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Unit 5 Outline

by: Kira Kuzmenchuk

Unit 5 Outline Econ 104

Kira Kuzmenchuk
Penn State

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Old human geography outline for practice
Colin Knapp
Class Notes
Human, geography
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Kuzmenchuk on Wednesday July 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Econ 104 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Colin Knapp in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see in Macro Economics at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 07/27/16
Unit 10: Agriculture I. Introduction A. “Typical” person is an Asian farmer who grows food for survival B. Limits on agricultural practices are based on climate, soil, and topography as well as technology available such as machinery II. Key Issue 1: Where did agriculture originate? A. Origins of Agriculture a. Agriculture: deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain 1. Hunters and Gatherers a. Hunting and Gathering 1. Gaining of food through hunting, fishing, and gathering 2. Live in groups usually no more than 50 people 3. Men hunted while women gathered 4. Travel frequently based on movement of animals and seasonal growth b. Contemporary Hunting and Gathering 1. ¼ million people are hunter gathers 2. Mostly located in the Arctic, central Africa, South America and Australia 2. Invention of Agriculture a. Two Types of Cultivation 1. Cultivation came about by accident after the seeds and other fertilizable foods dropped to the ground and began to grow 2. Vegetative planting: the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants 3. Seed agriculture: the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization a. Most common in the present time B. Location of Agricultural Hearths 1. Location of First Vegetative Planting a. Originated in Southeast Asia b. Varying climates and ground allowed for plants to grow c. First plants were most likely roots and tree crops d. Diffused to China and Japan, then on into India, Africa, and the Mediterranean land e. Livestock domestication also got its start in Southeast Asia f. Some plants may have also got their start in Africa and South America such as yams and arrowroot 2. Location of First Seed Agriculture a. Diffusion of Seed Agriculture 1. 3 Eastern Hemisphere hearths: western India, northern China, and Ethiopia a. From Southwest Asia: expansion to Europe including Greece and Crete, Northwestern India, and to North Africa b. Diffused North from Europe c. From China: millet and rice diffusion spread to South and Southeast Asia d. Diffused to Southwest Asia where the domestication of wheat and barley started e. The domestication of animals (cattle, sheep, and goats) began in Southwest Asia and were used to plow the land then fed some of the crops 2. 2 Western Hemisphere hearths: South Mexico and North Peru a. Mexico: spread to Guatemala and Honduras 1. Squash and corn arose from such areas b. North Peru 1. Squash, beans, and cotton origin C. Classifying Agricultural Regions 1. Differences Between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture 1. Subsistence farming: LDC farming done for production of food for farmer and family consumption 2. Commercial agriculture: MDC farming done for production of food for sale a. Purpose of Farming 1. Subsistence: done primarily for immediate food consumption but if there is any surplus may be sold for little money 2. Commercial: done for profit in which most food production is sold to manufacturers b. Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force 1. Commercial: a. 1/10 of MDC populations b. Less than 2% in U.S. and Canada c. Migration caused a drastic decline in farmers in the 1900s 2. Subsistence a. 1/2 + of LDC population c. Use of Machinery 1. Commercial: a. MDC work is done mostly by machine b. Iron-plow was created in 1770s c. Tractors, combines, corn pickers, planter, etc. do most of the work now d. Transportation of product and livestock has increase tenfold in the last century e. Testing to better improve agriculture includes experimentation with fertilizers, herbicides, hybrid plants, and animal breeding f. GPSs are used for large scale production and fertilization 2. Subsistence: a. LDC work is done with hand tools and animal help d. Farm Size 1. Commercial a. Average U.S. farm is 444 acres b. Large U.S. farms range as large as 3,000+ acres and produce 48% of agricultural income c. Machinery has allowed for farm size to increase d. The amount of land used for agriculture increased up until 1960 but has began to decrease sharply due to urbanization of areas e. Prime Agricultural land has also began to decrease which is the most productive land used for farming e. Relationship of Farming to Other Businesses 1. Agribusiness: agriculture integrated with large food-producing industries 2. Approx. 20% of the U.S. population works in some sort of food production 2. Mapping Agricultural Regions a. 11 main agricultural regions based on climate 1. 