Psychology 381 - Abnormal Psychology
Psychology 381 - Abnormal Psychology PSY 381-001 LEC (51711)
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
PSY 381-001 LEC (51711)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Aguirre on Wednesday July 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 381-001 LEC (51711) at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Judith Becker in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
Reviews for Psychology 381 - Abnormal Psychology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/27/16
Chapter 1: Example and Definitions of Abnormal Behavior Abnormal Psychology ● In countries such as the US, mental disorders are the second leading cause of diseaserelated disability and mortality ● At least 2 out of every 4 people will experience a serious form of abnormal behavior such as depression, alcoholism, or schizophrenia Overview ● Psychopathology: the symptoms and signs of mental disorders, including such phenomena as depressed mood, panic attacks, and bizarre beliefs ○ This term means pathology of the mind ● Abnormal psychology: the application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders ○ The line dividing normal from abnormal is not always clear Recognizing the Presence of a Disorder ● Psychosis: a general term that refers to several types of severe mental disorders in which the person is considered to be out of contact with reality ○ Schizophrenia is a form of psychosi ■ Mental disorders are usually defined by a set of characteristic features; one symptom by itself is seldom sufficient to make a diagnosis ● Syndrome: a group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder ○ The significance of any specific feature depends on whether the person also exhibits additional behaviors that are characteristic of a particular disorder ○ The duration of a person’s symptoms is also important ○ Mental disorder are defined in terms of persistent maladaptive behaviors ● Impairment in the ability to perform social and occupational roles is another consideration in identifying the presence of a mental disorder ● Insanity once referred to mental dysfunction but now refers to judgments about whether a person should be held responsible for criminal behavior if he or she is also mentally disturbed ● Nervous breakdown: when someone develops some sort of incapacitating but otherwise unspecified type of mental disorder ○ Does not convey specific info about the nature of the person’s problems Defining Abnormal Behavior ● Individual experience of personal distress ● Abnormal behavior can be defined in terms of subjective discomfort that leads the person to seek help from a mental health professional ○ Another way to define abnormal behavior is in terms of statistical norms how common or rare it is in the general population Harmful Dysfunction ● According to Jerome Wakefield a condition should be considered a mental disorder if, and only if, it meets two criteria: 1. The condition results from the inability of some internal mechanism (mental or physical) to perform its natural function. In other words something inside the person is not working properly. Examples of such mechanisms include those that regulate levels of emotion , and those that distinguish between real auditory sensations and those that are imagined 2. The condition causes some harm to the person as judged by the standards of the person’s culture. These negative consequences are measured in terms of the person’s own subjective distress or difficulty performing expected social or occupational roles ● A mental disorder is defined in terms of harmful dysfunction ○ The dysfunctions in mental disorders are assumed to be the product of disruptions of thought, feeling, communication, perception, and motivation ● Harmful dysfunction: a concept used in one approach to the definition of mental disorder. A condition can be considered a mental disorder if it causes some harm to the person and if the condition results from the inability of some mental mechanism to perform its natural function ○ This approach recognizes that every type of dysfunction does not lead to a disorder ○ The DSM5 (American Psychiatric Association) definition places primary emphasis on the consequences of certain behavioral syndromes ■ Mental disorders are defined by clusters of persistent, maladaptive behaviors that are associated with personal distress (e.g., anxiety or depression, impairment in social or occupational functioning) Mental Health vs. Absence of Disorder ● In the realm of psychological functioning, people who function at the highest levels can be described as flourishing ○ This term includes people who experience many positive emotions, are interested in life, and tend to be calm and peaceful Culture and Diagnostic Practice ● Culture: defined in terms of the values, beliefs, and practices that are shaped by a specific community or group of people. The values and beliefs have a profound influence on opinions regarding the difference between normal and abnormal behavior Who Experiences Abnormal Behavior? Frequency in and Impact on Community Populations ● Epidemiology: the scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population ○ Incidence: refers to the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time ○ Prevalence: refers to the total number of active cases, both old and new, that are present in a population during a specific period of time ■ Lifetime prevalence: the total population of people in a given population who have been affected by the disorder at some point during their lives Lifetime Prevalence and Gender