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ARTH 271 Notes over International Scene since 1950s

by: Taylor Notetaker

ARTH 271 Notes over International Scene since 1950s ARTH

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I didn't include the chapter because it could vary depending on the book.
Art History Survey 2
Wanda Wilkey
Class Notes
Art, history
25 ?




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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Friday July 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH at Indiana State University taught by Wanda Wilkey in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 2 in 272 at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 07/29/16
CH 33- The International Scene since 1950 INTRO: 1083 Leading figures of new New York art : Jasper Johns and Rauschenberg  Dialed down Abstract Expressionists intensity and cooled the passion  Reintroduced recognizable images and objects  Inspired by and connected to postwar America  Prefigured popart  Used nontraditional materials  Possibly performance art Clement Greenberg’s Formalism: “art should be autonomous and internally coherent (deeply meaningful but abstract, with the act of painting as its subject, and with an all-over composition); that it should avoid the taint of popular culture and be exhibited in the isolated white cube of the gallery space; and that artists should be vigilantly self-critcial” Target with Plaster Casts – Jasper Johns (1082)  Both sculpture and painting  Targets flatness = overall comp  Based on artists own anxiety and fears  Gay (silenced yet boldly present)  Flaps can be opened or closed based on viewer choice  Inspired by Marcel Duchamp “Fountain” THE WORLD SINCE THE 1950s : 1084 US and USSR = most powerful nations after WWII Cold War  Fueled by: communist governments, emergence of Republic of China  US wanted to stop expansion  Winston Churchill “descending of Iron Curtain across Europe”  Grew to a mutually assured destruction  Ended with fall of Berlin Wall  US emerged as unchallenged superpower United Nations  Formed after Cold War in 1945  Designed for a postwar world order  Proven inadequate in ethnic and religious conflicts Art after the 1950s  New fundamental questions  Used to portray complex social and political controversies  Addressed: gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, class, death, colonialism, terrorism, violence against unfortunate, and resistance to power  We end up questioning ourselves THE EXPANDING ART WORLD : 1084 – 1095 New ideas for artists  Pop artists : power of advertising  Photographers : what we had not seen or chose not to see Assemblage  New in 2ndhalf of 20 century  Combines many things to create art (found objects)  Can be music and other things as well  Broke meaning and the actual physical forms of things  Nevelson, Johns, Rauschenberg, and Cage = leading artist of assemblage Sky Cathedral – Louise Nevelson (1084)  Assemblage piece  Used boxes and found wood objects  Analytic Cubist inspired  Painted all matte black to: integrate, provide mystery, and obscure identity  More powerfully than individually alone  Originally displayed in blue light for moonlight effect 4’33” – John Cage  Type of musical assemblage  Used ambient noise (world around him)  4 min 33 sec  Sat at piano silently until time was up  Composition was of background noise only  Every “performance was different” due to different location and crowd Canyon – Robert Rauschenberg (1086)  His example of a combine (combination of painting and sculpture using nontraditional materials  Uses: old photo, public imagery Statue of Liberty, political posters, objects from trash (steel drum), stuffed eagle from friend, dirty pillow on string  Meant to challenge viewers  Loved the chaos Museum of Modern Art  Had exhibit called “The Art of Assemblage” in 1961  Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns were two US artists Collaborations of the 3 artists  Worked on theatrical events  1950-1960  Cage composed music  Other two designed and even performed  Merce Cunningham Dance Company – specialized dance based on every day actions  Known for its unpredictability because they didn’t inform each other of plans Happenings = Performance Art  Coined by Allan Kaprow  Because process was as important as finished product  Began to replace materials with actions  Owes its debt to Pollock (physical action of painting sparked viewers)  Often radical and assaultive  Short lived even though it can be filmed or photographed Gutai Group  Gutai = embodiment  Earliest postwar performances in Japan  Organized outdoor installations (art in a specific place where it was made), theater events, and dramas Hurling Colors – Shozo Shimamoto (1088)  In second Gutain Ex. 1956  