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Biology 240 week 2 notes

by: Fadumo Abdullahi

Biology 240 week 2 notes Biology 240-01

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Biology 240-01 > Biology 240 week 2 notes
Fadumo Abdullahi
U of L
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About this Document

Chapter 5
Biology Unity of Life
Dr. Shira Rabin
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fadumo Abdullahi on Thursday July 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 240-01 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Shira Rabin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 224 views.


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Date Created: 07/28/16
Biology chapter 5:  Aside from water, living organisms consist mostly of carbon­based compounds - Inorganic compound: made by non­living things  - Organic compound:  Critically important molecule  - Carbohydrates - Proteins - Nucleic acids - Lipids Cells make and bread know polymers by the same process ­dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer, a water molecule is released ­Hydrolysis: breading down a polymer, adding water  Ex. Digestion, by adding water Diversity of Polymers Each cell has thousands of different macromolecules Small set of monomers= immense variety of polymers  Ex. Similar letters, words Variation among cells, within a species, between species  Carbohydrates  Sugars and the polymers of sugars  Monosaccharides  Polysaccharides Monosaccharides  Multiptles of CH2O  Glucose C6H12O6 most common monosaccharide Carbon can have 4 partners Glyceraldehyde: an initial breakdown product of gluceose in cells Ribose: component of RNA Disaccharide:  Ex: sucrose Glycosidic linkage: particular linkage for the carbohydrate  Glucose Polysaccharides  Polymers of sugars have storage and structural roles  Glucose polymers  Starch is a storage polysaccharide of plants (plants)  Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals,   stored mainly in liver and muscle cells  Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide in plants  Tough wall of plant cells Insoluble Fiber  Cellulose in human food passes through as insoluble fiber  Alpha linkage vs. beta linkages   Require different enzymes  Cows and termites have symbiotic relationships  Lipids:  Do not form true polymers (still dehydration rxs)   Unifying feature is little or no affinity for water  Hydrophobic hydrocarbons  Fats separate in water (why?)   Fats, phospholipids, and steroids Fats  Constructed from glycerol and fatty acids  One of three dehydration reactions Fatty acids  Vary in length and double bonds  Saturated fatty acids (solid at RT) ex. Butter, no double bond  Unsaturated fatty acids (liquid at room temperature) ex. Oil (not full of hydrogen)  Trans fats:   Major function of energy storage   Compact way for animals to carry their energy with them (plants don’t move)  Phospholipids  Two fatty acids + phosphate group + glycerol   Phospholipid Bilayer Steroids  Carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings  Cholesterol is found in animal cell membranes and is the source of steroid hormones Cholesterol <200mg/day Proteins  50% of the dry mass of most cells is protein - Structural protein: provide support - Storage proteins: provide amino acids for growth - Contractile proteins: help movement - Transport protein: help transport substances  - Enzyme protein: help chemical reactions  Monomer is amino acid  - Organic molecule with carboxyl and amino groups  - R groups  Polypeptides - C­terminus (carboxyl)  and N­terminus (amino) - N­termnius first and then c­terminus  - Peptide bond - Unique set of amino acids in a row Protein structure and Function - A functional protein has the  Correct sequence  Correct shape - A protein’s sequence determines its structure and  - A protein’s structure determines function  Four level of Protein Structure - Primary: the individual amino acids - Secondary: alpha helix or beta pleated sheet - Tertiary: further interaction of 3­D structure - Quaternary: multiple proteins that interact with each other Ex: collagen: 40% of the protein in a human body (connective tissue) keeping cells  together Ex; hemoglobin: found in red blood cells, carries oxygen What determines Protein Structure? - Physical and chemical conditions -          Changes in pH, salt concentration, temperature - Denaturation, goes back to its primary structure with is not functioning  Nucleic Acids - Two types of nucleic acids -                Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -                Ribonucleic acid (RNA) - DNA to RNA to PROTEIN Nucleotides  - Monomers called nucleotides - 5­carbon Sugars, phosphate, base - Bases -   Pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil and thymine - Purines: guanine and adenine  Sugar Groups; DNA (deoxyribose)  and RNA (ribose) Sugar phosphate backbone: 5’end and  3’end nucleic acid - DNA in Evolution DNA is passed from parents to offspring DNA differences between people Relatedness seen in DNA similarity 


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