Differences ● The NCSR found that 46% of the surveyed people received at least one lifetime diagnosis ● Major depression, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders are more common among women ● Alcoholism and antisocial personality are more common among men ● Bipolar disorder appear with equal frequency in both men and women ● Comorbidity: the presence of more than one condition within the same period of time (cooccurrence) CrossCultural Comparisons ● Psychotic disorders are less influenced by culture than are nonpsychotic disorders ● The symptoms of certain disorders are more likely to vary across cultures than are the disorders themselves Who Provides Help for People with Mental Disorders? ● Psychologists, psychiatrists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, and counselors ○ Many PCP’s provide medications as well Psychopathology in Historical Context The Greek Tradition in Medicine ● Hippocrates ○ Ridiculed demonological accounts of illness and insanity ○ Health depends on a balance of four bodily fluids ■ Blood ■ Black bile ■ Phlegm ■ Yellow bile ● Some common treatment modalities were the use of bloodletting, purging, and the use of heat and cold The Creation of the Asylum ● During the middle ages, disturbed behavior was considered to be the responsibility of the family, rather than the community or state ● Insane asylums: established in 1600s and 1700s to house the mentally disturbed ● Asylums were little more than human warehouses ● The moral treatment movement led to improved conditions in some asylums ● The period between 1790 and 1850 saw rapid popularization growth and the rise of large cities. ○ Increased urbanization of the American population was accompanied by a shift from an agricultural to an industrial economy ● Lunatic asylums (OG mental hospitals) were created to serve heavily populated cities and to assume responsibilities that had previously been performed by individual families ● In 1830 there were only four public mental hospitals in the US ○ Fewer than 200 pts ● By 1880 there were 75 public mental hospitals ○ More than 35,000 residents ● The creation of large institutions for the treatment of mental pts lead to the development of a new profession psychiatry ● The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII) later became the American Psychiatric Association (APA), was founded in 1844 ○ The creation of these institutions lead for the men to study various types of psychopathology over long periods of time Worcester Lunatic Hospital: A Model Institution ● Samuel Woodward became very well known throughout the US and Europe because of his claims that mental disorders could be cured just like other types of diseases ○ His ideas represented a combo of physical and moral considerations ■ Moral factors focused on the person’s lifestyle ○ If mental disorders were often caused by improper behavior and difficult life circumstances, presumably they could be cured by moving the person to a more appropriate and therapeutic environment ○ Moral treatments were combined with a mixture of physical procedures (like bleeding and purging) Methods for the Scientific Study of Mental Disorders ● Case Study: an in depth look at the symptoms and circumstances surrounding one person’s mental disturbance ○ A careful description and analysis of the problems experienced by one person ■ Detailed case studies can provide an exhaustive catalog of the symptoms that the person displayed, the manner in which these symptoms emerged, the developmental and family history that preceded the onset of the disorder, and whatever response the person may have shown to treatment efforts ■ Limitation of case study can be viewed from many different perspectives and it is risky to draw general conclusions about a disorder from a single example Hypothesis: a prediction about the expected findings in a scientific study Null hypothesis: the prediction that an experimental hypothesis is not true. Scientists must assume that the null hypothesis holds until research contradicts it Chapter 2: Causes of Abnormal Behavior Abnormal Psychology ● Etiology: the cause ○ The etiology of most abnormal behavior is unknown ● Paradigm: A set of assumptions both about the substance of a theory and about how scientists should collect data and test theoretical propositions. The term was applied to the progress of science by Thomas Kuhn, an influential historian and philosopher ● Most psychological scientists suspect that abnormal behavior is caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors ● Biopsychological model: A view of the etiology of mental disorders that assumes that disorders can best be understood in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and social systems Brief Historical Perspective The Biological Paradigm ● General paresis (general paralysis) ● The biological paradigm looks for biological abnormalities that cause abnormal behavior (e.g., brain diseases, brain injuries, or genetic disorders) ● General paresis is caused by syphilis ○ Gave hope that scientists would discover biological causes for other mental disorders ○ General paresis made people feel like they were the greatest The Psychodynamic Paradigm ● The psychodynamic paradigm asserts that abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious mental conflicts that have roots in early childhood experience ● Freud was trained by Jean Charcot, a neurologist ● Psychoanalytic theory: a paradigm for conceptualizing abnormal behavior based on the concepts and writings of Sigmund Freud. Highlights unconscious processes and conflicts as causing