5 LDC locations 2. 6 MDC locations 3. Ex. Pastoral nomadism dominant in Middle East’s dry climate and shifting cultivation dominant in Africa’s tropical climate b. The correlation between agriculture and climate is not set in stone c. Culture as well as geography can also affect agricultural growth due to cultural restrictions 1. Ex. No hog production in areas predominantly inhabited by Muslims II. Key Issue 2: Where are agricultural regions in LDCs? III. Key Issue 3: Where are agricultural regions in MDCs? IV. Key Issue 4: Why do farmers face economic difficulties? A. Challenges for Commercial Farmers 1. Overproduction in Commercial Farming a. Produce much more than demanded by MDC populations which leads to low income b. This is caused due to an increase in productivity but the demand remains constant 1. Ex. The increase in milk production but the decrease in the amount of cows due to the increase in milk production per cow c. Low commodity prices low because they tend to remain constant from year to year d. Government buys and sells surplus to foreign governments which has a direct correlation to food stamps in the U.S e. MDCs are encouraged to grow less food where LDCs can’t grow enough 2. Sustainable Agriculture 1. Sustainable agriculture: an agricultural practice that preserves and enhances environmental quality 2. There has been an increase in organic farms over the last decade 3. .23% of the world’s farmland has been classified as organic a. Sensitive Land Management 1. Ridge tillage: a systems of planting crops on ridge tops a. Plants are planted in the same rows every year b. Production costs are low due to less need of machinery 1. Spaces between crop rows match the distance between the wheels of the machine c. Greater soil conservation 1. Areas of undisturbed areas are left 2. The soil in the areas have an increase in organic matter, water capacity and number of earthworms b. Limited Use of Chemicals 1. A reduced amount of herbicides to kill off weeds can be very labor intensive and sometimes very expensive 2. Combination of mechanical and chemical weed control can better control the weeds compared to the methods by themselves 3. Herbicide banding is a use of chemical except in small quantities c. Integrated Crop and Livestock 1. Some mixed crop and livestock farmers sell the crops they grow instead of feeding them to the animals and use the money to buy feed for their animals 2. The number and placement of animals in a specific area is critical to production a. An incorrect balance can caused not crops to grow or for too many to grow, making the land unable to be used for grazing 3. The way in which animals are kept is also a large player in the management of sustainable agriculture a. Confined animals can lead to pollution which can damage the surface and water supply b. The release of animals over a large area allows for manure to fertilize the land but it tends to smell pretty bad 4. Weather also plays a large role in integrated crop and livestock sustainable agriculture a. The amount of livestock being kept can fluctuate based on weather conditions 5. Feeding and selling of livestock can fluctuate throughout seasons a. The feed is one of the biggest costs in crop and livestock farming b. If farmers know what the animals need, they can keep their food expenses to a minimum B. Challenges for Subsistence Farmers 1. Subsistence Farming and Population Growth a. According to Boserup, population growth influences subsistence farmers to come up with ways to produce more food b. 5 stages of intensification of farmland 1. Forest Fallow: fields are cleared and used for 2 years then left for 20+ years for reforestation 2. Bush fallow: fields are cleared and used for 8 years the left for 10+ years for regrowth 3. Short fallow: fields are cleared and used for 2 years, and left for 2 years for grass regrowth 4. Annual cropping: fields are used every year and left for a couple months 5. Multicropping: fields used all year round with no rest c. Shifting cultivation which is utilized best in areas of low population density has slowly decreased due to an increasing population d. Production can also increase through different farming methods such as an increase in fertilization and weeding 2. Subsistence Farming and International Trade 1. LDCs produce products to sell to MDCs to pay for agricultural products 2. MDCs pay large sums for things that are either out of season of can’t be growth in the U.S. 3. Gender divides the farming roles a. Women do the growing as well as cooking, cleaning, and retrieving water b. Men take care of the money and export of any surplus crops a. Drug Crops 1. Many LDCs grow crops that can be converted into drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin 2. The opium poppy plant is the source for heroin 3. Coca leaf produces cocaine 4. Marijuana from cannabis sativa B. Strategies to Increase Food Supply a. Increase Food Supply by Expanding Land Area for Agricultural Use 1. The population is increasing quicker than the expansion of agricultural land 2. 