Smashed bottles filled with paint on canvas  Focused on the performance of painting, not product  Often discarded finished “painting” because wasn’t the point Yard – Allan Kaprow (1088) Student of John Cage Created environments and Happenings Filled space with tires, tar paper, and barrels Viewers were to climb in and over them to experience smell and feeling Recontextualized = remove from one context to create new meaning New Realism movement (term by Pierre Restany)  Point of taking art into the real world  Painting ended with New York School and Art Informel  Considered the world a painting Anthropometries of the Blue Period - Yves Klein  3 female naked bodies  Pressed again sheets of paper to a song  20 piece orchestra of a single note  Satirical comment on Pollocks action painting  Dislikes artist who relieve all of themselves into painting Leap Into the Void – Yves Klein (1089)  Manipulated photograph  Published twice : once to support mock claim that he could undertake lunar travel unaided and in a pamphlet to denounce NASA’s idea to land on moon was foolish Most performing artists were women, wanted to gain control of body image Meat Joy – Carolee Schneemann (1089)  Has been done before  8 men and women undress each other  Dance, roll on floor, play with meat, blood, paper, and paint  Wants audience and performers to smell, taste, and feel body and fluid  Audience does not have control Photography was important to Performance Art Family of Man – Edward Steichen Projected life at peace Mainly showcased: suburban, white, and domestic Trolly, New Orleans – Robert Frank (1090)  Showed America in truer form  Gritty social portraits to embody the disharmony like Johns and Rauschenberg  Received Guggenheim Fellowship in 1955  Supposed to be of American life  Took 28,000 and used 83 to create a book  Wouldn’t accept in America, so he published in France (too grim, raw, and full of social issues)  Whites in front, blacks in back  Window frames = racial segregation and urban alienation Child with A Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, New York – Diane Arbus (1090)  Rejects elegant art photography  Her and husband were chose Seventeen magazine cover photographers  Didn’t want formalness to distract viewers from disturbing subjects  Showcased nudists, physical deformities, and other fringing societal things  Thought if she didn’t photo it, people wouldn’t ever know or see Pop Art  New focus on visual culture fueled by more income and mass media  Originated in Britain  Exceled in US identity of people became more about appearance and consumption  Artists critiqued fiction of the perfect home and person Richard Hamilton – London, England : Great Britain  Member of Independent Group in London  Said mass visual culture was replacing traditional art  Movies, TV, and advertising defined standards beauty, not high art  People idolized movie stars  Social status was determined by possessions  Visual overload on cultures inability to differentiate between important and unimportant Just What is it That Makes Today’s Homes So Different? – Hamilton (1091)  Critiqued marketing strategies by copying them  Supposed to be Adam and Eve, but present day  Half Naked but more tempting (bodybuilder and pin-up)  Filled home with new products Andy Warhol – dominant figure of pop art  Used mass production to give flat, commercial feel  Defied abstract expressionism on individual practice  More ironic, camp, and cynical than Johns and Rauschenberg  Published Interview magazine  Managed The Velvet Underground (a rock band)  Took consumer goods and used for art ideas  Used method silkscreen (fine mesh silk as a stencil)  Named art studies “The Factory” jokingly saying he was only in it for profit Brillo Soap Pads Box – Andy Warhol (1092)  Hired carpenters to make identical looking boxes  Useless replicas  Turned Stable Gallery (NY) into mock stockroom Marilyn Diptych – Andy Warhol (1093)  Made right after death  Shows untrue form (Hollywood version)  Religious connotations (altars)  Implies she was a saint or goddess  Did not re-ink so it would fade  Shows desensitization to death with constant repetition Standard Station, Amarillo, Texas – Ed Ruscha (1094)  Like Warhol in he changed every day things  Concentrated on signage in advertising  Based on 1962 book of 26 b&w photos of gas stations on Route 66  Appeared in Pasadena Museum of Art Oh, Jeff…I Love You, Too…But... – Roy Lichtenstein (1094)  Imitated comics and cartoons  Used basis of war and romance  Focused on significant emotions or actions  Black outlines, primary colors, and Benday dots (comic book relation)  Ironic in that it is respective and a high art concept of a normally unrealistic and dramatic idea Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks – Claes