abnormal behavior and emphasizes psychoanalysis as the treatment of choice ● Id: One of Freud’s three central personality structures. In Freudian theory, the id is present at birth and is the source of basic drives and motivations. The id houses biological drives (such as hunger) as well as Freud’s two key psychological drives, sex, and aggression. ○ Operates according to the pleasure principle the impulses of the id seek immediate gratification and create discomfort or unrest until they are satisfied ○ E.g., When you are hungry, you remain hungry until you have eaten ● Ego: The ego must deal with reality as it attempts to fulfill id impulses as well as superego demands. The ego operates on the reality principle, and much of the ego resides in conscious awareness ○ Ego begins to develop in the first year of life and continues to evolve particularly during preschool years ● Superego: The superego contains societal standards of behavior, particularly rules that children learn from identifying with their parents. The superego attempts to control id impulses ○ Superego is equivalent to your conscious ● Conflict between the superego and the ego is moral anxiety ● Conflict between the id and ego is neurotic anxiety ● Defense mechanisms: unconscious processes that service the ego and reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxietyproducing memories, emotions, and impulses for example, projection, displacement, or rationalization Defense Mechanisms Denial Insistence that an experience, memory, or need did not occur or does not exists. E.g., you completely block a painful experience from your memory Displacement Feelings or actions are transferred from one person or object to another that is less threatening. E.g., you kick your dog when you are upset with your boss Projection Attributing one’s own feelings or thoughts to other people. E.g., a husband argues that his wife is angry at him when, in fact, he is angry with her Rationalization Intellectually justifying a feeling or event. E.g., after not getting the offer, you decide that a job you applied for was not the one you really wanted Reaction Formation Converting a painful or unacceptable feeling into its opposite. E.g., you “hate” a former lover, but underneath it all you still really love that person Repression Suppressing threatening material from consciousness but without denial. E.g., you “forget” about an embarrassing experience Sublimation Diverting id impulses into constructive and acceptable outlets. E.g., you study hard to get good grade rather than giving into desire for immediate pleasure The CognitiveBehavioral Paradigm ● Wilhelm Wundt: ○ Scientific study of psychological phenomena ● Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning ● B. F. Skinner Operant conditioning ● The foundations of the cognitive behavioral paradigm view abnormal behavior as a product of learning ● Classical conditioning: learning through association and it involves four key components: ○ Unconditioned stimulus (the meat powder) the stimulus that automatically produces the unconditioned response (the salivation). A conditioned stimulus (the bell) is a neutral stimulus that when repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to produce a conditioned response (salivation) ● Extinction: occurs once a conditioned stimulus no longer is paired with an unconditioned stimulus ● Operant conditioning: a learning theory asserting that behavior is a function of its consequences. Specifically, behavior increases if it is rewarded, and it decreases if it is punished ○ Positive reinforcement is when the onset of a stimulus increases the frequency of behavior (e.g., you get paid for work) ○ Negative reinforcement is when the cessation of a stimulus increases the frequency of behavior (you give in to a nagging friend) ○ Punishment is when the onset of a stimulus decreases the frequency of behavior (you are quiet after a teacher’s scolding) ○ Response cost is when the cessation of a stimulus decreases the frequency of behavior (you stop talking back when your parents take away your allowance) ● John B. Watson ○ Influential proponent of applying learning theory to human behavior ○ Behaviorism ■ Observable behavior is the only appropriate subject for the science of psychology The Humanistic Paradigm ● An explicitly positive view of human nature ● The humanistic paradigm argues that human behavior is the product of free will, the view that we control, choose, and are responsible for our actions ○ This stance is a reaction against determinism, the scientific assumption that human behavior is caused by potentially knowable factors ○ Impossible to determine the causes of abnormal behavior according to humanistic paradigm ○ Humanistic psychologists blame abnormal behavior on society not on the individual Systems Theory ● Systems theory: an integrative approach to science, one that embraces not only the importance of multiple contributions to causality but also their interdependence ● Integrative approach to science ● Offers important perspective on causes of abnormal behavior ● Includes biopsychosocial model ● Includes elements of each of the four paradigms ● Highlights the need to understand the ecology of human behavior Holism ● Holism is the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts ● Holistic medicine, for example, focuses not just on physical illness, but on health, psychological, and social needs ● Reductionism: attempts to understand problems by focusing on smaller and smaller units suggesting that the smaller (or most molecular) account is the “true” cause ● Biological, psychological, and