Sociology 005 Study Guide Exam 1
Sociology 005 Study Guide Exam 1
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Date Created: 07/27/16
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM I, SOC 005 Your first exam is scheduled for Monday February 15. It will cover Chapters 15 and contain 50 multiplechoice questions, approximately 10 questions per chapter. At the end of this study guide, I have provided a few sample questions. These questions will not appear on your test. They are only intended to provide you with a preview of the wording and format of the exam questions. Feel free to bring your questions to class or see me during office hours MWF, 3:004:00, in Smith 128E. CHAPTER 1: STUDYING SOCIAL PROBLEMS 1. Discuss the sociological imagination and explain how it helps us to recognize that our personal troubles are rooted in the operation of society. a. The point of view that highlights how the society affects the experiences we have and the choices we make. Gives our ideas power to make change. 2. Describe how people’s ideas about what constitutes serious social problems change over time. a. (Subjective) 3. Discuss the social constructionist approach, and explain how subjective perceptions and objective facts play a part in the social construction of social problems. a. The assertion that social problems arise as people defined conditions as undesirable and in need of change. Social problems have a subjective foundation reflecting peoples judgments about their world. 4. Explain the process of claims making and how it relates to the construction of social problems. a. For anything to become a social problem there needs to be a group of people that make a claim that the issue should be defined this way first. The process of convincing the public that a certain issue should be a social problem. 5. Identify the basic assertions that sociologists make in their approach to social problems. a. 1. Social problems result from the ways in which society operates b. 2. Social problems are not caused by bad people 1 (Source: Adapted from Instructor’s Manual for John Macionis 2013, Social Problems, 5 edition, published by Pearson Education) c. 3. Problems are socially constructed as people define a condition as harmful and in need of change d. 4. People see problems differently e. 5. Definiton of problems change over time f. 6. Problems involve subjective values as well as objective facts g. 7. Many but not all social problems can be solved h. 8. Various social problems are related 6. Discuss the importance of the global perspective in studying social problems. a. Shows some social problems cross national boundaries/ perspective of the whole world and being aware that life challenges can be different elsewhere. i. Example: increased population threatens the wellbeing of the whole planet 7. Discuss the structural functional approach, the social conflict approach, and the symbolic interaction approach as they are employed when analyzing social problems. a. Structural functional: society as a system of many interrelated parts i. Functional ii. Dysfucntional 1. Poverty(Dysfucntional: blamed on culture, Fucntional: used as motivation) b. Social conflict: Divided by inequality and conflict (Marxist theory, rich vs. poor) i. Multiculturalism: social problems in terms as race and ethnicity c. Symbolic interaction: sees society as the product of individuals interacting with one another i. Learning theory: why certain people are getting into crime or poverty and others don’t ii. Labeling theory: How situations are labeled (students think drinking is okay, adults don’t) 8. Explain how surveys, field research, experimental research, and secondary analysis are used as sociological research methods, and recognize their strengths and weaknesses. a. Surveys close ended questions, phone and email i. Neg: one answer, hard to find people ii. Pos: can be easy to find Field research observing ppl in their everyday activites Pos: Hands on Neg: if someone knows they are being watched or surveyed they will act differently Experimental research investigating the cause and effect relationships under tightly controlled conditions Pos control what you want to test Neg in lab, controlled group Secondary Analysis: uses data originally collected by others Pos work is already done for you Neg don’t know if its reliable/bias 9. Explain how one’s position on the political spectrum guides the construction of social problems and defines solutions. CHAPTER 2: POVERTY AND WEALTH 1. Discuss social stratification and social class. a. Layers/levels into different groups on income and wealth. The top of the pyramid is the rich( majority of the money goes to top 10%) the bottome being the poor. 2. Distinguish between wealth and income. a. Income: earnings b. Wealth: Assets (car, house, property) 3. Describe the distribution of wealth and income in the United States today. a. Not distributed equally. 4. Discuss the “poverty line.” a. Absolute poverty: endangers life b. Relatively poverty: person has less resources compared to average standard of living, takes a toll gradually. 5. Explain the relationships between poverty and: age, race, gender, family patterns, and region. a. Family background: inheritance b. Age: children c. Gender: women d. Religion: south 6. Explain how poverty in the United States is linked to poor health, substandard housing, homelessness, limited schooling, crime, and political alienation. a. Limited resources/ less fortunate, hard to get out of poverty bc it starts at a young age 7. Provide an overview of the history of social welfare in the United States. a. Colonial era: small communities, charity, considered neighbors that need a helping hand b. Early industrial: “Poor houses”, charged with vagrancy, became unconstitutional c. 20 century: New Deal program, great depression d. late 20 century: back lash, welfare reform, restrictions on who is eligible 8. Explain how the welfare system changed as a result of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. a. Intended to increase personal responsibilities of the poor by requiring abled people to seek benefits to find a job or enroll in job training. The program limits the period of time to 5 years of your life for the benefits. People are still in poverty but aren’t relying on welfare as much. Reduced by 50% 9. Apply the structural functional, symbolic interaction, and social conflict approaches, including the theories discussed for each approach, to the issue of poverty. a. Chapter 1 10. Explain what is meant by the feminization of poverty. a. Raising children by themselves b. Feminism: men have higher income 11. Compare and contrast how conservatives, liberals construct the issue of income inequality. a. Conservatives: express the feelings among themselves b. Liberals: take it to the government and try to create laws CHAPTER 3: RACIAL & ETHNIC INEQUALITY 1. Distinguish between race and ethnicity. a. Race: socially constructed i. Arbitrary: the features we choose to define by are based on random choice b. Ethnicity: culture, language, and religion 2. Explain how race is socially constructed. 