Oldenberg (1095)  Created ironic art  Resembles mobile missile launcher but also erotic because of lipstick  May allude to “make love not war”  Tip was going to be a balloon with pump  Placed at Yale in front of president office, asked to move  Now at courtyard in Yale THE DEMATERIALIZATION OF THE ART OBJECT : 1095 – 1103  Youth in Europe and US questioned authority and rights of state with civil rights movements, massive rallies against draft, environmentalist and feminist movements, and Paris revolts of 1968  Women rallied in large groups  Art meant to be viewed outside the gallery  Move toward dematerialized art (end of 1960s) Minimalism = ABC Art or Primary Structures  Dominated New York  Artists include: Donald Judd, Robert Morris, Carl Andre  Slab like structures made from industrial materials (Plexiglas, fluorescent lighting, steel, mirrors)  No focal point  Many critics  Formalist, Michael Fried, wrote “Minimal objects suffer from “object-hood”, that they held no more interest than non-art objects” …..thought it didn’t hold your attention long (like Pop Art) Untitled – Donald Judd (1096)  He said “Minimalism should consist of real or “specific” objects” in “Specific Objects” article  Used mathematically constructed impersonal shaped without hierarchy  No base or case around the objects  Used 10 rectangular units made from iron and Plexiglas Untitled (Mirror Cube) – Robert Morris (1097)  Explored the boring by making simple unitary objects  Has no focus  Boxes reflect world around them, does not refer to the box itself  Viewers had to really study the purpose to appreciate it Conceptual Art  Move away from Minimalism  Suggests that concept and form are separate  Could be: a physical object, performance, manifestation, or written or spoken  Usually some visual trace like a piece of paper or photo  No actual object to purchase except the evidence Joseph Beuys  Most significant European conceptual artist  Fighter pilot for Germany during WWII  Shot down and save by Tartars who wrapped him in animal fat and felt  Developed mysterious persona as an artist How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare – Joseph Beuys (1097)  He would sit in chair surrounded by own pictures  Holding a dead rabbit  Face coated in honey and gold leaf  Mumble unintelligently  Left foot on felt = spiritual warmth  Right foot on steel = cold hard reason  “Even a dead animal preserves more powers of intuition than some human beings” One and Three Chairs – Joseph Kosuth (1097) His early work indebted to Duchamp Visual rendition of semiotic theory Could be 1 chair shown 3 ways or 3 different chairs “Which is the “real” chair?” Self-Portrait as a Fountain – Bruce Nauman (1098) 11 color photographs to create visual puns References Duchamps urinal image titled Fountain Meant to show the problem of communication Process Art Minimilaism and Concept Art backed art into a corner Too torn apart by social and political conflict Artists refused to eliminate the personal meaning from their work Valued the process Eva Hesse Focused on art with personal history and meaning Was in the holocaust Originally painted dark self-portraits then turned to abstract sculpture “Art and life are inseparable. If I can name the content (of art)…. It’s the total absurdity of life.” No Title (Ropes) – Eva Hesse (1098) About instability Changes every time its installed Ropes dipped in latex, knotted, and tangled Fragile, evocative (haunting), sensuous, and delicate Burnt Piece – Jackie Winsor (1099) Made from wire, mesh, cement, and wood Shape alludes to Minimalism Detail is within Refers to her childhood (father was a house builder) Feminism and Art  First generation: o addressed that women were never mentioned in historical texts o attacked the idea that fine arts (paint, sculpture, architecture) are better than craft arts (fabric, jewelry, ceramic) o idea that women were second-class status because they typical create craft art o essentialist (focused on bodies and defined gender in biological terms)  second generation o defined gender in more relativist terms o Linda Nochlin “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” o Deconstructed the canon and called for re-evaluation of the “feminine” arts o Laure Mulvey and John Berger challenged how men look at women in life and art  Third generation o 1990s o Range of issues about discrimination and disapproval of women Judy Cohen/Chicago  Changed last name to birthplace to rid of male dominance  Created abstract images of female genitalia to challenge male-dominated art  Feminist art course art Fresno State College (Cali State University)  Feminist Art Program at CalArts with Miriam Schapiro The Dinner Party – Judy Chicago (1100)  Largest and well known feminist artwork  Took 5 years of collaborative