NUr 460 - Cranial Nerves
NUr 460 - Cranial Nerves 460
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ndp33 on Thursday July 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 460 at Niagara University taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Nursing Concepts IV: Health of Maturing Adults / Chronic Disease in Nursing and Health Sciences at Niagara University.
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Date Created: 07/28/16
CRANIAL NERVE NOTES List the CNs that are purely motor: Trochlear (CNIV), abducens (CNVI), accessory (CNVI), hypoglossal (CNXII) List the CNs that are purely sensory: olfactory (CNI), optic (CNII), vestibulocochlear (CNVIII). List the CNs that have both sensory and motor components: Trigeminal (CNV); facial (CNVII), glossopharyngeal (CNIX), and vagus (CNX), (which also have a parasympathetic component), What are the 3 components of the Trigeminal Nerve? Describe their distribution and function. 1)ophthalmic (CN V1, sensory), maxillary (CN V2, sensory), and mandibular (CN V3, motor and sensory) branches. The ophthalmic and maxillary branches and sensory branches, and the mandibular branches have sensory and motor branches. The sensory branches leave the branstem at the midlateral surface of pons, and they are distributed in the trigeminal ganglion b/t the layers of the dura mater (in a depression on the floor of the middle crania fossa). From here in the ganglion, they converge to form the three branchhes of the trigeminal nerve. The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide the tactile, motion, position, and pain sensations of the face and mouth. The motor branch of the mandivular branch of the trigeminal nerve exists the foramen ovale. The motor function activates the muscles of the jaw and mouth, and inner ear. Overall, the function of the trigeminal nerve is for sensation and motor function in the face and mouth. How would you test for these 3 areas? Assess motor function by having the patient close his eyes, frown… Also palpate the jaw and temples as the patient has his teeth clenched; Assess sensory function by touching a cotton ball to areas of the face; assess corneal reflex by touching the cornea with a small piece of cotton. What does the 9th CN do? General sensation; chemo/baroreception; taste, swallowing, salivation Recall: Baroreceptors are mechanoreceptors located in blood vessels that help brain to regulate BP, affecting CO and peripheral vascular resistance What does the 10th CN do? General sensation; chemo/baroreception; visceral sensation; speech and swallowing; control of the C.V. GI. and respiratory systems by supplying parasympathetic motor fibers. Note: CNX controls organ systems by supplying parasympathetic motor fibers from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. Note: visceral relates to visceral organs (internal organs) Describe how you would test their actions? Evaluate the movement of the uvula; evaluate the soft palate for symmetry and pharyngeal movement movement with a tongue blade. The uvula and soft palate should rise in the midline, and the tonsillar pillars should move medially. Check gag reflex as well (by touching the posterior pharyngeal wall with a tongue blade). (With the tongue blade in the place, have the patient say “Ahhh…”) How would you test the actions of CN 11? Check the movement and size of the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles. Also check for equal strength of the sternomastoid muscles by having the patient rotate his head forcibly against restistance to the side of his chin. Check for equal strength of the trapezius muscles by asking the patient to shrug his shoulders against resistances. How would you test the actions of CN12? Inspect the tongue for symmetry, and atrophy. Note its movement when you ask the patient to protrude it forward. Have the person say “light, tight, dynamite,” and note for clearness of the words. What CN innervates the levator palpebrae muscle (eyelid)? Oculomotor nerve (CNIII) If this nerve is damaged, what would you expect to see? Ptosis, or dropping of the eyelid List the CNs associated with the PNS (Parasympathetic nervous system): Oculomotor (CNIII), Facial (CNVII), Glossopharyngeal (CNIX), Vagus (CNX) What function does the PNS component perform in each of these? 1.) For the oculomotor cranial nerve, the main function of the PNS is pupillary constriction and accommodation. (The PNS constricts the pupils, innervating the ciliary muscles of each eyeball.) 2.) For the facial cranial nerve, the main function of the PNS is salivation and lacrimation. (The PNS innervates the salivary and lacrimal glands via the submandibular and pterygopalantine ganglia.) 3.) For the glossopharyngeal nerve, the main function of the PNS is salivation from the salivary glands (via the otic ganglion). 4.) For the vagus nerve, the main function of the PNS is control of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems. (use all the files that I sent to you)
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