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PSYCH 1 lecture notes

by: Sabrina blackwell

PSYCH 1 lecture notes

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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabrina blackwell on Thursday July 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of California Berkeley taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 07/28/16
Psych 1 Day 1 RPP- need to participate in study- 5 hours- 2 of 5 hours need to be done before half way through semester Do prescreening- online After you earn credits you have to go to account to say you want your credits to go to psych 1 Jerred Jolin- What we will be covering in class -Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and the processes of the mind -To understand the field we will be examining it by discussing -Early theories about the mind and behavior -Current research about the mind and behavior -Different branches of psychology that are out there Day 2 Running through the house exercise** What allows us to do these tasks?  Past theories to explain functions of the mind  Humors theories for personality  Hydraulic theories for sensation and perception  Spiritual theories for the “mind”- measuring the soul A scientific endeavor to answer the question  Camillo Golgi’s work on “ silver staining”- skin graphs reveal spider webs in body  Ramon y Cajal’s theories and improvement to strain methods- says that they were not webs but microscopic cells – cells are everywhere and they are intertwined- they were arranged in a specialized way depending on their functions What they found: The Neuron  Neurons—specialized cells that receive /transmit information throughout the body and brain  We have roughly 80-100 billion neurons in our body by adulthood  Located throughout the body, with the highest concentration in the brain regions  Come in a number of different shapes and sizes  Thought to be the primary tools for/involved in almost all mental tasks Structures within a neuron  Cell body- the cell’s life support center  Dendrites- receive messages from other cells  Axon- passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands—always goes our to terminal branches  Neural impulse- electrical signal traveling down the axon  Myelin sheath- covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses  Terminal branches of axon-form junctions with other cells Neuron Communication  Synapse- a very small space that separates the terminal buttons of one neuron from the dendrites of another  Neurotransmitters- chemicals that are released by pores in the terminal buttons of neurons  These Neurotransmitters can: 1. Excite- increases the chances of/cause the second neuron to release its neurotransmitters 2. Inhibit- reduces the likelihood that the second neuron releases its neurotransmitters. How Neurons know when to release neurotransmitters  When the dendrites of a neuron are “excited”, they start something called an action potential  Action potential- an all-or-none signal that is propagated along the axon of the neuron  Starts at the axon hillock and ends at the terminal buttons  Involves a flow of positive and negative charged ions along the length of the axon Events that occur in the synapse  Activation (exhibition/ inhibition): neurotransmitters temporarily “cling” to the dendrites of another neuron, and influence the neuron based in the type of neurotransmitter that was released  Reuptake: happens after activation. -the axon terminal eventually “sucks back” …………….. The supporting staff  Glia(l) cells- cells that support neurons by: remove waste, synchronize activity, insulate neurons (protection and mylenation) Day 4 Electrophysiology is great~ - Less invasive - Allows us to get a large sample of individuals - Allows us to accurately sample things—look at slides OXYGENATION Utilizing the it - PET scans- ejects radioactive dye into person and it goes through out blood stream- and figure out blood pathways and where blood goes the most—finding injury—finding blood in areas it is not suppose to be - Pros- decent spatial resolution—good at measuring neurotransmitter metabolism - Cons- radioactive? Not many people want that—dye is very expensive—poor temporal resolution- only measures things down to the minute, not millisecond-therefore cannot detect the neural response to discrete cognitive events - fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)- spins magnet around head and detect the oxygenated cells and deoxygenated cells—you can see where activity occurs—when energy is used - Advances over pet scan- non-invasive—better spatial resolution—better temporal resolution(seconds minutes) - Cons- temporal resolution is still not as good as EEG--$$$ expensive—tells about activity, not about necessity specific areas VISION Sensation: the conversation of energy from the environment into a pattern of responses by that nervous system—how our mind makes sense of perception Perception: The pupil: a small adjustable opening in the eye, through which light enters The Iris: a colored adjustable muscle on the surface of the eye that is responsible for controlling the mount of light that enters the eye through the pupil The cornea: a rigid, protective surface on the outer surface of the eye that focuses light toward the fovea The Lens: a clear, flexible structure located behind the cornea that can vary in thickness (to help us focus on information at different depths), and fucuses the incoming light rays into an image on the back of our eyes—lens flips the image we see upside down and our brain flips it right side up Retina: the multilayered tissue located on the back of the eye that is responsible for the transference of light rays into neural information— rods (dim light vision) and cones (color, daytime and detailed vision) The Fovea (part of retina) : the central area of the retina that is highly adapted for detailed vision The Optic Nerve: a collection of cells that is responsible for carrying the information processed by your eye to the brain—for information to leave eye we have to have a spot where we cant see anything—called the blindspot (course correction is why we cant see our blind spot) SECTION 2 Drugs and Their Effects- Module 3.2 What is a drug? - Any chemical substance that alters normal bodily function….by targeting synapses n the central nervous system…to enhance, weaken, and/or garble experience and action How do psychoactive drugs work? –drugs have their effect in the synaptic space Agonist: going to cause neurons to create more neurotransmitter within the synapse—more serotonin Antagonist: decreases activity at a synapse—create less neurotransmitter Reuptake inhibitor: slows the return of the released 1. Stimulants a. Example: amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine b. Type: reuptake inhibitor-dope and serotonin constantly firing c. Effects: enhanced attention, confusion, impaired attention (at high levels), impulsiveness, higher heart rate, higher blood pressure, higher body temperature, tremors, convulsions, lung damage, and heart attacks. d. Outside effects: Meth face*-- mug shots—skinny, sores, teeth. 