General Psychology, Topic: Memory
General Psychology, Topic: Memory PSY 1012
St. Petersburg College
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Laurain on Thursday July 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1012 at St. Petersburg College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 07/28/16
Chapter 6: Memory Memory- A mental process that allows us to acquire, retain, and receive information 1. Encoding- converting information to a language that the memory system understands 2. Storage- Retaining information for later use 3. Retrieval- accessing previously stored information Sensory Memory- Any information that is coming in at you at any given moment. (words, environment, light, etc.) Iconic Memory- Visual sensory memory. Echoic Memory- Auditory sensory memory Sensory memory only last a few seconds long until the next thing comes along Short Term Working Memory Central Executive- involved in retrieving, organizing, and integrating memories Visuospatial Sketchpad- Allows you to work with and manipulate visual information How many windows do you have in your house? Allows you to pull up the memory of your house and count the windows Phonological Loop- Allows you to work with and manipulate auditory manipulation Maintenance Rehearsal- Is where we repeat the information over and over in order to hold it longer in the short term working memory. Example: When you are trying to remember a phone number you keep repeating it over and over till you get something to write it down. Chunking- Is a process that we use to increase the amount of information that you can hold at any given time You short term working memory can only hold only 5-9 pieces of information at a time Serial Positioning Effect- A tendency to remember items at the beginning or the end Primary- A tendency to remember the beginning items Recency- A tendency to remember the items at the end Elaborate Rehearsal- Putting the information you are trying to remember into your own words and use our own examples Personalize- Come up with examples, experiences, and ideas where the information has applied to you personally Multi-sensory Encoding( your style of learning) o Visual learning o Auditory learning o Kinesthetic Learning – body movement will encode the info through muscle movement o Sematic- Looking at the big picture and how the information connects Long Term Memory Explicit Memory- Memories that we have to consciously recall Episodic Memory- Memory of events you have experienced Sematic Memory- General Knowledge (things you learn in school) Implicit Memory- Memory that you do not have to consciously recall Procedural Memory- Motor skills (brushing teeth, walking, ect. Classical conditioning Semantic Network Model- Information is organized in clusters and there are associations between the clusters and the associations are activated by language. Example: Someone says the word “purple” I immediately think of Barney Retrieval Ways to retrieve memory 1. Free Recall- The hardest form of retrieval because you have to be able to access the information without any help. 2. Cuing- The next hardest form of retrieval, using a hint to help access the information 3. Recognition- The easiest form of retrieval, being able to identify the correct information from a list (multiple choice tests) Tip-of- the tongue experience- Not being able to access information that you know is stored in long-term memory This is because you are not getting the proper retrieval cue Memory Strategies The more you practice, the more you remember Distributed Practice Effect (Spacing Effect)- Spacing out the work you have to do so you can recall it. Why We Forget Forgetting- Not being able to accesses that was previously available Encoding Failure Theory- The information never got transferred from short term working memory to long-term memory Absent Mindedness- you are not paying attention to the information when you should be in order to encode it into your long term memory Perspective Memories- memories for things that we need to do in the future Retrieval Cue Failure- Where we don’t have retrieval cues available to help us access the memory ( a hint to the memory) Memory Trace or Engram- A physical change in the brain when a memory is created Decay Theory- When you don’t activate the memory trace or engram regularly, normal metabolic changes cause them to dissolve. Problems with the theory: if your memories were decaying all the time you would constantly forget everything. You are able to access memories from years ago without accessing them regularly. Retrieval cues should not work if your memories dissolve. Interference Theory- Information competes for space Retroactive Interference- New information interferes with old information Proactive Interference- Old information interferes with new information Motivated Forgetting- We forget because we want to Suppression- Consciously forgetting the memory Repression- Forgetting at an unconscious level because the information is too traumatic or stressful so the unconscious pushes the memory out of awareness to protect the individual. Where is Memory Located Karl Lashley- Believed that memory is stored in the cortex of the brain. Kept cutting parts of rat’s cortexes to see if he could remove the memory of how to run a race- did not work Concluded that memories are stored throughout the brain Richard F. Thompson- Believed memory was stored in the cerebellum. Classically conditioned a rabbit to blink to a sound of tone. Removed some of the cerebellum to see if the memory Where memory is actually located Frontal Lobes- Involved integrating and processing episodic memories Prefrontal Cortex- Involved in sequencing events Amygdala- Involved in storing the emotional components of the memory and also storing the sensory stimuli associated with rewards and punishment Medial Temporal Lobe- Involved in integrating the different pieces of a memory that are spread throughout the entire brain. Hippocampus- Involved in forming new, long-term explicit memories Explicit memories two types: Episodic and semantic memories Cerebellum- Involved in storing implicit memories: procedural memories (muscle memory, how to do something) and classical conditioning Memory Disorders Amnesia- Memory loss Retrograde Amnesia- A loss of memories from the past, usually events Anterograde Amnesia- The inability to form new memories Famous Case of H.M. (1953)- Anterograde Amnesia. H.M. had epilepsy, they removed a portion of the limbic system, including the hippocampus. So, he could not form new explicit memories. Dementia- Involves memory, judgment, reasoning, and language. Alzheimer’s- If there is no evidence of why any of the above are impaired then it is diagnosed as Alzheimer’s. Cannot create new memories. Beta Amyloid Plaques- Protein deposits that build up around the neurons Neurofibrillary Tangles- Where the fibers in the neurons twist and tangle and no longer work correctly. Delirium- Involves memory but also involved in impairments in perception, orientation, attention, and disruption in the sleep- wake cycle Don’t know where they are at, who they are, and they have zero attention span. They may sleep all day and be up all night Causes: head injuries, strokes, side effects of medications, and anestisa Imperfect Memories How we organize memories: 1) Schema- a cluster of information based on what you know 2) Script- a sequence of events Elizabeth Loftus- Studied imperfect memories and the “Eye Witness effect” Misinformation Effect- The information you receive after an event will influence how you remember the event in the future Imagination Inflation- Where we can create memories of events that never occurred Recovering Repressed Memories- Even though repressed memories are pushed out of our consciousness they still effect your life. Psychologist have taken the stance that repressed memories don’t exist because the traumatic incident cannot be forgotten so it is still consciously stored in the brain.
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