NUR 460 - GI and Urinary - Chapter 36 Prenhall Notes
NUR 460 - GI and Urinary - Chapter 36 Prenhall Notes 460
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ndp33 on Thursday July 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 460 at Niagara University taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Nursing Concepts IV: Health of Maturing Adults / Chronic Disease in Nursing and Health Sciences at Niagara University.
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Date Created: 07/28/16
Chapter 36, according to Prenhall: -KUB test: Kidney, ureter, and bladder x-ray Preliminary screening for kidney stones Contrast (and an assessment for an allergy to shellfish) is required prior to a CT, but… Contrast is not required for a KUB test -laxatives and enemas (OTCs): Frequent use (by patients) can INCREASE problems of constipation Thus, it is important during interview process to obtain the history of patient’s use -Risks for developing kidney disease: AA descent DM (but not if you had a relative of DM, you need to have it yourself) Benign prostatic hypertrophy -If you are evaluating a patient for parasites, and GI sx include weight loss and diarrhea, be sure that one of the interview questions includes: “Have you traveled anywhere?” -Ex. Retroperitoneal organs: Kidneys, Ureters (located in posterior retroperitoneal cavity) Pancreas (located in anterior retroperitoneal cavity) Note: Gallbladder is in peritoneal cavity (in RUQ) -Dullness on percussion over the bladder indicates… A full bladder Chapter 37, according to Prenhall: -Normal BMI ranges: <18.5 = underweight 18.5 – 24.9 = healthy weight 24.9 – 29.9 = overweight According to webmd -fungal stomatitis Clinical manifestations = white curdlike patches on tongue From Oral candiadis -Vincent’s stomatitis Bacterial infection Erythematosus ulceration and necrosis of gingival margins Red gingival papilla, Increased salivation, purulent gray exudate, foul breath, Bleeding gums, Pain -contact stomatitis A bacterial stomatitis Painful red maculae with erythematous halos in early stage Ulcerative stage: ulcers covered with grayish membrane -Barrett’s epithelium Can be diagnosed following an endoscopy Precancerous tissue located in esophagus From repeated exposure of erosive stomach acidic contents, leading to inflammation Inflammation becomes chronic, replaced epithelial cells with columnar cells Increases risk of esophageal cancer -Achalasis Esophageal tears may be associated with achalasis Esophageal strictures may be associated with achalasis -Celiac disease diagnosis Can be diagnosed with IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies, which are sensitive and specific, but… Biopsy of small intestine is gold standard to Celiac disease diagnosis -GERD Diagnosed with gastric pH analysis Associated with ulcers and inflamed tissues Contributing factors: o Citrus-y and spicy foods and drinks (b/c they lower the lower esophageal sphincter pressure, casuing reflux oc acidic contents into stomach) o 1pack-per-day smoking (b/c nicotine lowers esophageal pressure) -Difference in sx of IBD and Crohn’s disease: With Crohn’s disease, malabsorption of nutrients often occurs, and is more specific to Crohn’s than to IBD -Problem indicative of bowel obstruction in colon cancer: CONSTIPATION -double-barrel colostomy =appliance applied to proximal stoma only There are two stomas on abdominal surface; Distal colon is bypassed but not removed; and may be reanastomized. Proximal stoma will have fecal discharge and will require application of ostomy appliance (bag) to collect feces Treatment in colon cancer -Reason for no taking NSAIDs if have peptic ulcer disease (PUD): NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin formation and secretion by mucosa, increasing PUD risk More specifically, protective ability by mucosa is reduced (From decreased prostaglandin release) if taking NSAIDs and have PUD -Cause(s) of PUD: H. pylori (bacteria) is thought to be a cause of PUD o So, there should be good hand hygiene, since H. pylori is found in saliva and feces, and since it could be transmitted oral-oral and fecal- oral routes -What stoma should look like: Beefy red or pink and moist 2-3 cm from abdominal wall If purple (and moist), this could indicate poor circulation If PALE and pink, there could be impaired circulation -
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