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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kay Cee on Wednesday July 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 07/27/16
Chapter 1: The Correctional System Development of Formal Corrections: • CharlesLouis de Secondat Baron de Montesquieu (16891755) • Early founder of the classical school of criminology who advocated moderation in punishment Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (17381794) • Early criminologist who advocated that punishment should be public, immediate, and necessary • Jeremy Bentham (17481832) • Early criminologist who believed that the law should accomplish the utilitarian purpose of the protection of society Early prison reform Early prisons were harsh environments for convicted felons. There was no hope for pardon, and felons faced extreme, demeaning conditions of confinement. Isolation, physical punishment, mental breakdowns, selfmutilations, and suicide The 18th century marked the reform of the early prison system and was initiated by several influential contributors John Howard: English sheriff who is noted as the first prison reformer Advocated for more humane and sanitary conditions in jails and prisons throughout England Alexander Maconochie: Served as director of the prison colony in Australia and set up the “mark” system A system by which brutal treatment was discouraged, and convicts were awarded “marks” to encourage effort and thrift. Sentences were in stages and degrading treatment reduced Walter Crofton (18151897) A prison reformer who developed the Irish mark system, which eventually spread to the United States and influenced the development of parole(early release, “ticket to leave” program) PA vs. Auburn Penitentiaries PA prison reformers are noted as the first major innovators of penal reform and constructing penitentiaries Penitentiary a prison in which persons found guilty of a felony are isolated from normal society Eastern State Penitentiary A fortresslike prison in Philly consisting of seven wings that become a model for prisoners in several European countries PA model A penal system based on the belief that most prisoners would benefit from the experience of incarceration Auburn: A western NY town which constructed a prison in 1816, known for its maximum security and harsh treatment of convicted felons Auburn prison officials were committed to the idea of the solitude as being essential to maintain discipline, as exampled by the “Auburn Cellblock” in which inmates were made to endure great suffering Reformatories and the Rehabilitation Model: Reformatory/rehabilitation model Prison operations that focus on rehabilitation through many process, such as indeterminate sentencing, the payment of inmates for work, the supervision of inmates in the community, a system of behavior modification, and the development of parole Out of the rehabilitation model movement came the “medical model” this advocated the idea that criminality is a sickness that can be cured through psychological intervention Why do we punish? Punishing law violators provides beneficial consequences Punishment is deserved Punishment expresses public outrage Punishment teaches a lesson Punishment helps maintain the government, the social structure, and society Goals & Philosophy of Punishment General deterrent effect Punishing one offender discourages another from committing similar acts Specific deterrence Offender will decide against repeat offending after experiencing punishment for that offense Incapacitation Isolating offender to protect society Goals of punishment: Selective incapacitation Identifying highrate offenders and providing for their long term incarceration Rehabilitation Providing offender with services and programs that assist in changing character, attitudes, or behaviors that contribute to criminal propensities Evidencebased programs Analysis of programs to discover what works with various offenders Restorative justice Making amends to the victim or society for the harm resulting from a criminal offense Restitution Offenders repayment to society and victims for losses, expenses, damages that result from crime The Correctional System: Was designed to: 1. Confine 2. Manage 3. Rehabilitate convicted offenders all within a safe, secure, and humane environment over 7 million people under correctional control 2.2 million currently incarcerated The US has 5% of the worlds population but has roughly 25% of its prisoners Institutions and methods that society uses to 1. Correct 2. Control 3. Change Purpose of corrections: protect communities reduce fear of crime stop offending venue for treatment and rehabilitation The Correctional System: part of the larger criminal justice system includes custody confinement at the federal, state. or county level takes place within a larger social context which influences human behavior and reactions involves many participants 1 the victim 4. the offender 5. reformers 6. system employees Corrections as a system system overload as a major challenge impact of overlylarge caseloads impact of facility or program crowding impact on human confinement conditions the business of corrections shift from N.I.M.B.Y to welcome mats the prisonindustrial complex Criminal Justice System and Corrections: The criminal justice system is the only body with the power to try and punish offenders Law enforcement apprehends Courts adjudicate and sanction offenders Correction systems monitor and confine The formal criminal justice process Takes an offender through decision points from arrest through eventual reentry to society Key decisions to retain or discharge Relatively few cases processed through the entire formal system Many released before trial for procedural error or evidence problems Costs local, state, and federal governments about $200 billion per year Employs more than 2.4 million people Contains nearly 18,000 law enforcement agencies Contains more than 17,000 courts Contains more than 1,200 jails and prisons Contains more than 3,500 probation and parole agencies Cali department of corrections and rehabilitation (CDCR) CDCR is mandated to comply with the public safety and offender services rehabilitation act of 2007. This legislation, known as assembly bill (AB) 900, requires CDCR to add up to 40,000 new state prison beds with a requisite amount of treatment, education, vocational and rehabilitation services. CDCR is the largest owner of stateowned facilities in Cali. In 2011, Calis governor edmund g. brown jr. signed assembly bill (AB) 109 and AB 117, historic legislation that will enable cali to close the revolving door of lowlevel inmates cycling in and out of state prisons. It is the cornerstone of cals solution for reducing the number of inmates being housed in prison facilities Social, Political, and Legal Influences Retribution toward criminals Prison overcrowding Consequences of prison crowding Future trends of prison crowding The cost of corrections Social cost of corrections: Impact on urban neighborhoods in the US Effect on the families or prisoners (appx 1.5 million children have a parent incarcerated) Largely impacts African Americans and other minorities Financial Cost: Depressed economy, depleted budgets, and lack of financial resources has resulted in the closing of many prisons across the country Other countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia are realizing similar trends Corrections Professional: Reality of corrections and the challenge or professionalism Opportunity to make a positive difference in people’s lives and in correctional institutions Good pay and benefits State training academies Accreditation (ACA)
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