Psych 3331 Abnormal Psych Week 1 Notes
Psych 3331 Abnormal Psych Week 1 Notes Psych 3331
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Kaiser on Tuesday July 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3331 at Ohio State University taught by Thomas Valentine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 07/26/16
Psych 3331 Abnormal Psych Week 1 Notes Abnormal psych = clinical psych Psychopathology = psychological disorder = mental illness = mental disorder Patient = client Be respectful in use of diagnostic labels Abnormal Psychology: the scientific study of abnormal behavior undertaken to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning There is nothing clear cut about defining a psychological disorder. We try to make them more objective but it is difficult. Most definitions have four things in common; the four D's o Deviant (differ from some type of normal) o Distressing (unpleasant and upsetting to the person) o Dysfunctional (interfering with the way of life) o Dangerous (sometimes but not always) Deviance Society defines what is normal, it establishes norms - stated and instated rules for proper conduct. If you break the stated and unstated rules for proper psychological conduct then it is considered abnormal There are many different societies with their own cultures and their own norms Cultural norms - matter when determining what is abnormal, but so do specific circumstances (context) o So if a whole society experiences a disaster of sorts (like an earthquake) it is not abnormal for those people to show symptoms of depression Distress Abnormal behaviors, thoughts, and emotions are often distressing but not always Someone with an anxiety disorder would likely be under some distress Someone with schizophrenia who listens to different voices in their head may not realize that it is bad and not experience distress Dysfunction Abnormal psychological functioning is usually impairing - household chores, work duties etc… Culture says what qualifies as dysfunction Dysfunction does not necessarily indicate psychological abnormality Ex: Gandhi not eating for social justice was not an eating disorder Danger Behavior that is dangerous to oneself or others can be considered abnormal HOWEVER most people with psychopathology pose no immediate danger to themselves or others Eating disorders are the "deadliest" psychological disorder Abnormality is elusive - it is very difficult to define, but society does most of the defining Even common forms of abnormality are overlooked (sad :() (ex: excessive alcohol use among college students) Abnormality is not the same as eccentricity - just because someone is weird or different does not mean there are abnormalities But just because you are eccentric does not mean that you do not have psychological abnormalities ---------------------------------------------------- Treatment: a systematic procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior. Also called therapy All forms of therapy have 3 essential features o A sufferer o A trained healer o A series of contacts between these two with intention of changing the sufferer Ancient views and Treatments Behavior results from a conflict between good and evil. If evil wins you end up exhibiting abnormal behavior Treatment approaches: Force evil spirits from the body o Trephination - force the evil out of a body by cutting a hole in the skull and hoping the evil leaves. If the hole did not work they stuck something in the hole and hoped it helped o Exorcism - rid the body of evil spirits, make the body so uncomfortable that the evil spirit wants to get out Greeks and Roman views and treatments Viewed abnormalities as being caused by internal natural factors Hippocrates believed it was brain pathology that was responsible - he said if you had an excessive amount of a certain humor (bodily chemical) then you had an abnormality Treatment approaches: Correct the underlying physical pathology o Rebalance the four humors through behavioral or physical means Views and Treatments During the Middle Ages Behavior resulted from a conflict between good (God) and evil (the devil). Abnormal behavior is due to Satan The church was kind of in charge of things back then, so yeah Difficult times led to mass madness Tarantism: groups of people were breaking out into weird things like jumping around and dancing and convulsing, believing they were bitten and possessed by tarantulas Lycanthropy: people believed they were possessed by wolves Prevailing view of Demonology - people could be possessed and act abnormal Treatment approaches: Expel the devil from the body - exorcism Renaissance views and treatments Internal, natural causes of abnormalities Johann Weyer saw abnormal behavior happened because of sickness of the mind (mental illness!) Treatment approaches: Happier ways to treat people People could stay at home and be cared for by their families - sometimes with financial support Adoption by foster families o Princess who did not want to marry her father became a saint in ways of curative powers. There was a memorial for her that grew into a church and now it attracts people from all over the world. The church put up a dormitory to support people with mental illness who wanted to experience the curative powers. - led to the idea of mental health patient "colonies" by