11% of the world’s land is used for agriculture 3. Desertification: the deterioration of land into desertlike conditions 4. Many human and animal actions cause the soil fertility to decrease drastically 5. Excessive water can also cause roots of plants to become waterlogged which can cause problems leading to insufficient plant growth 6. The movement towards urbanization is also a cause for a decrease in useable agriculture land b. Increase Food Supply through Higher Productivity 1. Green revolution a. Introduction of higher-yield seeds b. Use of fertilizers 2. Scientists have engineered seeds that respond better to fertilizers and mature faster 3. Miracle seed was created in the 1960s and allow for larger, better quality yields 4. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium are critical elements that are now the basis of fertilizers a. Nitrogen can be created through the burning of fossil fuels in many areas of the world b. Phosphorous and potassium are harder to find and are only located in certain areas c. Increase Food Supply for Identifying New Food Sources 1. Cultivation Oceans a. There was an increase in fish harvesting between the 1950s and 1990s but during that time, the fish were unable to have sufficient time to reproduce b. Some countries have set boundaries in which they can capture ships that are fishing in their areas 2. Develop Higher-Protein Cereals a. MDCs get their protein from meat while LDCs have to depend on grain b. Hybrids are being developed to contain more nutrients humans need to survive 3. Improve Palatability of Rarely Consumed Foods a. The removal of social concepts and religious concepts that prevent humans from eating specific foods can increase the amount of nutrients people are receiving b. Krill, for example, is a food that most don’t eat because it doesn’t taste good and is primarily feed to animals d. Increase food Supply by Increasing Exports from Other Countries 1. If the places in which foods like corn, wheat, and rice were to increase their yields and sell to areas in which the crops are unable to be grown, it could make up for the gap in the crops in LDCs 2. The Agricultural Trade, and Assistance Act of 1954 allowed for grain to be sold at low interest rates and can be given to needy countries 3. The U.S. is the lead exporter of grain 4. Countries in South Asia have began to become larger exports of grains over the last couple decades 2. Africa’s Food-Supply Crisis a. Leader in grain imports b. In a 40 year span, the grain production increase threefold while the population increased sixfold c. Sub-Saharan Africa is the leader in the amount of malnourished people d. Farms that planted in Africa have exhausted the soil which has kept the amount of food production from increasing as fast as the population e. The government has attempted to help the crisis but there is little they can do Chapter 9: Development I. Key Issue 3: Where does level of development vary by gender? A. Gender-Related Development Index: comparison of the level of development of women with that of both sexes 1. Economic Indicator of Gender Differences a. Estimates the average of incomes of males and females of a country b. In every country, men’s average income is higher than female’s c. MDCs: females make 2/3 what men make d. LDCs: both incomes are low monetarily but female’s still have a significantly lower income than the males 2. Social Indicators of Gender Differences a. Women are much less likely to attend school in LDCs, especially high school b. MDCs women to men ratio: 99/100 c. LDCs women to men ratio: 60/100 d. In Africa and the Middle East, less than 1/3 girls attend school e. Literacy among MDCs is universal f. Latin America and Asia have nearly equal literacy rates between men and women g. Africa and the Middle East have very low female literacy rates which is a factor that keeps their HDI low 3. Demographic Indicator of Gender Differences a. Female infants are expected to live longer than males in MDCs b. LDCs have nearly no difference c. The life expectance in women is low in LDCs due to the risk of pregnancy and birth B. Gender Empowerment: compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making 1. Economic Indicators of Empowerment a. According to the UN, women have the highest likely hood of getting professional and technical jobs although cultural barriers have been an issue in allowing for women to obtain these jobs b. The highest amount of women in powerful jobs is in Northern Europe 2. Political Indicators of Empowerment a. As with everything else, the amount of women having managerial jobs is higher in MDCs than in LDCs 1. Women hold more than a third of the managerial jobs in North America, Europe and the South Pacific b. No country in the world has a majority of female political officers and the highest is in Northern Europe where they make up 1/3 of the office positions II. Key Issue 4: Why do LDCs