social views of abnormal behavior each use a different lens; one is a microscope, another a magnifying glass, and the third a telescope Causality ● Equifinality: indicates that there are many routes to the same destination (or disorder) **also think multiple pathways ● Multifinality: same event can lead to multiple outcomes ● Diathesis: predisposition to developing a disorder (e.g., an inherited tendency toward depression) ● Stress: A difficult experience; risk factors may contribute to mental disorders ● Reciprocal causality: causality operated in both directions ● Correlational study: a scientific research method in which the relation between two factors (their corelation) is studien in a systematic fashion. Has the advantage of practicality, as correlation between many variables can be studied in the real world, but also has the disadvantage that “correlation does not mean causation” ● Correlation coefficient: a number that always ranges between 1.00 and +1.00 and indicates the strength and directions between two variables. A higher absolute value indicates a stronger relation, while a correlation coefficient of 0 indicates no relation. The sign indicates the direction of the correlation ● Reverse causality: Indication that causation could be operating in the opposite direction: Y could be causing X instead of X causing Y. A threat to interpretation is correlational studies, and a basic reason why correlation does not mean causation. ● Third variable: an unmeasured factor that may account for a correlation observed between any two variables. A threat to interpretation in correlational studies, and a basic reason why correlation does not mean causation Developmental Psychology ● Developmental psychology: An approach to abnormal psychology that emphasizes the importance of normal developmental to understanding abnormal behavior ○ Developmental norms tell us that a fullblown temper tantrum is normal at 2 years of age, for example, but that kicking and screaming to get your own way is abnormal at the age of 22 ● Premorbid history: a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of the disorder ● Prognosis: predictions about the future course of a disorder with or without treatment Biological Factors ● Anatomy: biological structure ● Physiology: biological functions The Neuron and Neurotransmitters ● Neurons: The nerve cells that form the basic building blocks of the brain. Each neuron is composed of the soma (cell body), the dendrites, the axon, and the terminal buttons ○ Soma: the cell body and largest part of the neuron. Most of the neuron’s metabolism and maintenance are controlled and performed ○ Dendrites: receive messages from other cells ○ Axon: the trunk of the cell, messages are transmitted down the axon toward other cells ○ Axon terminal: the end of the axon, where messages are sent out to other neurons ● Synapse: a small gap filled with fluid that lies between the axon of one neuron and a dendrite or soma of another neuron ● Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that are released into the synapse between two neurons and carry signals from the terminal button of one neuron to the receptors of another ● Receptors: sites on the dendrites or soma of a neuron that are sensitive to certain neurotransmitters ● Schizophrenia dopamine ● Depression serotonin ● Reuptake: (reabsorption) the process of recapturing some neurotransmitters in the synapse before they reach the receptors of another cell and returning the chemical substances to the terminal button. The neurotransmitter then is reused in subsequent neural transmission ● Dualism: The philosophical view that the mind and body are separate. Dates to the writings of the philosopher Rene Descartes, who attempted to balance the dominant religious views of his time with emerging scientific reasoning. Descartes argues that many human functions have biological explanations, but some human experiences have no somatic representation. Thus, he argues for a distinction a dualism between mind and body ● fMRI detects blood flow which maps brain activity ○ This technique can be used to detect schizophrenia and depression ● The regions that are becoming more heritable in the brain are the ones that we just recently acquired through evolution and they are also more susceptible to mental disorders ● 50% of disorders occur during adolescence ● Frontal lobe = impulse control Major Brain Structures ● Basic bodily functions are regulated by the structures of the hindbrain, which include the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. (Few forms of abnormal behavior are linked to the hindbrain) ● The midbrain is involved in the control of some motor activities, especially those related to fighting and sex ○ The reticular activating system regulates sleeping and walking ● Most of the human brain consists of the forebrain. ○ The site of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processes ● Limbic system: A variety of brain structures, including the thalamus and hypothalamus, that are central to the regulation of emotion and basic learning processes ○ The thalamus received and integrates sensory info from both the sense organs and higher brain structures ○ The hypothalamus controls basic biological urges, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity Cerebral Hemispheres ● Cerebral hemispheres: the two major structures of the forebrain and the site of most sensory, emotional Psychological Factors ● Attachment ○ Early on a child’s development they must develop a healthy bond with an adult ● Temperament ○ Characteristic styles of relating to