work  Triangle shape = equality and symbol of feminism  “Heritage Floor” names of 999 notable women  13 place setting on each side (39 total)  13 = how many men at Last Supper & number of witches in a coven  Runner under each place is appropriate to time and place of the woman it is for  Plate covered in abstraction of female anatomy (one thing they had in common)  Empty plates = unrecognized in history Collaborations of Feminists  Chicago, Schapiro, 21 female students: Womanhouse o Rundown mansion in Hollywood with rooms filled of feminist installations  Sherry Brody and Schapiro: Dollhouse o Mini rooms with mixed media, mainly fabric Personal Apperance # 3 – Miriam Schapiro (1101)  Example of femmage (female collage)  Celebrates traditional female crafts  Used of fabric and paint  Countered Minimalist by the richness  She lead the Pattern and Decoration Movement Ana Mendieta  Born in Cuba moved to Iowa by “Operation Peter Pan o 14000 children relocated after Fidel Castro in power  Never recovered and felt desire to leave bodily imprint to rid of sense of dislocation  Inspired by: Santeria (African Cuban religion) and Beuys  Produced 200 body works called “silhouettes”  Photographed or filmed herself within nature Tree of Life – Ana Mendieta (1102)  Example of silhouettes  Arms raised in reference to earth goddess  Connection to “maternal source”  Celebrates idea that women have deeper connection with nature Earthworks & Site-Specific  Site-specific = designed for a specific location  Earthworks used land as canvas and used raw material around them to create the art  Some were permanent, others were temporary  Some have remote access, others are viewable to anyone  Not “for sale” like Performance and Conceptual art  Not to be confused with Environmental Art (draw attention to natural environment) Spiral Jetty – Robert Smithson (1103)  Illustrate ongoing dialectic of construction and deconstruction  Salty water and algae suggest Primordial Ocean where life began and a dead sea that killed it  Abandoned oil rigs at shore = abandonment of civilization  Shape = growth vs decay, open vs close, coming and going  No maintenance to be done  Still be seen on Google Earth The Gates, Central Park, New York – Christo and Jeanne- Claud (1103)  Wrapped or packaged buildings or large land areas in fabric  Took years to plan  Hardest and longest was fighting bureaucracies  Actual wrapping only took a few weeks  Sights only remained up for a few days  Funded the projects from books, sale of other art, and ephemera ARCHITECTURE: MID CE. MOD TO POSTMOD: 1104 - 1107 International Style dominated after WWII, stood for corporate power and wealth Seagram Building, New York – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe & Johnson (1104)  Extreme example of postwar International Style  Crisp, clean lines became standard for corps  Efficient construction and materials = could pack lots of office space onto a small lot  “Less is more”  Added nonfunctional bronze beams for deco and match internal beams Trans World Airlines (TWA) Terminal, J.F.K. Airport, NY – Eero Saarinen (1105)  Broke out of box to evoke thrill and glamour  Shape resembles bird about to take flight  Inside is large and open, every aspect complimenting a winged theme Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, NY – Frank Lloyd Wright (1105)  Created to house his personal collection of art  Organic shape of a spiral  Intended for visitors to start at top and then spiral down a slope, viewing art  Interior has “living room” intimacy  Most distinctive museum spaces Postmodern Architecture  1970s moved away from the sleek style of International  Trace to Jane Jacobs (wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities) and Robert Venturi o “Less is a bore” (Mies parody) o Accused them of ignoring human needs to create uniformity and purity o Wanted architects to embrace eclecticism (using different styles) o Started reference to past architect styles o Applied nonfunctional décor Vanna Venturi House, Chesnut Hill – Robert Venturi (1106)  Created during his writing of Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture  Made for his mother  Façade resembles traditional Western shape (Mods rejected because of historical assoc.)  