Classical Conditioning PSY 1012
St. Petersburg College
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Date Created: 07/27/16
1 Chapter 5: Classical Conditioning Learning- A change in behavior or knowledge due to past experiences Conditioning- Learning associations between external events and behavioral responses Classical Conditioning – The basic learning processes that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response. Example: Dating someone who wears a specific cologne, you break up, you smell it again = emotions that you felt while you were with them. Classical conditioning happens at a subconscious level. Your response to the stimulus that was classical conditioned also happens at a subconscious. Ivan Pavlov- A Russian physiologist who studied salivation in dogs (behaviorism) Founded classical conditioning Wanted nothing to do with psychology Did not use classical conditioning on humans Won a noble Prize for salivation _ The unconditioned stimulus- The naturally occurring stimulus that elicits the reflex response (Food) Unconditioned Response- Is the reflex response to the unconditioned stimulus (Salivating to the food) Condition Stimulus- The previously neutral stimulus that after conditioning has occurred elicits the reflex response (Bell) Conditioned Response- The reflex response to the conditioned stimulus (Salivating when the bell rings) 2 Factors that affect conditioning Stimulus Generalization- Stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response Stimulus Discrimination- We conditioned the animal or individual to only respond only to a particular conditioned stimulus. - Only pairing the food with a certain music note and not with any other note. Extinction- The weakening of the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response due to a lack of pairing. - If you ring the bell over and over and never give the dog food after ringing the bell the dog will stop salivating to the sound of the bell. Spontaneous Recovery- once extinction has occurred and we introduce the conditioning process conditioning occurs much quicker than the original conditioning process. Second Order Conditioning- Where we pair a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to create a new conditioned stimulus. Original: Ring bell + food= Salivation Second Order: Shine a Light (New Stimulus) + Bell (conditioned stimulus) x Repeatedly = Salivation Then you get: Light = Salivation. You cannot do a third order because the associations do not stay strong enough John Watson Credited with finding the school of behaviorism 3 Thought: That you can manipulate the environment and people’s behaviors you can make people into anything you want Believed there are three innate emotional responses: Love, Rage, and Fear Used his knowledge of classical conditioning and used it in marketing Little Albert: Watson’s test subject - Uses white rat (unconditioned stimulus) + Loud Noise (Unconditioned Stimulus) = crying - Eventually Albert eventually learns to be afraid of the white rat and all little furry things (Stimulus Generalization) without the loud noise. Importance of Classical Conditioning Drug Use - If you consistently use a drug with a certain person or in a particular environment and then no longer use the drug. If you see that particular person or place they will have the same reactions, experience, or craving when they were using the drug. Classical Conditioning and Immune System Example: People who had Chemo treatment (making their in the hopstial (ma 4 Taste Aversion- Avoiding a substance after becoming ill from ingesting it. John Garcia founded this by giving the rats sugar water and then injected them to make them sick then offered them sugar water again they did not take it. This only took one time and they wouldn’t touch sugar water again. John Garcia’s research emphasizes the importance of the evolutionary forces that shape the learning process After we become ill with one trail we will not take a chance of a second trial. Extinction may occur eventually and you will try the food after a certain time that or you can break it by forcing yourself to eat the food until the classical conditioning is broken Biological Preparedness- The idea that an organism is naturally born with the associations between certain stimuli and responses. - When the rats in the experiment were presented with the liquid that once made them ill, they associated the illness with the taste/smell of the liquid, not the bowl it was in or the place they drank it. Phobia- An irrational fear of an object, situation, or event. Joseph Wolpe Treatment: Systematic Desensitization Process: 1) Teach Relaxation Techniques: Deep breathing 2) Create Hierarchy: what is the least scariest part of the phobia and the scariest part of the phobia? Then 5 visualize gradually work up from the least scariest part to the scariest part. 3) Visualize Using Relaxation: When they become too panicked so you bring them back to relaxation techniques. What causes phobias: Previous embarrassment Tying your worth to the stressor - What causes PTSD: The stimuli that is occurring while the scaring event is happening they take in those stimuli and relate it to the event. Operant Conditioning & Observational Learning Operant Conditioning Edward L. Thorndike- A psychologist and student of William James who studied how animals learn and how voluntary behaviors are influenced by consequences. Studied how animals learn Used the puzzle box, the cats had to figure out how to get out of the box to get the food. Law of Effect- says that responses that are followed by favorable stimuli are strengthen and responses that are followed by unfavorable consequences are weakened. - This law later influenced B.F. Skinner’s development of Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning- where we change the probability of a behavior occurring again in the future by manipulating the consequences. 