2. Depressants a. Example: Alcohol, Tranquilizers (velum and Xanax), Rohypnol and GHB b. Type: Agonist, Affects GABA (brains main inhibitory transmitter—tells the brain to slow down) drunk effects like slowness of movement and motor skills are due to too much GABA c. Relaxed muscle, reduced inhibitions, impaired memory 3. Narcotics a. Example: Opiates (heroin, morphine) b. Type: Agonist, affects endorphin (bodies naturally occurring opiates system) c. Effects: feelings of happiness and warmth, and contentment, abated, pain, nausea, withdrawal from world (nothing comes close to satisfying that feeling) d. We cannot feel pain because the spinal cord and the brain and not connected—the pain is still there but we cannot feel it e. Opiates change the brain system 4. Hallucinogens a. Examples: certain mushrooms and plants (eg: peyote), Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), MDMA (Ecstasy) b. Type: Agonist/ Antagonist (still somewhat unknown)— unknown research area c. Effects: distorted sensation, dreamlike state, increased energy, increased anxiety, depression, impaired attention, impaired memory, impaired sleep—Effects of LSD- heightened color 5. Marijuana a. Active Ingredient- THC b. Type: Antagonist, imitates amantadine and 2-AG c. Effects: feeling of calm, softened pain, reduced nausea, sensory distortions, impaired memory, decreased drive, suppressed tremors, reduced pressure in eyes, decreased cell loss after stroke d. How THC works: cannabinoid receptor—communicates then shuts down. THC tricks brain to stop sending messages and shuts down. Things to Note: -Psychoactive drugs create changes in perception, moos, and/or cognition primarily by interfering with normal neurotransmitter function -Receptor specificity is not perfect for many drugs -Receptor drugs target are found in multiple locations, not just in the desired area of effect -Prescription drugs are often engineered for increased receptor specificity, slow release, and in controlled concentrations LECTURE 5 VISION CONT… The path of vision (after the eye) -Visual area of the thalamus- filters information Once we get to the brain -Our areas for vision are arranged very intricately throughout the occipital lobe and beyond—1. Sections of vision— 2. Pathways of visual information Facts about vision - Vision has been the most widely studies topic in neurobiology and cognitive psychology - Vision is critical to the human beings experience—in fact, 25% of our cognitive resources are reserved for that sense alone - We know a lot more about the eye than any other sense organ PERCEPTION Debate on perception - The ecological view- the stimuli in the environment provide all that we need for perception - The constructivist view- the stimuli in the environment are not all that is required for perception—using our expectations—to fill in the blanks and create order out of chaos. Need to take that extra step COLOR perceptions - cells in our eyes that send messages to our brain about what colors we should be seeing? The Trichromatic Theory - Proposes that we have three types of receptors that are sensitive to three primary colors: blue, green and red - Color vision depends on the relative rate of response by the three types of cones - Each combination allows us to detect a different color, and the location of the combinations tell us the location of the color Proof: color vision deficiencies - Trichromats- most of us have three types of cones (L-cones, M- cones, and S-cones) - The inability to detect different colors or differences between colors can come in a number of forms Limitations of the trichromatic theory: - it cant explain afterimages - It struggles to explain our ability to perceive consistency and adjust for light and dark contrast The opponent process theory: - We sense color not in terms of separate categories but rather in a system of paired opposites’: - Red vs. green - Blue vs. yellow - Black vs. white - This supports the Ecological view Color Constancy- the brightness of and surrounding atmosphere around objects influences our perception of the color of those objects - This suggests that when determining the color of objects, our minds go beyond using just the frequency of the electromagnetic waves The Retinex Theory - Our cerebral cortex also plays a role in how we interpret color, it allows us to see color constancy and adjust for ambient light Perceptual Psychology- a field of psychology that attempts to understand how we perceive the world around us Depth Perception- Binocular cues (two eyes) - Retinal disparity: the distance of an object is determined by the difference of the signals receives by the two eyes—thumb exercise - Convergence: the distance of an object is determined by the amount of eye movement required to focus on an object Monocular cues - object size: nearer objects look bigger - Accommodation: Our brains can detect how much the lens of the eye needed to shift in order to focus on an object - Detail: more detail signifies a closer object Gestalt Psychology- a group of perceptual psychologists that study and define the rules and tricks that our minds use to perceive the stimuli presented to us in our world LECTURE 6 The world of cognitive psychology - Cognitive psychology- the scientific study of “internal” mental processes Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) - Sought to examine the concept of memory from a purely scientific viewpoint - Had only one subject in almost all of his studies on memory… himself - In these studies, he used lists of nonsense syllables (words that had no meaning) in his attempt to examine how our memories word - His research was based on discovering how fast a “normal” individual can “learn” and “forget” information - Ebbinghaus conducted experiments that varied in the - Number of nonsense syllables in the list - Length of time that passed before testing himself after “learning” the nonsense syllables - Length Ebbinghaus work led us to conclusions about how the mind functions when storing meaningless information—it also led to researchers to begin to explore His work did tell us about - The different types of memory we have - Memory capacity for meaningful information - Ability to remember information when we are asked to reproduce it in a different manner - How our reproduction of information might be altered Different types of memory - Free Recall – Ebbinghaus’ work - Cued Recall – states and sentences - Recognition – name the dwarfs - Saving – elemental tables example - Implicit Memory Performance – impaired memory example Types of memory External events- sensory memoryshort-term memory long-term memory Sensory Memory - Proposed first temporal category of memory - Capacity is thought to be infinite (or at least really large) - Is thought to involve not only vision, but all of our senses - Most of this information is said to only last in our memory