the world ● Emotions ○ Internal feeling states ● Learning and Cognition ○ Modeling: Albert Bandura ■ Learning through imitation ■ Bobo doll study ○ Attributions ■ Perceived causes or people’s beliefs about cause effect relation Social Factors ● Close Relationships ○ Social Relationships ■ Social support: the emotional and practical assistance received from others ○ Gender and Gender Roles ■ Gender roles may influence the development, expression, or consequences of psychopathology ● Prejudice, Poverty, and Society ○ Prejudice and poverty increase the risk of psychological disorders ○ Poverty increases exposure to stressors and chemical toxins ○ Societal practices, beliefs, and values help shape the education of abnormal behavior Chapter 3 Treatments of Psychological Disorders Abnormal Psychology ● Psychotherapy: The use of psychological techniques and the therapistclient relationship to produce emotional, cognitive, and behavioral change ● Health professionals describe themselves as eclectic, meaning they use different treatments for different disorders ● Evidencebased treatments: The practical and scientific approach to therapy ● According to Kessler et al (2005), about ⅔ of people with a diagnosable disorder fail to receive treatment Table 3.1 Comparison of Biological, Psychodynamic, CognitiveBehavioral, and Humanistic Treatments Topic: Biological Psychodynamic Cognitive Humanistic Behavioral Goal of Alter biology to Gain insight into Learn more Increase Treatment relieve defense/ adaptive emotional psychological unconscious behaviors/cogniti awareness distress motivations ons Primary method Diagnosis, Interpretation of Instruction, Empathy, medication defenses guided learning, support, homework exploring emotions Role of therapist Active, directive, Passive, Active, directive, Passive, diagnostician nondirective, nonjudgmental, nondirective, interpreter (may teacher warm, supporter be aloof) Length of Brief, with Usually long Short term, with Varies; length Treatment occasional term; some new later “booster” not typically followup visits short term sessions structured treatments Biological Treatments 1. A diagnosis is developed and refined 2. Clues about causes are put together 3. Scientists experiment with various treatments for preventing or curing the disorder until an effective treatment is found ● Scientists often search for biological treatments without knowing a disorders specific cause ○ The treatments focus on symptom alleviation: reducing the dysfunctional symptoms of a disorder but not eliminating its root cause Psychopharmacology ● Psychopharmacology: the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances ○ Psychotropic medications: chemical substances that affect psychological state, used to treat various mental disorders ● Two antipsychotic medications: abilify and seroquel, 5th and 6th most prescribed medications in 2011, used for treating anxiety and depression ● 21% of American women, and half as many men, are taking antidepressants ● Antipsychotic drugs are also highly prescribed 1. Medication often is an effective and safe treatment 2. Psychotropic medications do not cure underlying causes, but symptom alleviation still is extremely important 3. Many psychotropic drugs must be taken for a long time a. Medications do not produce a cure 4. All medications have side effects, some of which are unpleasant 5. Most psychotropic medications are prescribed by PCP’s not psychiatrists 6. Americans are too eager to find a pill to solve all their problems Table 3.2 Major Categories of Medications for Treating Psychological Disorders Therapeutic Use Chemical Structure or Psychopharmacologic Action Antipsychotics (major tranquilizers or Phenothiazines neuroleptics) Thioxanthenes Butyrophenones Rauwolfia alkaloids Atypical neuroleptics Antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Atypical antidepressants Psychomotor stimulants Amphetamines Other Antimanic Metallic element Anticonvulsants Antianxiety (minor tranquilizers) Benzodiazepines Triazolobenzodiazepine Sedative hypnotic Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Antipanic Benzodiazepines SSRIs Antiobsessional TCA SSRIs Electroconvulsive Therapy ● Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): a treatment that involves the deliberate induction of a convulsion by passing electricity through one or both hemispheres of the brain. Modern ECT uses restraints, medication, and carefully controlled electrical stimulation to minimize adverse consequences. Can be an effective treatment for severe depression, especially following the failure of other approaches ○ Developed by Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini in 1938 ○ ECT involved 6 to 12 sessions over the course of a few weeks ○ Electrical current is approx. 