Triangles and squares asymmetrically placed (Modernist)  Curved moldings are purely decorative  Most disruptive = deep cleavage with wall and chimney behind AT&T Corporate Headquarters – Philip Johnson and John Burgee (1107)  Now the Sony Building  36 oversized stories equivalent to 60 stories  International – smooth uncluttered  Classical – window groupings between piers  Chippendale highboy – 18 ce. Chest with long base and angled top  Coin Slot (old pay phone) – round notch and doorway POSTMODERNISM: 1107 – 1115  Developed in 70s and went through the 80s  Idea of ideal, pure and perfection seemed foolish to young artists  Strategy of making art  Rejected seriousness (Modernism) made more messy and mock political images  Recontextualized already created art  Reflects pluralism (social and cultural diversity)  Real constant is change and we have one thing in common: difference Painting  Neo-Expressionism = first Inter. Expression of Postmodernism  Two exhibits almost entirely men (Zeitgeist had 1 female) Heath of the Brandenburg March – Anselm Kiefer (1108)  German artist  Showcases German’s Nazi past  Influenced by Beuys  Shows impact of the war near Berlin  Words are of Nazi marching song Horn Players – Jean-Michel Basquiat (1108)  Neo-Expressionist canvases from graffiti art  Rebelled, quit school, became street artist  Looks childish but actually sophisticated  Addressed race and the street  “Black people are never portrayed in Modern Art, and I’m glad to do that”  Died of heroin overdose at 27 Man Shot Down, Erschossener, From October 18, 1977 – Gerhard Richter (1109)  German artist  Said that having a single personal style is dumb (each content should determine the form)  Life size painting of newspaper photos Postmodernism & Gender  Patriarchy = masculine control of power in society  Postmodernism, feminism, and photography all forced viewers to see the difference  Thought photography was good source because it was neither fine nor craft  “An International Survey of Painting and Sculputre” displayed most important art of time  169 were men, 13 were women Untitled Film Still # 21 – Cindy Sherman (1109)  Black and white photos of herself posing like women from known movies of 60s  (small town girl, Southern belle, hardworking housewife, and teenager by the phone)  Complicates relationship of looking and observed The Advantages of Being a Woman Artist – Guerilla Girls (1111)  Developed to be the “the conscience of the art world”  Wore gorilla makes to hide identity  Took fake names on of dead women artists  Used the tactic of guerilla warfare  Shows statistics on discrimination  Often funny and sarcastic  85% of nudes were women, but only 5% women artist (Met Museum) Untitled (Your Gaze Hits The Side of My Face) – Barbara Kruger (1110)  Signature style: black and white with a red outline  Just like advertisements  Personalizes relationship between viewer and viewed by “You”  Typically the viewer holds the gaze and is control, but with face turned on the viewed it changes Postmodernism & Race or Ethnicity  Explore how race and gender combine to silence artists Tar Beach – Faith Ginggold (1111)  Painted on soft fabrics, trimed with quilt border  Ringgolds mom made quilt border until death, Ringgold took over  Started as a written autobiography but couldn’t find a publisher so made on quilts instead  “story quilting”  8 year old Cassie Louise is actually her  Had ice cream every night Stereo Styles – Lorna Simpson (1112)  Double row, ten total, polaroid  Often showed black girls with head turn to suggest that people only see body or hair  Terms used: o Sensible o Daring o Severe o Long and silky o Boyish o Ageless o Silly o Magnetic o Country fresh o Sweet The Division of the Barrios – Judith Baca (1112)  Show recount of history of Cali through Mexican, African, and Japanese  Shows neighborhood protesting, deportation, and internment of Jap  Like Chicago’s Dinner Party (collaborative) Many Mansions – Kerry James Marshall (1113)  Irony on race, class, and poverty  “In my mother’s house there are many mansions” John 14:2  Based triangle comp off of Gericaults, The Raft of the “Medusa”  Liked genre and narrative painting The Artifact Piece – James Luna (1114)  Confronts Indian stereotypes  Himself as the object  Surrounds with artifacts form own life  Sets up as a museum showcase with signs Sculpture  Followed footsteps of Andy Warhol (pop culture) Pink Panther – Jeff Koons (1114)  Everyday household objects and enshrined them (Duchamp)  Pastel colors like Warhol’s Marilyn  Welcomes disproval  Straightforwardly shallow Titled Arc – Richard Sera (1115)  Commission by General Services Administration  Completely changed public area and annoyed them  Later moved to a parking lot and ticked off people  Took them to court, ignored the aesthetic, focused on right to create the piece as planned and approved Vietnam Veterans Memorial – Maya Lin (1116)  Polished black granite  Criticized for color because it represents shame and sorrow for all  For Vietnam Veterans commissioned by Vietnam Veterans  58,272 names of killed by date ART, ACTIVISM, AND CONTROVERSY IN THE 90s: 1116 – 1129  80s – 90s  Referred to as “Culture Wars”  Artists felt they had right to make art that could be offensive  Many worked with passion because of AIDS movement  Saw digital age  Culture Wars deliberately intended to offend viewers  NEA Four (four cases of artist challenged and protected) Holy Virgin Mary – Chris Ofili (1118)  Part of Culture Wars  Elephant dung = Zimbabwe fertility  Should public money be given to offensive artists?  