foster families Government officials took some power back and established asylums Asylums: a type of institution that would provide care for people with mental disorders First intentions were good but they turned into prisons basically. They were overcrowded and dirty Patients were treated with cruelty o Bedlam (Bethlem Hospital) in London was a popular tourist attraction We have gone back and forth a lot between seeing abnormal behaviors as a conflict between good and evil and seeing it at a mental illness/internal natural causes Sickness of the mind versus sickness of the body The 19th Century: Reform and Moral Treatment There was a recognition that people were being mistreated in the asylums and we needed change Moral Treatment: Providing for the needs of the mentally ill population in a way that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment o Phillippe Pinel, head of a Paris asylum - we need to treat sick people kindly not with abuse o Dorthea Dix, a schoolteacher - spoke out for mental health New laws Greater governmental funding State hospital mandate We will find that issues arose with these state hospital movement, with overcrowding and filthiness With the state hospital movement there was a rising of different perspectives on how to treat people Somatogenic: physical causes of abnormal psychological functioning o Not a new view just a new name, remember the Greeks and Romans has this view o To this day we still have this perspective o Emil Kraeplin: argued for this view, wrote a textbook in support of the somatogenic view o There were new biological discoveries: i.e., syphilis was responsible for general paresis, a condition with physical AND mental symptoms Brought light to the idea that physical diseases could cause some psychological problems This view had some major advances Mapping of the brain - better understanding for what parts of the brain are responsible for different functions Symptom-based classification - allows us to distinguish between different disorders and treatments for them Drug treatments - certain conditions are much better treated with medications vs therapy and vice versa And some terrible tragedies Dangerous surgical procedures - this somatogenic perspective may lead you to think that surgical procedures could help o Like a frontal lobotomy, a lot of behavior is controlled by the frontal lobe so people thought why not operate on it and see what happens basically. The downsides outweigh the plus sides Eugenic Sterilization - if psych abnormalities are based on physical causes, we may be able to take care of the problem and stop the mental illness from spreading by sterilizing mentally ill individuals. There are significant ethical and moral issues with this procedure Erosion of moral treatment - it doesn’t have to be this way but it has been, i.e., forced medications on individuals with psychological abnormalities Psychogenic Perspective: the view that chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological o Gained traction following studies of hypnotism - A guy named Mesmer thought he could help people by putting them into a trance, would tap on their different body parts with symptoms Hysterical symptoms or disorders - patients with physical problems but doctors could find no explanation for these problems. Mesmer would hypnotize them, there was some validity behind this Researchers found that this hypnotism method could both cause and cure certain physical symptoms a patient has. Nowadays hypnotism is used for entertainment purposes - it is a real thing, there are significant problems with it being used as a treatment for psychological treatment. Led to conclusion that hysterical disorders are largely psychological in origin It can bring back false memories as well as true memories - either way WRONG BAD BIG PROBLEM This perspective was fueled along by Sigmund Freud o His psychoanalytic approach of psychoanalysis: idea that you can treat abnormal mental functioning by focusing on unconscious psychological forces By focusing on certain things you can bring out the unconscious forces and you can relieve the conflict and distress that might be within this person, hopefully bringing relief Current Trends in Abnormal Psychology Biological psychiatry is an area that is experiencing rapid growth We are getting a more sophisticated understanding of the brain - leading to better medications Psychoanalytic approaches are hanging on Freud still has an influence Cognitive, behavioral, humanistic-existential, and socio-cultural models have become more prominent, Tom says the psychoanalytic approach will probably be dead soon Treating severe psychopathology Psychotropic Medication o Antipsychotics, antidepressant, anxiolytics o Deinstitutionalization Releasing patients from public mental hospitals We want to keep patients in the hospital for as short a time as possible, treat them and get them out into the real world again Treating less severe psychopathology o Private psychotherapy o Community mental health centers - there is a need for more of these with better staff and better funding Prevention o Correct social conditions underlying psychological problems i.e., poverty, violence o Help individuals at risk i.e., children of parents with severe psychopathology
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