100v ○ Bilateral ECT, electrodes are placed on the left and right temples, and the current passes through both brain hemispheres ○ Unilateral ECT, the current is passed through only one side of the brain, the nondominant hemisphere ■ Produces less retrograde amnesia loss of memory of past events ■ Unilateral ECT is less effective than bilateral ECT Psychosurgery ● psychosurgery : the surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain ● Developed by Egas Moniz in 1935 ● Nearly 10,00020,000 procedures were done in the US ● Eventually discredited ● Cingulotomy: lesioning pinpointed regions of the cingulate cortex, may help very severe cases of obsessivecompulsive disorder Psychodynamic Psychotherapies ● Psychodynamic psychotherapies seek to uncover inner conflicts and bring them into conscious awareness Freudian Psychoanalysis ● Catharsis: the release of previously unexpressed feelings ● Free association: to speak freely about whatever thoughts cross your mind ○ Reveals aspects of the unconscious mind ● Psychoanalysis: Freud’s orthodox form of psychotherapy that is practiced rarely today because of its time, expense, and questionable effectiveness in treating mental disorders. Freud viewed the task of psychoanalysis as promoting insight by uncovering the unconscious conflicts and motivations that cause psychological difficulties Psychoanalytic techniques ● Insight: bringing formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness ● Interpretation: the analyst suggests hidden meanings to patient’s accounts of their life ● Resistance: the patient must be on the verge of discovering the hidden meaning himself/herself; otherwise, the interpretation will be rejected ● Therapeutic neutrality: one essential element in probing the unconscious mind, maintaining a distant stance toward the patient in order to minimize the therapist’s personal influence ● Transference: the process whereby patients transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure ● Countertransference: psychoanalysts must not let their own feelings influence their responses to their patients ● According to Freud, defenses are essential for the functioning of a healthy personality ○ One goal of psychoanalysis is replace defenses ○ A second goal of psychoanalysis is to help patients become more aware of their basic needs so that they may find appropriate outlets for them The Decline of Freudian Psychoanalysis ● Requires substantial amount of time, expense, and selfexploration ● Very little research has been conducted on its effectiveness ● Psychodynamic psychotherapy: An “uncovering” form of psychotherapy in which the therapist typically is more engaged and directive, the process is considerable less lengthy than in psychoanalysis ○ Therapists are more actively involved w/ patients than psychoanalysts Ego Analysis ● Emphasized the role of the ego (e.g., the mediator between the id and the superego) ● Ego analysts are concerned not only with unconscious motivations, but also with the patient’s dealings with the external world ○ Ego analysts: Sullivan, Horney, and Erikson ● Interpersonal power ranges from dominance to submission ● Interpersonal closeness ranges from love to hate Psychodynamic Psychotherapy ● Shortterm psychodynamic psychotherapy: a form of treatment that uses many psychoanalytic techniques. ○ Therapeutic neutrality is typically maintained, and transference remains a central issue ○ Therapy focuses on a particular emotional issue rather than relying on free association ○ Limited to 25 or fewer sessions and is less expensive and more amenable to research ● Interpersonal therapy (IPT): An evidencebased approach to treatment emphasizing the historical importance of close relationships to the development of both normal and problematic emotions and patterns of relating to others. Used particularly in the treatment of depression, IPT uses the past to better understand and directly make changes in the present CognitiveBehavior Therapy ● CognitiveBehavior Therapy (CBT): The expansion of the scope of behavior therapy to include cognition and research on human information processing. Includes various general techniques, such as Beck’s cognitive therapy and Ellis’s RET ○ Collaborative therapistclient relationships ○ Focuses on the present ○ Direct efforts to change problems ○ Use of researchbased techniques ● Beginnings of CBT can be traced to John B. Watson’s behaviorism ○ Early behavior therapists relied heavily on classical conditioning (Pavlov) and operant conditioning (Skinner) ● Today, CBT incorporates many learning principles based on cognitive psychology ● Embraces empirical evaluation ● Asks, “What works?” Systematic Desensitization ● Systematic desensitization: A technique for eliminating fears that has three key elements. ○ The first, is relaxation training using progressive muscle relaxation: a method of inducing a calm state by tightening and then relaxing all the major muscle groups ○ The second is constructing a hierarchy of fears ranging from very mild to very intense (allows clients to confront fears gradually) ○ The third part is the learning process, maintaining relaxation while confronting everincreasing fears ● Systematic desensitization was developed by Joseph Wolpe, a South African psychiatrist Other Exposure Therapies ● Exposure: in order to conquer your fears, you must face them ● In vivo desensitization: gradually confronting fears in real life while simultaneously maintaining a state of relaxation ● Flooding, in contrast involves confronting fears at full intensity Aversion Therapy ● Aversion therapy is to create, not eliminate, an unpleasant response (uses classical conditioning) ● Used mostly in treating substance abusers ● Effectiveness is not clear ● Relapses rates are high Contingency Management ● Contingency management: directly changes rewards and punishments for identified behaviors ● A contingency is a relationship between a behavior and its consequences; contingency management involves changing this relationship ● Goal: reward desirable behavior systematically and to extinguish or punish undesirable behavior Social Skills Training ● Social skills training: teaches clients new ways of behaving that are both desirable and likely to be rewarded in everyday life ○ Assertiveness training: teaches clients to be direct about their feelings and wishes ○ Role playing: rehearses new social skills ○ Social problemsolving: a multistep process