Funded by NEA (National Endowment of Arts) was in Brooklyn Museum in which pastor asked to take down  Withheld 500,000 dollar monthly payment  Filed a lawsuit to revoke its lease  Museum responds with an injunction against him (first amendment violation)  Gov. says “can’t protect any or all religions from views distasteful to them. Cant subsidize all manner of which they do not agree or even abhor” Piss Christ – Andres Serrano (1119)  Another Culture War  Critics say “hate-filled, bigoted, and anti-Christian”  Filled with own urine  Confronts physicality of death of Christ, too easily forgotten  “misuse of public funds”  Republicans agreed Mother and Child Divided – Damien Hirst (1120)  He was a part of Brilliant (22 British artists)  When taken to Brooklyn, was considered offensive and threatened to close whole museum  Most outrageous YBA (Young British Artists)  For the love of God (skull covered in diamonds worth 100 million)  Worked with dead animals and put in formaldehyde solution  Van walk around and in between  Mad Cow Disease was prominent (also BSE)  Shows : life and death, mother child Activist Art  Increased in 90s due to AIDS, government inaction  Led to angry art about the body, AIDS, and identity Untitled (Loverboy) – Felix Gonzalez-Torres (1120)  Had partner dying from AIDS  Simple idea: stack of blue paper  Viewers were to take one as they walked by  Allowed for piece to literally disappear  Signified his partner fading away  He died too Untitled (Hands) – David Wojnarowicz (1121)  Died of aids like his partner  Made forcefully aggressive art about: fear watching loved die while dying  Superimpose angry red text from book “Memories That Smell Like Gasoline”  Book was in exhibition “witnesses Against our Vanishing” Untitled (hanging bodies) – Kiki Smith (1122)  Physicality of human body reasserted itself as a site for the discourse on AIDS  Milk dripping from breasts  Semen dripping from penis  Suggest loss of control of bodily fluids (humiliating)  Sense of loss but release Homeless Vehicle – Krzysztof Wodiczko (1122)  Collaboration with the homeless in NY  Draws attention to problem of homelessness in richest city in richest country  Upgraded version of shopping cart  Has waterproof and sleeping pod, baskets for belongings, flag for approach  Authority thought they made homeless too visible House – Rachel Whiteread (1123)  Casted inverse of everyday objects  Largest controversial piece was House  Sprayed concrete inside before being destroyed  Showcased: homelessness, costs and benefits of renewal Postcolonial Discourse  Questions personal, political, cultural, and national identity struggles  Miscommunication between colonized and postcolonized Rebellious Silence – Shirin Neshat (1124)  Shows how Iranian women are stereotypes in Western Culture  Says we are more complex and varied  Usually shows a body part with written text on it, covered by weapon  Weapon sort of protects from viewer  Also tempts us to categorize her  Challenge us to acknowledge her as an individual with her gaze  Prompts us to see the stereotypical side but fight it Green Painting IV – Rasheed Araeen (1125)  Young bull with garland for a ritual sacrifice  Green = primary color in Pakistani flag, important in Islam, suggest youthful rawness and flexibility  Those who recognized cross usually refer to Christian views (misinterprets) Color Me – Berni Searle (1125)  Head and torso with powdered pigment  Changes her skin color: red to yellow to white to brown  Race is only Superficial (only skin deep) High Tech & Deconstructivist Architecture  Development of CAD and 3D graphics High Tech  Characterized by spectacular use of technology, materials, equipment, and components  Displays service systems like heating and power Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank – Norman Foster (1126)  Spared no expense in design  Added to bronze lions from previous bank for entrance  Viewers rubbed lions for good luck Deconstructivist  More theory based than high tech  Developed by Jacques Derrida  “intertextual” (plays on meaning depending on location and use)  “decentered” Vitra Fire Station – Zaha Hadid (1127)  Influenced by Kasimir Malevich  Concrete walls lean into each other (feelings of immediacy speed and dynamic) Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao – Frank O. Gehry (1127)  Art museums became the visual landscape of cities  From N side = living organism  Other angles = giant ship  Interior displays art (like Frank Lloyd Wrights Guggenheim) Video & Film  