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Pathophysiology- Week One

by: Shina Patel

Pathophysiology- Week One NUTH2003

Shina Patel

GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover the basic vocabulary covered in Chapter One that is necessary to know for the remainder of the course.
Professor Homsey
Class Notes
Cellular, Science, pathophysiology
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shina Patel on Friday July 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTH2003 at Seton Hall University taught by Professor Homsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology in Nursing and Health Sciences at Seton Hall University.


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Date Created: 07/29/16
Lecture One Notes Pathophysiology Chapter One Terms Used For Common Cellular Adaptations  Atrophy Decrease in the size of cells, resulting in reduced tissue mass. Common causes: insufficient nutrition, decreased hormonal or neurological stimulation.  Hypertrophy Increase in the size of the cells, resulting in enlarged tissue mass. Ex: The effect of increased muscle mass due to consistent exercise.  Hyperplasia defined as an increased # of cells resulting in an enlarged tissue mass. In some cases hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur simultaneously, such as during pregnancy.  Metaplasia Occurs when one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type. This change may result from a deficiency in Vitamin A. Example: Stratified squamous epithelium replacing columnar epithelium in cigarette smokers.  Dysplasia term applied to tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape, large nuclei are frequently present, and the rate of mitosis is increased, May result from chronic irritation, infection, or may be a precancerous change. Pap Smear.  Anaplasia refers to cells that are undifferentiated with variable nuclear and cell structures and numerous mitotic figures. Characteristic of cancer and is the basis of grading a cancer.  Neoplasia “New Growth” and it commonly called a tumor. Malignant neoplasms are cancerous and benign are not a cause for worry unless found in the brain. Cell Damage and Necrosis  Apoptosis programmed cell death, a normal occurrence in the body. Cells self- destruct and appear to digest themselves.  Ischemia decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a tissue or organ, due to circulatory obstruction.  Other methods of injuring cells: Excessive heat/cold/radiation. Mechanical damage such as pressure or tearing. Chemical toxins. Microorganisms such as viruses/bacteria. Nutritional deficits. Imbalance of fluid and electrolytes.  Most common cause of cell injury is ischemia. May occur because of a blocked artery.  Cells with a high demand for oxygen, such as those of the brain/heart/kidney are quickly affected by hypoxiaReduced oxygen in the tissue.  Chemicals from the environment exogenous  Chemicals from inside the body endogenous  Cell damage usually occurs in 2 stages 1. Alteration of the metabolism which leads to loss of function of the cell. If the damaging agent can be removed quickly, the damage can be reversible before morphological changes take place. 2. The nucleus of the cell then disintegrates. The cells undergo lysis, dissolution, releasing destructive lysosomal enzymes into the tissue, which cause inflammation (swelling, redness, pain). By performing blood tests, doctors are able to tell which area of the body is in trouble because the enzymes can diffuse into the blood.  Necrosis term used when a group of cells die. o Liquefaction necrosis process when dead cells liquefy under the influences of certain enzymes. o Coagulative necrosis When cell proteins are altered or denatured. Ex: Myocardial infarction (heart attack). o Fat necrosis When fatty tissue is broken down into fatty acids in presence of infections or certain enzymes. o Caseous necrosis Where a thick, yellow, “cheesy” substance forms. Ex: Tuberculosis. First stage characterized by development of a granuloma (Ghon). o Infarction: Area of dead cells resulting from a lack of oxygen. Form follows function. Ex: When a chunk of a heart is infarcted or dies, it can no longer contract to pump blood.  Gangrene refers to an area of necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria. Such an infection frequently occurs after an infarction in the intestines or in a limb in which blood supply is deficient and bacteria are normally present. Gangrene may be described as wet or dry.


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