they had no other option than accepting the domination and submit to slavery (Taylor location 3981). Europeans also used the Native war refugees as slaves where they were neither given appropriate shelter nor satisfactory food in return of their labor only because they fought for what was initially theirs. In this case, the Europeans used religion to justify their action of unfairly treating and achieving forced labor from the Natives for their plantation. During the ‘Market Revolution’ cotton became one of those crops that needed 4 excessive amount of salve labor. Authors Hoffman and Gjerde explains in their book “Major Problems in American History”, “Cotton cultivation required labor intensive application, but chattel slavery remained legal in the states where the climate was favorable to cotton” (Hoffman & Gjerde, 257). As cotton served the country as unprecedented benefit, people were more inclined to have more slaves for the economy. Throughout all the new innovation and revolution, there were a large population that were not happy with the market industry because of unfairness. For instance, people in America wanted to be free from the British control as they found the new laws and proclamations to be unfair to them. Hoffman and Gjerde explains how new sorts of laws and revenues were being implemented to gain money from the Americans. The authors mention several acts such as The Proclamation of 1763, The Sugar Act of 1764 and The Stamp Act of 1765 and how they imposed new taxes and regulations with each of those acts (Hoffman & Gjerde, 102). The Americans did not think that is it fair for the British government to charge them all those taxes if they are not even providing representation. At that point, the only way to achieve representation was to fight the British and be free from the British reign. As Virginian Patrick Henry states, “If we wish to be free… we must fight!” (Hoffman & Gjerde, 106). Hence, America fought against Britain and achieved independence. However, the Natives did not support the American revolution as they saw more benefit with staying with the Britain. America treated them very poorly and took everything away from them, and because of that several tribe leaders warned their people to not help America in the war. To express Native’s feelings towards the Americans, the Iroquois Chief Red Jacket sadly tells his tribe, “We gave them corn and mean, they gave us poison in return” (Hoffman & Gjerde, 202). He also states, “You have got our country, but are not satisfied; you 5 want to force your religion upon us” (Hoffman & Gjerde, 202). This shows, how Natives were not favor of majority of the cultural exchange happened between the Native and the Europeans as the Natives seem to suffer the most while the European only benefitted. Question No. 2: The world after the Atlantic Ocean was unknown to the people on the other side till Columbus landed his ship and called it the New World. The colonizers were mostly happy as they saw plethora of new opportunities with the plenty of unused land to explore (Taylor location 303). Native, on the other hand, were neither happy nor angry as they did not know the real motif behind landing on their land. The Natives simple viewed the Europeans as guest who would leave after exploring the land. However, soon they realized that they Europeans were there to stay and enjoy their land. Before the Natives even realized the actual motif, the Europeans already brought thousands of people to the New World for colonization which outnumbered the Natives. Europeans also had technological advantage over the Natives which left them helpless and eventually resulted in accepting European’s domination. Soon the colonizers started exploring more and more new land and capturing each land as they go (Taylor location 573). The New world attracted several groups of European culture; such as, English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Portuguese etc. Each of these groups came and settled in different areas according to their needs (Taylor location 844). For example, groups that came to look for gold and silver went and settle in a different place than the group that came for plantation. Each group eventually settled in areas that the geography favored their goals the most. For example, groups had to pick area with certain type of water sources and the weather if they are looking for plantation rather than 6 searching gold or trading fur. However, geographically Spanish ruled the most amount of lands as well as benefited more than the other groups as they were the first ones to arrive in the New World. Geographically, the Spanish and the Portuguese secured the primary right to exploit the coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean for Portuguese, while the Spanish obtained Columbus’s western discoveries which was Florida, New Mexico and Peru after having Treaty of Tordesillas between them at the end of fifteenth century (location 932). The French colonized in majority of East Canada, Midwest of America and Alabama/Louisiana area mainly for fur. Even though the English arrive at the New land primarily for gold and ships, eventually they established modern day Virginia, New England, and the Chesapeake for plantation purposes. In response to his, the author Taylor states, “In dividing the world, no one bothered to consult the Indians, for the Iberians and the pope considered them pagan savages without rights under international law” (location 932). As the Spanish were the first ones to arrive, they had more control over the land the other which somehow scared the other cultural groups. The Spanish had advance technology with plenty of men power which scared the others for a domination of the Spanish on them. As a result, they all decided to situate in area that were not guarded and as far away from Spanish control as possible to avoid possible attacks (location 1434). According to author Taylor, Spanish were extremely brutal to the Natives that they wanted to kill the entire race; however, they decided not to do so as they found Native slaves as very helpful for their economy. Nevertheless, Natives got sick from the diseases brought to Americas by the Europeans and eventually start decreasing in number. As a result, the Europeans started shipping African Americans as slaves because of having geographical advantage. To explain this theory, author 7 Jill Lepore explained in his book, “Africans, however, had already been exposed both to Old World microbes like smallpox and tropical diseases like malaria and yellow fever” (Lepore, 129). Because of having his geographical advantage, slavery became easier for the Europeans and helped with the New World’s plantation. At the end of eighteenth century, Thomas Jefferson introduced the term “Empire of Liberty” which identified the responsibility of United States to spread freedom and peace across the world. This eventually developed the idea of manifest destiny which means that Americans are the most virtuous and Americans have the right and they are destined to move anywhere to expand to make the uncivilized ones virtuous just like them. As a result, they decided to move to west coast to gain more land and start civilizing the territory (Hoffman & Gjerde, 263). It was believed that expansion of United States was inevitable as they are destined to do so. Expanding territories also faced the issue of balancing the free state and slave states within the country. Geographically, the Southern states are slave states because of their agriculture as they need slaves for sugar, tobacco and cotton; Northern states, on the other hand, are free states that wanted to abolish slavery (Hoffman & Gjerde, 262). Hence, the northern state could let the expanded territories to become slave state as they will ruin the balance and United States would have been predominantly a slave country. To fix this issue, Missouri Compromise was made in which the southern border of Missouri marked the boundary for northern free states and southern slave states for the entire Louisiana territory. The idea of Manifest Destiny also led to the MexicanAmerican war in which the Mexican invited the Americans to Texas to balance out the population against the Native. Later, Americans went on a fight and won against the Mexicans led by General Santa Anna and gained 8 control over Texas, part of New Mexico, and part of California (Hoffman & Gjerde, 274). In search of civilized territory and to break the political unity within the Natives, America also wanted to remove the them from the frontier so that they can have the land. William Clerk of the Lewis and Clerk Expedition gave a diplomatic speech on Indian Removal in 1806 in which he describes how Indians should remove the territory which will benefit the both sides (Hoffman & Gjerde, 199). He states that America will make them homes and provide them other necessary goods in trade of their land. It also seems evident through the speeches by Sagoyatha and Shawnee Chief Tecumesh that even though America made it look like an offer, Native did not have much of an option to make a decision as it is either they move or they get killed by the Americans (Hoffman & Gjerde, 203 & 205). Through these texts, it is evident that Americans truly believed in expanding their territory by all means and that their definition of peace differed from the definition of peace to everyone else. Question No. 3: As every culture is unique and people within variety of cultures have unique gender norms, Native American, African and European seem to have gender
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