6 B.F. Skinner is credited for finding operant conditioning (he was a behaviorist who believed in nurture not nature) Skinner believed, like John Watson, that psychology should be restricted to only studying outward behaviors and environmental events. Three parts to Operant Conditioning 1) Operant- a voluntary behavior 2) Reinforcers or punishment- manipulation of behavior through positive or negative feedback - When you use reinforcements you are promoting the behavior with positive stimuli - Two different types of reinforcers Primary- Naturally occurring reinforcer (for humans: food, clothes, shelter Conditioned- A reinforcer that we have learned allows us to access primary reinforcers (Money because it can get us primary reinforcers (food, shelter, etc.) Positive reinforcement- giving or adding something to promote the behavior in the future Example: giving a dog a bone or a parent giving their child what they want after they were crying (promoting bad behavior with positive) 7 Negative Reinforcement (not the same as punishment)- Removing or avoiding something aversive to increase likely of the behavior occurring in the future. Example: You get a headache, you take Advil, the headache goes away, now you are more likely to take Advil again. 3) Punishment- decreasing the likelihood of the behavior occurring again in the future. Positive punishment- Giving something to decrease the likelihood of the behavior happening again Dog gets on the counter, owner yells at the dog (giving a command), dog gets down. Negative Punishment- Remove or take something away to decrease the likelihood of the behavior happening again. Teen breaks curfew, parents takes away car. In order for the punishment to work it must: 1. Punishment must be administer immediately 2. Must be severe enough to be effective 3. Consistent punishment Cons of Punishment 1. Does not teach or promote appropriate behavior 2. May promote anxiety, fear, or passivity 3. Effects are temporary Alternatives to Punishment Positive Reinforcement Reinforce an incompatible behavior Stop reinforcing the problem behavior Reinforce the non-occurrence of the problem behavior Any time that problem behavior is not occurring reward the person/animal 8 Remove the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement for bad behavior Example: Take a class clown out of the classroom so that other students do not encourage his bad behavior Premack Principle- Where we tie a dissatisfying task with a reinforcer Example- Tell a child if they clean up their toys they can do something they enjoy Look at the behavior and ask yourself “do you want the behavior to continue in the future or to stop?” If you want it to occur again it is Reinforcement. If you don’t want it to occur again it is punishment. Whether it is punishment or reinforcement, if you are giving/administering something it is positive, if you are taking away something it is negative. Operant conditioning and shaping Shaping- Where we take a behavior, break it into steps, and positively reinforce the completion of each step. Example: Teaching a dog to lay down: step 1) Teach to sit, when learned reward. 2) push them to lay down and give a treat Skinner- Worked with rats and pigeons and put them in a box with a food dispenser and a response recorder attached 9 Taught a rat to press a lever to get food by breaking the process down into steps (first being near the lever, then sniffing it, then touching it, and then actually pressing it) Discriminative Stimulus- A stimuli when present indicates that positive reinforcement will occur. When your phone rings you answer it because you know someone will be on the other end. So the ringing of the phone is the discriminative stimulus. Partial Reinforcement- Reinforce occasionally not every single time the behavior occurs Much stronger than positive reinforcement because you never know when the reward is going to come because you will continue to do it. Schedules of Reinforcements Fixed-Ratio: A set number of behavioral responses that must occur in order to receive positive reinforcement Variable-Ratio- An average number of behavioral responses before positive reinforcement occurs (so that the animal/person continues to do it. Example: slot machines) Fixed-Interval- A set amount of time must elapse before the positive reinforcement occurs Variable-Interval- An average amount of time must elapse before the positive reinforcement occurs. 10 Real World Applications: Behavioral Modifications Animal Training Children- Token Economy Systems: stickers, tickets, etc. they get those things after good behavior, save them, and then cash a certain amount in to get something they want. Autism- they lack social skills. So you reward them when they do the correct social skill. Promotion, bonus, win a trip, etc. in work Contemporary Views Edward C. Tolman- Researched rats and mazes. Discovered that when you block the rats’ normal route to the cheese they would climb over the walls to the cheese Cognitive Map- A mental representation of the environment Latent Learning- Where learning occurs without positive reinforcement but the positive reinforcement acts as an incentive to preform. Learned Helplessness- Is where after repetitive failures have occurred it will no longer attempt. When the dogs were classically conditioned to fear the sound they were harnessed in and couldn’t move when they were shocked. So, when they hear that sound when in the shuttle box they don’t jump over and they just sit and cower. 11 Learned Helplessness happens during depression when people try to do things repetitively that make them happy and they do not succeed so they don’t try any more. Instinct Drift- Where an animal will revert back to their natural tendencies regardless of how much conditioning has occurred. Albert Bandura- Founder of Observational Learning Did the experiments with the children and the bobo doll Children who watched the adults beat up the doll and not get punished demonstrated the same aggressive behavior towards the doll and came up with new ways to hurt the doll. The children who saw the adults beating up the doll and then got punished would not go near the doll until positive reinforcement was presented. Observational Learning- Learning by watching other’s behavior and the consequences of their behavior Some psychologists believe this is how most of our learning occurs. Where the idea of a role model comes from Requirements for observational learning to occur: 1. You must pay attention to the behavior 2. You have to be able to remember the other person’s behavior 3. You must be able to turn mental representations into physical actions 4. You must have some motivation to imitate behavior 12
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