for a fraction of a second - After this fraction of a second, you attend to remember only the information deemed relevant Short-term memory (aka working memory) - said to have a capacity of 7+ or -2 items—nonsense syllables - Contains information that we deemed relevant - Information can be stored in this stage of memory from anywhere between 20 seconds to a few days Long-term memory - Collection of info. From STM that we feel is important - Information in this part of memory can be very complex, susceptible to distortions and complete fabrications - There is a debate as to whether or not we actually ever forget information once it is stored on long-term memory Explicit memory (declarative) with conscious recall Implicit memory (nondeclarative) without conscious recall: --skills motor and cognitive—dispositions- classical and operant conditioning effects SECTION 3 SOMATOSENSATION What is it? - Think of it as one of our senses—has to do with sense of touch— but has to do with more than the action of touching—relaying and processing of body sensations Three types - Exteroceptive- senses of external stimuli—involved in perception of temperature—pain—pressure—itch - Interoceptive- Monitors internal state – hunger—nausea— gagging—vomiting - Proprioceptive- Monitors position of the body Touch and stress - Oxytocin is connected to love and comfort- when a person is petting a dog their oxytocin levels rise Touch and communication- - hugs, kisses, handshakes, arm squeezes How does it work? -Sensors in the skin send messages to the brain’s—Primary somatosensory Cortex (processing center), Posterior Partietal Cortex (touch and hearing), Primary Motor Cortex -Sensory receptors in the skin—pain receptors are closer to skin to give us time to react - Pain receptors are known as nociceptors- nociception- pain - Strong pressure receptors are deeper in the skin The primary somatosensory cortex- each body part has a specific place in the cortex Phantom limb syndrome- after amputation they still have sensation where their limb use to be Posterior parietal cortex (area 5 , area 7)then goes to primary motor cortex When somatosensation goes wrong- loses sense of awareness— Youtube video Paper due Monday, feb 23 ! rd - Describe activity - Identify 2 psychological processes - How does first process work? (Relate to activity) - How does second process work? (Relate to activity) - At least 1 APA citation and Reference list - 2 pages- total four pages - Printed rubric- uploaded on bcourses APA format - No need for title page, abstract, or running head - Include in-text citations and reference page - If you did not come up with an idea, cite it! - Purdue online writing lab LECTURE 7 MEMORY ISSUE Things that impact memory abilities - Interference: information can be lost or less accurate due to an overlap of similar information - Proactive interference: new material is lost (not easily stored) due to old material - Retroactive interference: old material is lost (forgotten) due to new material - Reconstruction effect: our tendency to include inaccurate information into our memories in an attempt to “fill in the gaps” or “fix the errors” - Reconstructing stories and adding details - It can cause us to recall things that never occurred - It can also cause us to alter our memory of our past thinking How to improve our memories - levels of processing theory- conversion of information from stm to ltm is dictated by your approach to the information - why? - More time spent on the information? - More retrieval cues are available? - More effort/attention put into original - Encoding specificity: we’re more likely to remember information when we are in a condition that resembles the condition we were in when we learned the information - Language studies - Mood dependency - Situation dependency - State dependency EXAM 2 Section 3- SLEEP AND DREAMS Why we sleep? - How do you know when you have had enough sleep? - What would be your ideal time to go to sleep? What would be your ideal time to wake up? - What happens when you have not had enough sleep? 3 Theories related to why we sleep 1. Conserve energy- lower heart rate, lower metabolism 2. To restore/ regulate brain function- bodies produce human growth hormone 3. To strengthen learning and memory skills- a good nights rest will help you recall more from the day before How do we sleep? Things to know: - Circadian rhythms - Internal rhythm of activity and inactivity (24 hours in length)- how much sleep you need is based on this. - Generate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus- internal clock- regulates melatonin - Will naturally sync with light but is possible to shift—ex. Alaska - Jet lag is a result of circadian rhythms - Sleep abnormalities - Insomnia- inability to sleep well- can be caused by depression, pain, on medication—treat by exercise, alcohol, meditation - Sleep Apnea- when an adult stops breathing for ten seconds or more- treat it by wearing a mask that forces oxygen in - Narcolepsy- being totally alert and falling into REM sleep- mixing of nervous system ques of when to be awake and asleep- can continue throughout life - Sleep talking/walking - Nightmares, Night Terrors- Night terrors are accompanied by increase of pulse, sweating - Periodic limb movement disorder - Stages of sleep - 5 stages - As our period of sleep increases the more we are in REM - Awake- Alpha - Stage 1- walk up by twitching- Alpha to Theta transition - Stage 2- breathing get slower, pulse decreases, body temp lowers- theta waves- random spikes of activity - Stage 3- brain waves become slow and erratic- Delta waves - Stage 4- deepest stage of sleep- characterized by delta waves - REM (paradoxical) REM - Brain and eyes are highly active - Large muscles and nerves are deeply relaxed - Common time for vivid dreaming 1 Randy garner- stayed awake for eleven days for high school science project—researcher measured his cognitive ability through arcade games- randy won every time Lewis ebol- got sick and after she got better she would sleep for a week straight but not consistently (eating)-in and out week by week— hypersomnia—experienced violent mood swings- had Klein Levin, sleeping beauty syndrome-don’t know what causes it, goes away on its own Indred newie – Pepsi ceo- only needs four hours of sleep What are Dreams? 3 theories on why dreams happen 1. Freud’s theory-?? 