face obstacles to development? A. Development Through Self-Sufficiency 1. Elements of Self-Sufficiency Approach a. Countries investment should be spread across the board b. A self-sufficient country can help reduce poverty c. Barriers such as taxes allow for countries to maintain self sufficiency d. India decided to place taxes on imports, make licenses required for importation and discouraged export of goods to MDCs and LDCs 1. Eventually, India was cut off from the world’s trading economy 2. Problems with the Self-Sufficiency Alternative a. Inefficiency 1. Self sufficient business can sell their goods for as much as they please at the type of quality they deem fit b. Large Bureaucracy 1. Administration of self-sufficent businesses causes problems like illegal sale and inflation B. Development Through International Trade 1. Rostow’s Development Model a. attached 2. Examples of International Trade Approach a. The Four Asian Dragons 1. attached b. Petroleum-Rich Arabian Peninsula States 1. Petroleum has turned the Arabian Peninsula into one of the wealthiest areas in the world 2. They use the earned money to fund very expensive projects such as buildings of highways, airports, universities… 3. The Arabian Peninsula which was once a fairly unurbanizied area is now fully of motor vehicles, TVs, electronics… 4. Women are still being kept from the high paying jobs in the Peninsula due to much of the area being of Muslim religion 3. Problems with the International Trade Alternative a. 3 problems cause issues with international trade 1. Uneven resource distribution a. The increase and decrease of goods among different countries leads to decrease in commodity 2. Market stagnation a. MDCs have limited population growth, consumer power, and market size b. LDCs must takes sales from other countries to increase own revenue 3. Increased dependency on MDCs a. An increase in production for MDCs wanted goods could help LDCs gain the needed things from MDCs 4. Recent Triumph of the International Trade Approach a. World Trade Organization 1. Countries negotiate reduction of international trade restrictions on manufactured goods 2. The organization also helps countries hold up to agreements that one chooses to break 3. Many liberal critic believe the WTO is antidemocratic because everything they do is behind closed doors b. Transnational Corporations 1. Foreign direct investment: investments made by one country in another 2. The amount of foreign investments fluctuates around the world 3. Transnational corporation: invests and operates in countries other than where headquarters is located 4. Many TNCs have headquarters in the U.S. and Europe C. Financing Development 1. Loans a. LDCs borrow money for projects such as dams, transmission lines, water supplies, roads… b. The two largest lenders are the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank c. The world bank consists of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association 1. The IBRD gives loans for projects such as social and transportation needs 2. The IDA gives money to those who have a higher likelyhood of failing and possibly loosing the money from the IBRD d. The IMF gives money to countries that are trying to balance their trade money e. Loans are primary given out for countires to have the ability to expand and become more developed f. The one problems is that many loans are never paid back due to failed projects g. Many LDCs have debt due to failed projects and instability in the LDC financial case caused problems in MDCs as well 2. Structural Adjustment Programs a. Policy Framework Paper helps countires get out of debt by using a structural adjustment program which includes all economic goals, and ways to achieve them b. Economic project must benefit both the poor and the wealthy c. Some argue that poverty grows substantially while a country is under a SAP D. Fair Trade 1. Fair Trade Producer Standards a. Combination of businesses in LDCs allow for them to get credit and produce and sell their products for high prices b. Fair trade coffee costs more than specific higher end brands although fair trade coffee producers obtain higher commodity 2. Fair Trade Worker Standards a. Non fair trade producers tend to make about 1% of the retail price while fair trade producers tend to make about 1/3 retail b. Worker rights are not monitored in international trade production companies and injured workers as well as those who are laid off or sick are not compensated c. Fair trade worker get fair wages and company owners must comply with environmental and safety standards d. Many artisans and crafters are women and their income is usually the only income in the household e. Although minimum wage may not always be enough, workers are paid enough for food and shelter when the money is available f. Again, even if the producers are making more money, doesn’t mean the retail price goes up because there is no middleman in the fair trade process


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