3. Discuss the effects of immigration on the diversity of the U.S. population. 4. Explain the patterns of majorityminority interaction: genocide, segregation, assimilation, and pluralism. a. Genocide: one group systematically destroys the other group b. Explosion: deportation (forcing them out) c. Segregation: (Put up a wall) separate but equal i. De facto: in practice ii. De jure: by law 5. Provide a brief history of the major minority groups in the U.S.: Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic/Latino Americans. a. Native Americans: Government took their land b. African Americans: Slavery c. Asian Americans: Economic threat, denied work (Chinese exclusion act, immigrants weren’t allowed) d. Hispanics/ Latino Americans: largest ethnic group in America, bringing work. Able to vote 6. Describe the current social standing of the largest minority groups in the U.S.: Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic/Latino Americans. a. Native Americas: remain disadvantaged/ under privileged b. African Americans: Mostly poverty and have lower income c. Asian Americans: Far better than most minorities d. Hispanic: largest ethnic group 7. Define prejudice. a. Attitude, prejudgment stereotypes 8. Discuss how prejudice, stereotypes, and racism help to perpetuate disadvantage for less powerful groups. 9. Describe the social distance study and compare contemporary findings with historical findings. a. Social Distance study: Prejudice among the colleges and university People are more willing to interact with minorities, colleges are making more of an effort to have minorities in school. 10. Present both sides of the debate about affirmative action, as reverse discrimination and as a cure for prejudice. a. Affirmative action i. Reverse discrimination: ii. Prejudice: “Quota systems” 11. Compare and contrast the structural functional, symbolic interaction, and social conflict perspectives on racial and ethnic inequality. CHAPTER 4: GENDER INEQUALITY 1. Explain the difference between sex and gender. a. Sex: biological characteristics b. Gender: Sociological i. Identification ii. Masculine vs. feminine 2. Distinguish between matriarchy and patriarchy, describe the prevalence of each on a global scale, and explain how culture is involved in shaping gender prejudice and discrimination. a. Global: women are closer to equality to men in high income nations and men have more control over women in low income nations b. Culture: Masculine and feminine 3. Explain how gender influences family, education, mass media, politics, religion, the military, and work. a. Family: gender shapes our experience of marriage. Many prefer boys over girls, even killing new born girls b. Education: stereotypes c. Mass Media: Men are more the lead roles and women have supporting roles. Men get paid more d. Politics: Patriarchy/ women gaining right to vote now moving up to positions such as mayors. e. Religion: give power and privilege to men. Good women were obedient to men, rebellious women were banished and feared f. Military: limiting women’s opportunities/ sexual assault g. Work: glass ceiling, men make more. gender inequality 4. Discuss gender inequality income in the U.S. 5. Discuss the glass ceiling. 6. Explain how patriarchy is related to differences between men and women in responsibility for housework. 7. Discuss the relationship between patriarchy and men’s physical violence against women. 8. Discuss sexual harassment and identify the forms that it can take. a. Quid pro quo: this for that 9. Compare, contrast, and evaluate the structural functional, symbolic interaction, and social conflict perspectives on gender inequality. 10. Discuss feminism—its history, the forms that it takes, and the points of commonality that feminists share. CHAPTER 5: AGING AND INEQUALITY 1. Identify the stages of the socially constructed life course. a. Childhood b. Adulthood c. Old Age: 65 and older 2. Describe the social construction of aging in preindustrial and industrial societies. a. Preindustrial i. Positive view of elderly ii. Elders were seen as wise, head of household iii. People seek their advice iv. Respect your elders Industrial Negative view of elderly More competition on jobs Your done once you cant physically and mentally meet expectations Don’t spend as much/ aren’t impulsive Economy focuses on younger Visual in popular culture (selling medicine) 3. Discuss diversity among the elderly in terms of age cohorts, class, race, ethnicity, and gender. a. Race and ethinicity: face what minorities do b. Class: lower income c. Gender: women live longer than men 4. Explain the causes and consequences of social isolation among the aged. a. Retirement: no social contact 5. Explain the causes and consequences of ageism. a. 6. Discuss the causes and consequences of elder abuse. a. Become more dependent on others: easier to be taken advantage of physically mentally and sexually 7. Describe the problems associated with housing for the aged. a. Where are they going to live? i. Conditions are a concern 8. Describe the problems associated with medical care for the aged. a. Cost (10% of income is on medicine 9. Describe the problems associated with death and dying among the aged. a. When and how i. Assisted suicide ii. (right to die movement) iii. Euthanasia: someone else makes decision 10. Compare and contrast the structural functional, symbolic interaction, social conflict, and feminist perspectives on aging and inequality. SAMPE QUESTIONS (PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE SAMPLE QUESTIONS WILL NOT APPEAR ON THE TEST) 1. In recent decades, the trend in economic inequality in the United States has been toward a. greater inequality. b. stability, with little change. c. less inequality. d. almost no inequality. 2. The fact that southern Europeans were once defined as nonwhite shows us that a. ethnicity cannot change. b. race is socially constructed. c. institutional discrimination is common. d. everyone experiences discrimination. 3. Noting that a man is “masculine” or “macho” illustrates the importance of a. sex. b. gender. c. sexual orientation. d. sexual preference. 4. The life course refers to a. socially constructed stages people pass through as they live their lives. b. the average age people in a given society can expect to reach. c. the maximum age people in a given society can expect to reach. d. the sequence of jobs people hold through during their lives.
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