that has been used to teach children and adults ways to go about solving various of life’s problems Cognitive Techniques ● Attribution retraining: based on the idea that people are “intuitive scientists” who are constantly drawing conclusions about the causes of events in their lives ● Selfinstruction training: adults model an appropriate behavior ○ Children are asked to repeat the action ○ Develop internalization which helps children to learn internal controls over their behavior Beck’s Cognitive Therapy ● Cognitive therapy: a psychotherapy technique and important part of cognitive behavior therapy that was developed by Aaron Beck specifically as a treatment for depression. Beck’s cognitive therapy involves challenging negative cognitive distortions through a technique called collaborative empiricism ○ Beck believed that depression is caused by errors in thinking ○ Challenges cognitive errors by having clients analyze their thoughts more carefully RationalEmotive Therapy ● RationalEmotive Therapy is designed to challenge cognitive distortions ● According to Albert Ellis, emotional disorders are caused by irrational beliefs, absolute, unrealistic views of the world, such as “Everyone must love me all the time” ○ Major diff. from CBT is that it challenges client’s beliefs during the therapy “ThirdWave” CBT ● Thirdwave CBT treatments focus on broad, abstract principles such as acceptance, mindfulness, values, and relationships ○ Emphasizes acceptance of unwanted thoughts/feelings rather than suppress/get rid of them ● Dialectical behavior therapy, a treatment for borderline personality disorder, includes a “mindfulness” increases awareness of your feelings, thoughts, and motivations ● Acceptance and commitment therapy: valuesoriented approach used in treating a variety of disorders and problems, encourages accepting oneself, not just making changes Humanistic Therapies ● Humanistic psychotherapy: an approach that assumes that the most essential human quality is the ability to make choices and freely act on them (free will). Promoted as a “third force” to counteract the deterministic views of psychodynamic and the behavioral approaches to psychotherapy ● Views the therapistclient relationship as the method of change ClientCentered Therapy ● Clientcentered therapy: Carl Roger’s humanistic therapy that follows the client’s lead. Therapists offer warmth, empathy, and genuineness, but clients solve their own problems ● Empathy: emotional understanding, involves putting yourself in someone else’s shoes and conveying your understanding of that person’s feelings and perspectives ● Selfdisclosure: revealing some personal feelings and experiences as a way of helping clients to better understand themselves ● Unconditional positive regard: valuing clients for who they are ● Therapeutic alliance: bond between a therapist and client Therapies That May Harm Name Brief Description Potential Harm Critical incident stress “Processing” trauma soon Increased risk for debriefing after the experience posttraumatic stress symptoms Scared straight Seasoned inmates scare Increased conduct problems youth about consequences of criminality Facilitated communication Facilitator helps impaired False accusations of child individual type on keyboard abuse Rebirthing therapy Wrapped tightly in sheets Physical injury, death while group resists struggle to be “reborn” Recovered memories Encouragement to “recover” Creation of false memories memories of trauma Boot camps Delinquent youth sent to Increased conduct problems military style camp DARE programs Preadolescent children Increases substance abuse education about danger of drugs Research on Psychotherapy ● Psychotherapy outcome research: examines the outcome, or result, of psychotherapy its effectiveness for relieving symptoms, eliminating disorders, and/or improving life functioning ● Metaanalysis: a statistical procedure that allows researchers to combine the results from different studies in a standardized way ○ The average benefit of psychotherapy is .85 standard deviation units Improvement without Treatment? ● ⅔ of clients improve as a result of psychotherapy ○ Spontaneous remission (improvement w/o treatment) ● Hans Eysenck said that psychotherapy was ineffective because of spontaneous remission The Placebo Effect ● Placebo effect: the improvement in a conditioned produced by a placebo (sometimes a substantial change). An overriding goal of scientific research is to identify treatments that exceed placebo effects ● Any type of treatment that contains no known active ingredient for the condition at hand Efficacy and Effectiveness ● Tightly controlled experiments provide important information about the efficacy of psychotherapy, that is, whether the treatment can work under prescribed circumstances ● Such studies provide little information about the effectiveness of the treatment whether the therapy does work in the real world ● Consumer Reports: psychotherapy helps many people in the real world, not just in the lab ● Allegiance effect: the tendency of researchers to find that their favorite treatment the one to which they hold allegiance is most effective When Does Psychotherapy Work? ● Depends on the nature of client’s problem, duration of therapy, and client’s background ● Clients improve more in psychotherapy when they are “young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, and successful ● Men are considerable less likely than women to seek therapy Psychotherapy Process Research ● Psychotherapy process research, an approach that examines what aspects of the therapistclient interaction account