2. Activation- synthesis theory- dreams are a by-product—our brain is trying to process what happened throughout the day 3. Neurocognitive theory- dreams are just thinking – by product of our brains being active Lecture 10- CHILD DEVELOPMENT Defining development psychology - In psych, we believe that human being are constantly changing, not just becoming smarter or more experienced - Developmental psych- the scientific study of the changes of the mind and related systems throughout the lifespan Understand the philosophy of developmental psychologists - The snowflake analogy - Thought no two of us are completely identical, many of us possess similar qualities and grow in the same way - Moreover, if we study the factors that shape one persons development, we might be able to apply those to another person The goal of developmental psychologists that look at change - Tracking/predicting typical development from conception to death A glimpse at how this works: Birth - Apgar scale- identifies physical and mental development as well as the ability to handle stress—can therefore track growth - Horrible visual abilities, great hearing, okay taste - Very poor motor and sensory system development - A few reflexes (rooting, sucking, grasping, Babinski, stepping) Another example of the aspects of this approach: putery - Puberty- the process of physical and mental change from childhood to adulthood - Initiated by an increase of hormones in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland that are sent to the gonads which produce hormones - Women= earlier (9-13) and slower; estradiol (more overall increase) and testosterone (2x) - Men= later (11-15) Example of atypical - The onset of puberty has been linked to social and nutritional factors (weight, diet, stress, etc.) - Precocious puberty- the very early onset and rapid progression of puberty 1 - More often in girls 2 - Impact girls negatively 3 - Riskier behavior, more emotional, and social problems 4 - Begin to hang out with older people Defining “Development” - Most research on this topic is based on something we have discussed, heritability - Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a psychological concept that is due to genetics Where heritability research started - Sibling studies- looked at four different groups - Identical twins - Fraternal twins - Siblings (fraternal twins with less shared events - Adopted children A Bouchard case study- stories- two people named Jim, Jim Lewis and Jim Springer, from the same family- no idea they were from the same family Problem with this study… - Bouchard found weird similarities because he asked a lot of questions - Similarities and rare occurrences are all around us, just not frequent enough to be interesting - Blade of grass example- of all the blades of grass what are the odds? - We are programmed to recognize similarities even when they are not there LECTURE 11 The leader in cognitive development research: JEAN PIAGET (1896- 1980) - While earning his education, he worked with Alfred Binet in his admin of intelligence tests - As he studies intelligence, Piaget became interested in the cognitive development of children - Began research by observing the development of his children; Laurent, Lucienne, and Jacqueling (would see how there perception of the world changed) Piagets Conclusions - Piaget was able to establish his own terminology and theories of how “normal” children develop cognitively - Believed that children are constantly “adapting” to their environment through the demands that are put on them Schema- a concept or mental framework that organizes and interprets information in the world - Equilibrium- a cognitive state of mind that comes from harmony between a childs environment and present Schema (what you see is matching up with what you believe) - Disequilibrium- a cognitive state of mind caused when new information contradicts current Schema When we encounter disequilibrium, children had two choices - Assimilation- interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing Schema - Accommodation- adapting ones current schema to incorporate new information - Equilibration- shifting of one frame of mind to the next Stages 1. The sensorimotor stage (0-2) a. This stage is primarily focused on learning different outcomes through the senses and then learning the ways to increase the frequency of desirable outcomes b. However, other cognitive challenges also appear i. Object permanence- objects exist even when they cant see them (mom leaving the room and baby cries) Begins with 12 months of age ii. Sense of self- When we are born we don’t recognize that we are part of the world around us. Develop around age 1 or 2. (we start seeing our legs and arms and mirror) 2. The Preoperational stage a. The symbolic function sub stage (2-4) i. Overcoming egocentrism (We cant fully understand the world around us--They think that everyone has the same thoughts) ii. Learning pretend play (no difference between reality and play—you a monster then you a monster) iii. Overcoming animism- kids see all inanimate objects can move just like regularly moving objects (overcome at 3 or 4) b. The Intuitive thought sub stage (4-7) i. Learning symbolism 1. Vocabulary (“Why”)- were learning 7 to 10 words a day 2. Scale Models One Final Challenge - Conversation- the ability to better understand the properties of shapes and objects 3. The concrete Operational stage (7-11) a. Metacognition- the ability to think about your thinking 4. The Formal Operational state (11-15) a. Abstract reasoning i. Focus on the ideal and hypothetical ii. Easy recognition of logic problems iii. Move toward hypothetical- deductive reasoning b. Adolescent Egocentrism i. Imaginary audience- perception of being the constant center of attention ii. Personal fable- perception of being unique and invincible c. There is skepticism about this stage occurring for everyone, if people ever completely master this stage, and if everyone experiences it in the same way Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) SECTION 4 Piaget and Lev Vygotsky Piaget’s stages - Sensorimotor - Preoperational - Concrete - Formal Operations Vygotsky’s ZPD 1. Erik Erickson (1902-1994) a. Picture on Phone b. Still believe that everyone goes through these same eight periods of development c. Infancy through adolescence 1-5 i. Infants- Developing attachments to care givers – attachment and trust ii. Toddlers- Develop a sense of control over physical skills and autonomy iii. Preschoolers: Develop a sense of control and power over the environment iv. Preadolescents: Develop confidence in navigating growing social sphere v. Adolescents: Develop risk taking behaviors and personal identity d. Young adult through late adult 6-8 i. Young Adults: Develop plans regarding career, marriage, and children. Expend the maximum energy pursuing their goals ii. Middle Adults: Develop greater acceptance of selves and others. Assess goals and prepare for the rest of life. iii. Late Adults: age 65- Develop feelings of satisfaction about life lived. (Unless conflicts in many other stages remained unresolved) 2. James Marcia- Identity Status Theory a. Has explored/ is Has not explored exploring issues issues Decisions already Identity achievement Identity foreclosure made (future set in stone- arranged marriage) Decisions not yet Identity Moratorium Identity Diffusion made 3. John Bowlby (1907-1990)- Attachment Theory a. To develop attachment their has to be responsiveness (has to be one consistent caregiver) – once attachment is made then child begins exploratory behavior b. Responsiveness i. Close Proximity ii. Positive Affect iii. Communication c. Attachment i. Seeking Contact ii. Seeking Proximity d. Exploration i. Security ii. Confidence iii. Learning 4. Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999) – “Strange Situation Study” (experiments on mother and child a. Secure attachment: Uses mother as base of exploration. Some distress when mom leaves. Happy to see her upon returns goes to her and then goes back to toys. b. Anxious/ Resistant: Mixed responses to mother happy/angry. Great distress when mom leaves. Upon return infant can cling to her yet is not soothed. Child does not use her as base of exploration. Strong fear of strangers c. Avoidant: While mother present infant does not stay near her and does not interact much with her. May or may not cry when mom leaves. Child does not go to her when she returns d. Disorganized: Infant lacks a consistent strategy and shows break downs in behavior, e.g., approaches mother while looking away. Alternates between approach and avoidance and shows more fear than affection. 5. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) a. Moral development i. Theory stemmed from Piaget ii. Focuses on moral reasoning not behavior iii. Progresses in stages Level 3- Post conventional- shared Stage 6: Self-selection of universal standards, rights and duties. principles Stage 5: Sense of democracy and relativity of rules Level 2- Conventional- Performing Stage 4: fulfilling duties and right roles upholding laws Stage 3: Meeting expectations of others Level 1- Pre-conventional- values Stage 2: “Getting what you want” in external events by trade-off Stage 1: Punishment avoidance Modern lenses through which to study development - Family dynamics - Affects of parenting styles - Birth order and family size - Nontraditional families - Gender and Sexuality - Biological differences - Intellectual differences - Identity formation and expression - Cultural and race ethnicity LECTURE 12 Classic Conditioning -? Lecture 13 – operant conditioning Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) - Originated the idea of instrumental learning - Studied learning by examining the trial and error behavior of cats in their attempts to escape from the puzzle boxes Thorndike laws - Law of recency: the most recent response is likely to reoccur - Restaurant choice example - Law of use: Connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued - Exercise at the gym example- either know or don’t know where to go in gym - Law of effect: Behavior followed by favorable consequences become more likely; behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely - Behaviors that lead cat to get out of the box were repeated and those that weren’t were slowly leave their routine B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) - Skinner attempted to expand on Thorndike’s original theories of instrumental learning. He proposed that the learning process has a very predictable response to rewards and punishments. His work set out to show how those responses to behavior influences future behaviors (operant conditioning) - Was done on rats and pigeons in elaborate boxes that he designed – “skinner boxes” Operant Conditioning - The process of learning to associate a behavior with a consequence. This typically results in behavior that maximizes reinforcing and minimizes punishing events - Reinforcement: any outcome/response that increases the future probability of the most recent behavior - Punishment: any outcome/response that decreases the frequency of the preceding behavior - What makes something reinforcing or punishing? 1 - Biologically useful 2 - Intrinsically satisfying 3 - Restores equilibrium - Positive reinforcement: an introduction of a pleasurable stimulus after a behavior, which will increase the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior (chocolate, cake) - Negative reinforcement: a removal of (or avoidance of) an aversive stimulus after a behavior, which will increase the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior (spanking) - Positive punishment: an introduction of an aversive stimulus after a behavior, which will decrease the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior (bark collar) – need another example - Negative punishment: a removal of (or threatening to remove) a pleasurable stimulus after a behavior, which will decrease the likelihood of the future occurrence of a behavior (taking away allowance) Behavioral concepts… - Extinction: a return of a behavior to baseline (behavior slowly goes back to how it was before it got reinforced) when reinforcement/ punishment stops - Generalization: increasing or decreasing similar responses due to punishment or reinforcement (opposite of discrimination) - Discrimination: Only increasing or decreasing the specific response that was reinforced or punished (opposite of generalization) Important terms found only in Operant Conditioning - Primary rein forcers- a reinforce that automatically increases the likelihood of a response - A treat or petting - Secondary Rein forcers- a reinforce that has been learned through classical conditioning to increase the likelihood of a response - A clicker - Shaping- rewarding successive approximations of a behavior that’s being reinforces (Pigeon) - Chaining- Reinforcing combinations of learned behaviors that are the paired together - Forward chaining - Backward chaining Section 5 Reviewing Terminology - Classical Conditioning - Process of pairing neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus - Concerns visceral responses (reflexes) - Unconditioned Stimulus, Unconditioned Response, Conditioned Stimulus, Conditioned Response - Operant Conditioning - Process of learning to associate behavior with a consequence using reinforcement and punishment - Concerns voluntary behavior - Terminology: Antecedent, Consequence (of biting nails is to reduce stress), Reinforcement, Punishment Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Punishment (Keep doing it!) (Stop doing it!) (+) Positive Positive Punishment Add something Reinforcement (Passive avoidance learning) (-) Negative Negative Punishment Take something away reinforcement (omission training) ELEMENTS OF AN EXCELLENT PAPER: Structure - Internal: - Introduction - Methods - Results - Conclusion - External: - APA Format 1 - In-Text citations 2 - Reference List Style – Envision audience is grandmother- DEFINE CONCEPTS - Introduction: - Describe habit/behavior using accurate terminology - State why you want to change it - Which method will use to modify your behavior and why - Methods: - The details of your experiment, mechanics of your plan, what, when, where, and how - Describe the execution of plan. How did you collect experimental data and response data - Results: - What is the baseline data, conditioning data and response data? - How does the response data compare to the baseline data? - Conclusion: - Were you able to change your habit- was your strategy effective based on your data? - Are you satisfied with the results, what went well? - Why did it go well, or not go well? - What would you improve about your experiment? Content- Dryer is it, the better it is Could use graph…. in Appendix A 1. Operant conditioning 2. Antecedent: The pressure of school and fast pace life (keeping up) Consequence: reduces stress and calms nerves 3. How will you condition this behavior? Wear a standard rubber band on my arm and when I catch myself doing it I will pull the rubber band let it go. Associate biting nails with pain. Positive Punishment. 