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by: Kay Cee

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kay Cee on Wednesday July 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 07/27/16
Chapter 1: The Correctional System  Development of Formal Corrections: • Charles­Louis de Secondat Baron de Montesquieu (1689­1755) • Early founder of the classical school of criminology who advocated moderation in  punishment  Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (1738­1794) • Early criminologist who advocated that punishment should be public, immediate, and  necessary  • Jeremy Bentham (1748­1832) • Early criminologist who believed that the law should accomplish the utilitarian purpose of  the protection of society  Early prison reform  ­Early prisons were harsh environments for convicted felons. There was no hope for pardon, and  felons faced extreme, demeaning conditions of confinement.  ­Isolation, physical punishment, mental breakdowns, self­mutilations, and suicide ­The 18th century marked the reform of the early prison system and was initiated by several  influential contributors  John Howard:  ­English sheriff who is noted as the first prison reformer  ­Advocated for more humane and sanitary conditions in jails and prisons throughout  England  Alexander Maconochie: ­Served as director of the prison colony in Australia and set up the “mark” system  ­A system by which brutal treatment was discouraged, and convicts were awarded “marks” to encourage effort and thrift. Sentences were in stages and degrading  treatment reduced  Walter Crofton (1815­1897)  ­A prison reformer who developed the Irish mark system, which eventually spread to the  United States and influenced the development of parole(early release, “ticket to  leave”  program) PA vs. Auburn Penitentiaries   ­PA prison reformers are noted as the first major innovators of penal reform and  constructing penitentiaries  Penitentiary­ a prison in which persons found guilty of a felony are isolated from  normal society  Eastern State Penitentiary­ A fortress­like prison in Philly consisting of seven  wings that become a model for prisoners in several European countries  PA model­ A penal system based on the belief that most prisoners would benefit  from the experience of incarceration  Auburn: ­A western NY town which constructed a prison in 1816, known for its maximum  security and harsh treatment of convicted felons  ­Auburn prison officials were committed to the idea of the solitude as being essential to  maintain discipline, as exampled by the “Auburn Cellblock” in which inmates  were made  to endure great suffering  Reformatories and the Rehabilitation Model:  ­Reformatory/rehabilitation model  ­Prison operations that focus on rehabilitation through many process, such as  indeterminate sentencing, the payment of inmates for work, the  supervision of  inmates in the community, a system of behavior modification, and  the  development of parole ­Out of the rehabilitation model movement came the “medical model”­ this  advocated the idea that criminality is a sickness that can be cured through  psychological intervention Why do we punish? ­Punishing law violators provides beneficial consequences  ­Punishment is deserved ­Punishment expresses public outrage  ­Punishment teaches a lesson  ­Punishment helps maintain the government, the social structure, and society  Goals & Philosophy of Punishment General deterrent effect­ Punishing one offender discourages another from committing  similar acts Specific deterrence­ Offender will decide against repeat offending after experiencing  punishment for that offense Incapacitation­ Isolating offender to protect society  Goals of punishment:  Selective incapacitation­ Identifying high­rate offenders and providing for their long­ term incarceration  Rehabilitation­ Providing offender with services and programs that assist in changing  character, attitudes, or behaviors that contribute to criminal propensities  Evidence­based programs­ Analysis of programs to discover what works with various  offenders  Restorative justice­ Making amends to the victim or society for the harm resulting from a  criminal offense  Restitution­ Offenders repayment to society and victims for losses, expenses, damages  that result from crime  The Correctional System:  Was designed to:  1. Confine 2. Manage  3. Rehabilitate  convicted offenders all within a safe, secure, and humane environment  ­over 7 million people under correctional control  ­2.2 million currently incarcerated  ­The US has 5% of the worlds population but has roughly 25% of its prisoners Institutions and methods that society uses to  1. Correct 2. Control  3. Change  Purpose of corrections:  ­protect communities  ­reduce fear of crime  ­stop offending ­venue for treatment and rehabilitation  The Correctional System:  ­part of the larger criminal justice system  ­includes custody confinement at the federal, state. or county level  ­takes place within a larger social context which influences human behavior and reactions ­involves many participants  1 the victim 4. the offender 5. reformers  6. system employees  Corrections as a system  ­system overload as a major challenge  ­impact of overly­large caseloads ­impact of facility or program crowding  ­impact on human confinement conditions  ­the business of corrections ­shift from N.I.M.B.Y to welcome mats  ­the prison­industrial complex  Criminal Justice System and Corrections:  ­The criminal justice system is the only body with the power to try and punish offenders ­Law enforcement apprehends  ­Courts adjudicate and sanction offenders  ­Correction systems monitor and confine  ­The formal criminal justice process  ­Takes an offender through decision points from arrest through eventual reentry to  society  ­Key decisions to retain or discharge  ­Relatively few cases processed through the entire formal system  ­Many released before trial for procedural error or evidence problems  ­Costs local, state, and federal governments about $200 billion per year  ­Employs more than 2.4 million people  ­Contains nearly 18,000 law enforcement agencies  ­Contains more than 17,000 courts  ­Contains more than 1,200 jails and prisons  ­Contains more than 3,500 probation and parole agencies Cali department of corrections and rehabilitation (CDCR) ­ CDCR is mandated to comply with the public safety and offender services rehabilitation act of 2007. This legislation, known as assembly bill (AB) 900, requires CDCR to add up to 40,000  new state prison beds with a requisite amount of treatment, education, vocational and  rehabilitation services. CDCR is the largest owner of state­owned facilities in Cali. ­  In 2011, Calis governor edmund g. brown jr. signed assembly bill (AB) 109 and AB 117,  historic legislation that will enable cali to close the revolving door of low­level inmates  cycling in and out of state prisons. It is the cornerstone of cals solution for reducing the  number of inmates being housed in prison facilities Social, Political, and Legal Influences  ­Retribution toward criminals  ­Prison overcrowding  ­Consequences of prison crowding  ­Future trends of prison crowding  The cost of corrections  Social cost of corrections:  ­Impact on urban neighborhoods in the US  ­Effect on the families or prisoners (appx 1.5 million children have a parent incarcerated)  ­Largely impacts African Americans and other minorities  Financial Cost:  ­Depressed economy, depleted budgets, and lack of financial resources has resulted in the  closing of many prisons across the country  ­Other countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia are realizing similar trends  Corrections Professional:  ­Reality of corrections and the challenge or professionalism  ­Opportunity to make a positive difference in people’s lives and in correctional institutions  ­Good pay and benefits ­State training academies  ­Accreditation (ACA) 


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