Rapid development of hand held video cameras  Name June Paik said “like collage replaced oil, tv tube will replace canvas” Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S. – Nam June Paik (1128)  Artist influenced by John Cage in experiment with music  Started video same year sony released first video camera  Soundtrack images of each state’s culture and history  Addressed the prevalence and power of mixed messages by tv  Live video feed of spectators (became part of piece) The Crossing – Bill Viola (1129)  Double projection  One soundtrack (sounds different depending on what your looking at)  Fire vs water  Elemental symbolism is informed by Viola’s spirituality and intense study of world religions GLOBALISM: INTO THE NEW MILLENNIUM: 1129 – 1137  Growth in International exhibits  Collectors could meet and network in ways never before  Internet allows quick and easy visual access to about anything  Art heading in every direction, all at the same time  Today’s artists are actively engaged in society and reflect the troubling and uncentered times Art & Technology The Sun – Dale Chihuly (1130)  Artist is major public glass sculptures  Is of blown glass  Based on sun and nature After “Invisible Man’ By Ralph Ellison, The Preface – Jell Wall (1131)  Example of how easy it is to manipulate photos  Compiled digital images  Based on Ralph Ellison’s novel about an African American searching for fulfillment that ends in retreat  Took 18 months  1,369 light bulbs  Lights show sad truth of characters existence Multiplexed – Tony Oursler (1131)  One example of artists installation that showcases what we seem to not be able to live without  Others: money, cigarettes, self-help books, and a genie bottle with artist himself  References Pop art Art & Identities  Investigate individual and group identies Cremaster 3: Mahabyn – Matthew Barney (1132)  Still image of a series of films  Developed arcane sexual mythology  Cremaster muscle = controls ascent and descent of testes; from fear, temp, or sexual arousal  In Cremaster 3 : construction of Chrylser building, Serra as architect  Setting: Guggenheim Museum rotunda VB35 Performance – Vanessa Beecroft (1133)  Artist is Italian but moved to US  Also set in Guggenheim like Barney’s  Title is based on fact that it’s her 35 piece  Performance was invitation only  Audience given rules: do not make eye contact or speak, do not invade space  Role reversal of looked at and looking  Viewers felt intimidated and discomfited China Monument: Temple of Heaven – Wenda Gu (1133)  Meant to bring people together in odd way  Made of human hair from people worldwide  Does national and international monuments (only uses hair from those places) Untitled (Flag) – David Hammons (1134)  Said “art world is like Novocain; used to wake up but now puts you asleep”  Witty piece on African American place in society  Colors: o red = blood that unites them and that was spilled for liberation o black = symbolic nation of black people o green = lands of Africa How to Blow Up Two Heads At Once (Ladies) – Yinka Shonibare (1135)  Shows how identity is constructed and perceived by history  Life-size sculptures  Race is undetermined  Seem to have masculine hands  Confusion because: o Fabric typically associated with West African nations o Colors and pattern originate from Indonesia, but come from Dutch and Britain as well  Challenges our perception making it difficult to tell exactly who or where the models are from 133 People Paid to Have Their Hair Dyed Blond – Santiago Sierra (1135)  Shows how race and poverty are tied  Paid non-European men to dye their hair blonde  Also had to make themselves visible around Venice during the exhibit  Catapulted a group that normally blends in background  Also alludes to their poverty (only dyed hair because they need the money) Fred Wilson  Artist acknowledges that curators create art history and reveal their own prejudices  Best known for Mining the Museum  Looked through storerooms to find that most pieces were about white history, but some were black history too  Reinserted them and the exhibit told a different story of the exhibition Chandelier Mori – Fred Wilson (1136)  Represented US at Venice Biennale with Speak of Me As I Am  Chandelier was part of the installation  Suggests that death comes to all of us  Drew attention to the fact that Venice was built on the back of African labor and cost them their lives Darkytown Rebellion – Kara Walker (1137)  Shocked and horrified viewers  Made of black construction paper and lights from projection  Shows slave revolt and massacre  Difficult to tell which figures were of what race  Causes use to be racist by trying to identify them by their visible features or clothing or stance


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