4. What factors might complicate your success? Enjoying the pain. Lol. Not catching myself every time I start to bite my nails. What other terminology might you need to incorporate? Positive Punishment Lecture 14 The world of social psychology Social Perception - There are a number of critical questions that are raised when discussing the formation of perceptions Form of social perception - Primary effect- the first information learned about someone influences us more that later information (first day of school) - Self-fulfilling prophecies- expectations that change ones own behavior in such a way as to increase the probability of the predicted event Forming perceptions of groups - In the same way that we form perceptions of individuals, we also form perceptions of groups - Stereotypes- a generalized belief or expectation about a group of people that we form - Prejudice- an attitude formed toward a member of a group, solely because he or she is a member of that group - Discrimination- unfair treatment of a member of that group, solely because he or she is a member of that group Section 5 Interpersonal Attraction (Module 13.4, Introduction to psychology) - Establishing relationships - Proximity- how close you are to the person—work with, live with, have classes with 1 - MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT - Similarity- people last with people they are similar too - Equity/exchange- do things and expect behavior to be reciprocated - Physical attractiveness - Gender preferences - Gendered preferences - Women 1 - Physical attractiveness- symmetry is more appealing 2 - Good provider 3 - Much discretion in choosing casual partner 4 - Varying demands for fidelity - Men 1 - Physical attractiveness- symmetry is more appealing 2 - Little discretion in choosing casual partner 3 - Higher demands for fidelity - Elements of attraction - Marriage - Passionate love - Satisfying sex - Compassionate love - Child rearing - Support - Health advantages for men - Financial gains for women Attraction - Pull to evaluate another person in a positive (or negative) way (Berscheid and Walster, 1978) - What do you think determines attraction? Biology behind attraction - Bold and colorful (male birds)= good reproductive genes - Symmetrical= Normal= good reproductive genes Matching Hypothesis- find people who are about as attractive as us Culture and attraction - In 16 century white skin was attractive because it meant you were rich and didn’t have to work in the sun - We look for stability, status, wealth LECTURE 15 Third paper- Journal sources- see what psychologist read on a daily basis MIDTERM 3 Personality Psychology Freud and his Psychodynamic approach to personality - Psychodynamic theory- personality is based on the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual. This includes forces that the individual is both aware, and unaware of: - Conscious- the thoughts and experiences that impact our behavior that we are aware of - Unconscious- the thoughts and experiences that impact our behavior that we are NOT aware of - Assumptions about the forces: Conscious and unconscious forces come from: - Current experiences/ desires of the individual - Past experiences/ desires of the individual - Past traumatic experiences and unmet needs can result in abnormal behaviors and personality types - When these forces are subsided, a sense of relief can be experienced by the individual - Catharsis- a release of pent up emotional tension - What are these forces in conflict? - The ‘id’: an unconscious force that constantly seeks satisfaction of basic needs (survival, sex, immediate gratification) - The ‘superego’: an unconscious force that’s only goal is to push us to do what is ‘right’ (society’s standards) - The ‘ego’: a conscious force that operates on the reality principle. It seeks to satisfy id’s and superego’s desires in a realistic way - So how do we fix abnormal personality? (according to Freud)? - In Freud’s approach, he felt that he needed to bring the unconscious “up”, to change personality 1 - Psychoanalysis 2 - Free association 3 - Dream interpretation 1 - “Freudian Slips” - Hypnosis 4 - The source of most personality - Oral (0-18 months) – pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, chewing- fixation (smoking, overeating) - Anal (18-36 months)- pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control- fixation (stinginess, strict orderliness) - Phallic (3-6 years) – pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings- fixation (Penis envy, castration fear) - Latency (6 to Puberty)- Dormant sexual feelings - Genital (puberty on)- Maturation of sexual interests - What happens when our social world doesn’t allow us to act on our drives? - ?? - Freud’s Defense Mechanisms - Repression - Denial - Rationalization - Displacement - Regression - Projection - Reaction formation - Sublimation Section 1 Hypnosis - Who invented it? - Franz Anton Mesmer 1 - The first hypnotist- magnet back and forth- redirecting blood flow 2 - Magnetisme animal 3 - “Mesmerizing” - Sigmund Freud 1 - Believed one needed to become aware of the unconscious to change personality 2 - Unseen levels of consciousness impacts conscious conduct 3 - Believed in power of hypnotic suggestion - In order to be hypnotized, you must: - Believe its possible - Be relaxed - Be suggestible - Process of hypnosis - Induction: Hypnotist ass subject to focus eyes on a fixation point and concentrate on the voice of the hypnotist - Relaxation: Hypnotist gives suggestions for further relaxation, focused attention, and eye closure - Suggestion: After eyes are closed, further suggestions for various imaginative experiences are given EX: holding heavy object pushing hands down, but really no weight— - What is Hypnosis? - Social- occurring between hypnotist and subject - Suggestive state with intent to alter behavior - Alters cognitions and actions- get them to hear or see things that aren’t actually present - Hypnosis in the brain - The term hypnosis comes from Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep - People under hypnosis and people sleeping both accept contradictory information ??? - Posthypnotic amnesia experiment - GET NOTES FROM HANNAH Section 2 Assessing Personality - Explicit tests - Projections - Implicit tests - Move away from self-reporting - Use reaction times to assess thoughts - Rely on The Barnum Effect- finding veg personality interpretations to be true - Horoscopes - Harry Potter character quiz Assessments of personality - Validity - Reliability Can have: - Reliable but it not valid - Low validity, low reliability - Not reliable, Not valid - BOTH RELIABLE AND VALID- takes numerous tests before you can distribute this to public Standardized Personality Tests “how clean are you 1- 5?” - Cluster of data in the middle- Average - 68% of people are within one of the mean The “MMPI” test- Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory - Devised empirically (not theoretically) - Most widely used by psychologists - 600 true/false questions re: t10 clinical scales The NEO PI-R- NEO personality inventory-revised- TIPI scoring guide - Five factor personality model (costa and McCrae) - 240 items on a “likert scale” (least to most 0-5) - Neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to new experience The MBTI- The Myers-Briggs type indicator - Used in workplace and in schools - Categorizes people into 16 types- any combination of the four belowVVV - extrovert/introvert—sensing/intuitive— thinking/feeling—judging/perceiving The Rorschach Inkblots*** The TAT The Stroop test SECTION 3- Substance abuse disorder: the essential feature of a substance use disorder is a cluster of COGNITIVE, BEHAVIORAL, and PHYSIOLOGICAL symptoms indicating the individual continues using the substance despite significant substance-related problems. – DSM-5 definition. Am I addicted? Is it difficult or nearly impossible to quit? Does it cause problems in my life? Do I do/take more than I originally plan? Two Interrelated Types of Dependence Physical and Psychological Physical: Biological dependence, the body’s growing tolerance of the drug leads to withdrawal if drug is removed. Psychological: neurochemical dependence, presence of antecedents cue the brain to strongly anticipate and desire the substance and its reinforcing consequence. - Nucleus accumbens- attention or habit center of the brain. Addiction takes place here. After prolonged use of substance, neurons show changes in their structure - Using the substance will stimulate dopamine receptors-> housed in the nucleus accumbens-> More more more! Just wanting it is the psychological aspect. Example: nicotine, gambling, exercise, internet use. How Dependency Develops 1.Hook ecletrodes into their brains, teaching the monkey if he saw a certain shape and pulled the lever he would get blackberry juice. Monkey became addicted to the screen. Monkey got pissed when the juice was not delivered. Hyperfocused on the black berry juice. Adolescence and Substance Abuse - in 2011 46% of high school students used addictive substances, 12% of them were addicted. - 90% of Americans who meet the medical criteria for addiction started smoking, drinking act. Before the age of 18. - Frequent family dinners are strongly linked to teen substance use preventions. Indicator of positive relationships with family members. Specific Addictions and Treatment Options Nicotine: treatment- replacement source, example nicotine patch. Low tar cigarette are not effective. Alcoholism: most socially acceptable form of substance abuse. STRONG genetic-effect. Strong cultural effects… TYPE1- less severe, affects men and women equally, late onset, weak genetic link late onset. TYPE 2- severe, STRONG genetic link, primarily only affects men. Rapid onset. TREATMENT: alcoholics anonymous, 90 meetings for 90 days. Antabuse- medicinal, takes 1 pill a day and if they drink alcohol they become violently ill. ALL DEPENDENT ON THE INDIVIDUAL. Harm reduction: decrease frequency. Contingency Management: seeing a therapist every day with a urine test. If there is no alcohol they will get an award. Positive reinforcement. Opiate Dependence: strong genetic link. Rapid Onset, can be addicted very easily. TREATMENT: -quit cold turkey -contingency management - substitute (Eg. Methadone). AA meetings - established in 1935, founder is Bill Wilson major alcoholic but found faith in god and changed. Belief in a ‘higher power’ - 30-35% retention rate- pretty successful. - “belief seems critical. You don’t have to believe in God, but you do need the capacity to believe that things will get better. MIDTERM 3 Class 15 Personality psychology- looking for consistency in behavior Determining: The ways to describe the behavioral trends The causes of the consistencies The results/impacts of these individual differences Freud and his Psychodynamic approach to personality Psychodynamic theory- Personality is based on the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual. This includes forces that the individual is both aware, and unaware of -Conscious- the thoughts and experiences that impact our behavior that we are aware of -Unconscious- the thoughts and experiences that impact our behavior that we are unaware of Assumptions about the forces - Conscious and unconscious forces come from - Current experiences/desires of the individual - Past experiences/desire of the individual - Past traumatic experiences and unmet needs can result in abnormal behaviors and personality types - When these forces are subsided, a sense of relief can be experienced by the individual - Catharsis- a release of pent up emotional tensions What are these forces in conflict? - The ‘id’: an unconscious force that constantly seeks satisfaction of basic needs (survival, sex, immediate gratification - The ‘superego’: an unconscious force that’s only goal is to push us to do what is ‘right’ (social standards) - The ‘ego’: a conscious force that operates on the reality principle. It seeks to satisfy id’s and superego’s desires in realistic ways. Fixing abnormal personalities (Freud) In Freud’s approach, he felt that he needed to bring the unconscious “up”, to change personality. Look up: - Psychoanalysis - Free association - Dream interpretation - “Freudian Slips” - Hypnosis (section) The source of most personality (Freud) He believed that children of all ages have some sort of sexual tension that causes most personality. The tension is a result of Libido (psychosexual energy) - Oral (0-18 months)- pleasure centers on the mouth—sucking, biting, and chewing - Anal (18-36 months)- pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination—coping with demands for control - Phallic (3-6 years)- pleasure zone is the genitals -coping with incestuous sexual feelings - Latency (6 to puberty)- dormant sexual feelings - Genital (puberty on)- masturation of sexual interests Dealing with our drives- Freud believes that in order to deal with the tensions between our id, superego, and ego, we develop defense mechanisms. Help us remain sane while removing the stress of conflicting tensions Freud’s defense Mechanisms - Repression - Denial - Rationalization - Displacement - Regression - Projection - Reaction Formation - Sublimation Class 16 Carl Jung (1875- 1961) - Accepted Freud’s beliefs about the formation of personality - Formed from both conscious and unconscious - Past experiences have impact - Broke with Freud because of differing beliefs about personality formation - Did not agree with the id - Our look toward future is equally important - Archetypes- Vague, existential, and spiritual images/ concepts found within our personality. Some archetypes are inherited from ancestors experiences, others are unique to the individual Alfred Adlers - Student of Freud, broke away because of differing theories (too much focus on sex) - Formed a branch of psychology called individual psychology - Individual Psychology- an approach to study the personality of a person as a whole rather than in separate parts (id, superego, ego) - Believed that personality was based on our attempts to pursue our strengths and make up for our shortcomings - Striving for superiority- a desire to seek personal excellence and fulfillment - Inferiority complex- an exaggerated feeling of weakness, inadequacy, and helplessness due to assessing a lack in a skill Carl Roger’s and Humanistic Psych- betterment - Formed theory of personality that was focused on the positive aspects of the individual - Postulated that people are constantly striving for betterment and to reach a point of accurate self representation and a point self actualization - Self actualization- the achievement of one’s full potential through the alignment of selves - Actual self- the person that we are - Ideal self- the person that we want to be Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs - Maslow was another humanist. He believed in the concept of self-actualization. But in order to pursue that self-actualization a person has to have needs. Social Cognition in Personality - Individuals are constantly working to understand their environment - Develop personality from our social environment - What to want/think - How to obtain what we want Social-cognitive theorists Albert Bandura - Focused his research on how we learn to develop related behaviors - Modeling- the process of developing behaviors based on the observation of others and the outcomes that they experience (bobo doll experiments) Walter Mischel - Student of George Kelly - Focused research on the cognitions that we develop that form our personality - Also introduced the concept of competencies (the skill sets that we have available to deal with social situations) - Stressed that the combination of these predicted behavior (ex. A party for extraverts and introverts Study on Competencies - Delay of gratification- the ability to withstand temptation in order to achieve a greater reward (marshmallow study) - Found that these competencies can carry over to other abilities (early comparison) - Last a long time Class 17 Personality- all the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from and is similar to that of others, especially in social situations - Specific behaviors signify personalities - Personality measures cant determine what we would do in every social situation, but it can give us a good indication about what we are likely to do Traits- a distinguishing character or quality that can be used to describe consistent behaviors in an individual - Note: traits are hotly debated—many theories about traits and how many an individual has Personality in Traits research Two approaches: - Idiographic approach- studying personality by using detailed examinations of individuals (Freud’s work, Jung’s work, Rogers’ work) - Nomothetic approach- studying personality by examining large groups and tendencies of these groups (behavioral, questionnaire, other methods) (the social cognitive model, traits) First Trait Psychologists Gordon Allport (1897-1967)- nomothetic approach/idiographic - Graduated Harvard - “Breakthrough moment” with Freud - Presented his theories of personality (from graduate school)- was rejected - Became known as a rogue psychologist in the field States- momentary reactions to situations that are a direct result of the social environment Traits- stable behaviors that occur across situations and time - Cardinal traits- traits that are pervasive enough in that they tend to dominate one’s personality or even life (extremely rare) - Central traits- traits that cover a number of behaviors, but are not the dominant feature of one’s life - Secondary dispositions- traits that manifest themselves only on rare occasions, and play a minimal role in one’s life The Big 5 1.Openness to experience- a tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences and new ideas 2.Conscientiousness- a tendency to show self- discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for achievement and competence 3.Extraversion- a tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of others 4.Agreeableness- a tendency to be compassionate toward others 5.Neuroticism- a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions relatively easily Short comings of “the big 5” - Not always a good predictor of other cultures - Might have too few variables - Might have too many variables - Might not be a good predictor of specific behaviors Determinants of Personality Traits Genes- studies have shown that genes have a large impact on our personality (specific genes have not been linked to personality characteristics) The “Learning Approach” to Personality - Learning approach- our personality is the result of our recognized membership in groups, our roles in these groups, and the norms of the groups - Gender roles - Racial norms - Family traditions - Cultural norms and rules - Anchoring effect- our judgment of personality levels can be impacted by those around us and our own experiences Class 18 Clinical Psychology - Originally defined as abnormal psychology - Current focus is on the assessment and treatment of mental illness, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems Difficulty defining “abnormal behavior” - Abnormal definitions: - Any behavior that leads to distress (including distress to others), disability (impaired functioning), or an increased risk of death, pain, or loss of freedom - A display of undesirable thoughts and behaviors that is significantly different from the average and interferes with one’s life Considering a person’s cultural context - To determine if ones behavior is “abnormal”, we must look at their culture - Some cultures also can actually motivate people to illicit certain “abnormal” behaviors over others The “new” approach - Uniform definitions and standards for diagnosis - DSM (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders - Intended to list the “accepted labels” for all identified psychological disorders and describe their most widely used and beneficial treatments Problems with DSM - Difficult to differentiate between abnormal and normal - The manifestation of disorders often vary across individuals- both in the intensity and the symptoms of the disorder - Situational factors are often not taken into account when diagnosing disorders (break-up, death, job stability) Class 19 Therapeutic Approaches The Bio-Psycho-social Perspective- model that tries to figure out where mental problems are coming from - Most psyc


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