for better outcomes Common Factors ● Much of the effectiveness of different psychotherapies is explained by common factors ○ E.g., basketball and soccer differ greatly, but participating in these sports have a common factor and that is that they are both forms of exercise ● Motivational interviewing: an evidence based treatment developed to treat alcohol abuse Psychotherapy as Social Influence ● Client relationship with his/her therapist ● Client’s tend to adopt beliefs similar to those of their therapists ○ Treatment is more effective when this happens Pain Relief? ● Psychological pain motivates seeking psychological help Couple, Family, and Group Therapy Couple Therapy ● Couple therapy: involves seeing intimate partners together in therapy ○ Sometimes called marital therapy or marriage counseling ○ The goal is to improve the relationship, not the individual by improving communication and negotiation skills and working on conflict resolution ○ Can be used for treatment of depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and child behavior problems ○ Supplement to individual therapy Family therapy ● Family therapy might include two, three, or more family members in a treatment designed to improve communication, negotiate conflicts, and perhaps change relationships and roles ● Parent management training is an approach that teaches parents new skills for rearing troubled children ● A family therapist might call attention to the pattern of family alliances among family members ○ Wellfunctioning families, the primary alliance is between two parents ● Family Systems Therapy ○ Emphasize interdependence among family members and the importance of viewing the individual within the family system Group Therapy ● Group therapy involves treating several people facing similar emotional problems or life issues ● Psychoeducational groups reach specific psychological information or life skills ○ The term psychoeducational aptly conveys that teaching is the primary mode of treatment ● Two basic reasons for offering therapy in groups: ○ Less expensive ○ Social support ● In experimental group therapy relationships are the primary mode of treatment ● Selfhelp groups bring people together who face a common problem and who seek to help themselves and each other by sharing information and experiences ● Technically not therapy groups Prevention ● Social institutions, school, and work environments contribute to mental health and so do poverty, racism, and sexism ● Community psychology attempts to improve individual wellbeing by promoting social change ● Primary prevention tries to improve the environment in order to prevent new cases of a mental disorder from developing ● Secondary prevention focuses on the early detection of emotional problems in the hope of preventing them from becoming more serious ● Tertiary prevention: may involve any of the treatments, because the intervention occurs after the illness has been identified Chapter 4: Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior Abnormal Psychology Definitions: ● Actuarial interpretation: analysis of test results based on an explicit set of rules derived from empirical research ● Assessment: The process of gathering and organizing information about a person’s behavior ● Categorical approach to classification: a view of classification based on the assumption that there are qualitative differences between normal and abnormal behavior as well as between one form of abnormal behavior and other forms of abnormal behavior ● Classification system: a system of grouping together objects or organisms that share certain properties in common. In psychopathology, the set of categories in DSM05 that describes mental disorders ● Comorbidity: the simultaneous manifestation of more than one disorder ● Cultural concepts of distress: patterns of erratic or unusual thinking and behavior that have been identified in diverse societies around the world and do not fit easily into the other diagnostic categories that are listed in the main body of DSM5 ● Diagnosis: the process of determining the nature of a person’s disorder. In the case of psychopathology, deciding that a person fits into a particular diagnostic category, such as schizophrenia or major depressive disorder ● Dimensional approach to classification: a view of classification based on the assumption that behavior is distributed on a continuum from normal to abnormal. Also includes the assumption that differences between one type of behavior and another are quantitative rather than qualitative in nature ● Personality inventory: sometimes called an objective personality test, it consists of a series of straightforward statements that the person is requires to rate or endorse as being either true or false in relation to themselves ● Projective tests: personality tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test, in which the person is asked to interpret a series of ambiguous stimuli ● Rating scale: an assessment tool in which the observer is asked to make judgments that place the person somewhere along a dimension ● Reactivity: the influence of an observer’s presence on the behavior of the person who is being observed ● Reliability: the consistency of measurements, including diagnostic decisions. One index of reliability is agreement among clinicians ● Stigma: a negative stamp or label that sets the person apart from others, connects the person to undesirable features, and leads others to reject the person ● Validity: the meaning or systematic importance of a construct or a measurement B
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'