Experimental Psychology 321
Experimental Psychology 321 226
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Clow on Saturday July 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 226 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Fred Shaffer in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Experimental psychology in Psychology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 07/30/16
How would you classify a newly developed drug if it bound to dopamine’s receptor site without activating it? Antagonist The dose at which a drug has a half-maximal response is termed the - ED50 If a newly developed drug is found to bind to serotonin receptors and activate them, the drug is called? Agonist Which site shows a loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease - Substantia nigra What structure contains serotonergic nerve cell bodies - Raphe Nucleus The calming effect of alcohol on neurons is probably mediated by ?, which is one of alcohol’s breakdown products. - Allopregnanolone What drug is a serotonergic agonist and functions like an anxiolytic - Buspar Which of the following therapies would provide a substance abuser with a way of controlling drug use with the least effort? - A vaccine against the drug Drugs that are effective in reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia - Neuroleptics Where do noradrenergic neurons originate? - Locus coeruleus Where do serotonergic neurons originate? - Raphe nuclei The drug methadone is used to treat people who have become addicted to - Heroin Tolerance that can be effective by the environment. - Contingent The neuromodulator adenosine reduces catecholamine release through its action - Caffeine Antipsychotics called atypical neuroleptics block? - Serotonin receptors Change the functions of their bodies and brains (happening outside the body) - Exogenous Produced inside the body. This is called a neurotransmitter. - Exogenous Amine neurotransmitters include: 1. ACh, dopamine and serotonin Amino acid neurotransmitters include: - GABA and glutamate Peptide neurotransmitter include: - SHORT string of amino acids Soluble gases that diffuse between neurons to alter ongoing processes. - Gas neurotransmitter o Nitric oxide o Carbon monoxide Protein molecules embedded in the postsynaptic membrane that recognize the transmitter - Receptor A protein that changes its shape to open an ion channel - Ionotropic receptors o Fast A protein is altering chemical reactions within the target cells - Metabotropic Receptors o G-proteins Any substance that binds to a receptor is called - Ligand A ligand that imitates the normal effects of the transmitter on the receptor - Agonist A ligand that blocks it from being activated by another ligand is called - Antagonist A ligand that is less common but it revers the normal function of the receptor - Inverse agonist More than one neurotransmitter is given to presynaptic terminal is called - Co-release/ Co- localization A ligand that bind to the same part of the receptor complex that the endogenous transmitter normally would is called - Competitive ligands Referring to the cells that use ACh as their synaptic transmitter - Cholinergic Important clusters of cholinergic cells are found in the basal forebrain, including: - Medial septal nucleus, - Nucleus of the diagonal bands - And nucleus basalis o These cholinergic cells project into the hippocampus and amygdala and throughout the cerebral cortex. Widespread loss of cholinergic neurons is evident to - Alzheimer’s disease o Learning and memory Two families of ACh receptors in the peripheral and central nervous system include; - Nicotinic - Muscarinic Describe nicotinic - Ionotropic - Excitatory effect Muscles use ? ACh receptors, so antagonist such as curare, cause widespread of paralysis - Nicotinic Describe muscarinic - Metabotropic - They can be either excitatory or inhibitory Muscarinic ACh receptors are ? G-protein coupled Muscarinic receptors can be blocked by the drugs - Atropine - Scopolamine Two classes of neurotransmitters - Catecholamine - Indoleamines Neurotransmitters that derived from amino acids tyrosine are dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine - Catecholamine Neurotransmitters that derived from the amino acid tryptophan are melatonin and serotonin - Indoleamines The mesostriatal DA pathway plays a role in - Motor control - Significant loss of these neurons produces the movement for Parkinson’s disease Mesolimbocortical pathway also originates - Midbrain - Ventral tegmental area - Limbic systems - Cortex Mesolimbocortical pathway is important in - Reward and reinforcement - Especially by the dopamine D2 receptor subtype Two main clusters of neurons in the brainstem releasing norepinephrine include - Locus coeruleus - Lateral tegmental system Referring to systems using norepinephrine as a transmitter - Noradrenergic Cerebellum and spinal cord receives - Noradrenergic innervation Serotonin (5-HT) cell bodies are relatively few and are connected along the mind line of the - Raphe nuclei o Only about 200,000 of the 100 billion neurons of the human brain are serotonin Serotonin have been implicated in the control of; - Sleep states - Mood, - Sexual behavior - Anxiety Drugs that increase 5HT activity are - Antidepressants o Prozac The most common transmitters in the brain are - Amino acids Neurotransmitters that are important for excitatory - Glutamate - Aspartate Neurotransmitters that are important for inhibitory - GABA - Glycine Glutamatergic transmission employs what type of transmitter - AMPA - Kainite - NMDA o They are ionotropic NMDA-type glutamate receptors are active in - Learning and memory Metabotropic glutamate receptors act slowly because they work through - Second messenger Glutamate is associated with ?, a phenomenon in which neural injury like stroke or trauma provokes an excessive release of glutamate - Excitotoxicity GABAA receptors are - Ionotropic - Produce fast inhibitory postsynaptic potentials GABAB receptors are - Metabotropic receptors - Produce slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential GABAC receptors are - Ionotropic with a chloride channel - Found in the retina Peptides that can mimic opiate drugs like morphine - Opioid peptides A group of peptides that are found in the gut and spinal cord or brain include - Substance P - CCK - Beta- endorphin - Dynorphin Pituitary hormones release - Oxytocin - Vasopressin NO (nitric oxide) can serve as a - Retrograde transmitter Diffusing from the postsynaptic neuron back to the presynaptic neuron, where it stimulates changes in the synaptic efficacy is called - Retrograde transmitter - This can be involved in learning and memory The degree of chemical attraction between a ligand and a receptor is - Binding affinity - Neurotransmitters themselves are LOW affinity ligands The extent to which a drug activates a response when it binds to a receptor is - Efficacy o Agonists have HIGH efficacy o Antagonists have LOW efficacy A drug that, when bound to a receptor, has LESS effect than then endogenous ligand would - Partial agonist or partial antagonist **Greater does tend to produce greater effects** Tolerance in which the body’s metabolic systems and organs become increasingly effective at eliminating the drug before it has a change to affect the brain - Metabolic tolerance Tolerance the target tissue itself show altered sensitivity to the drug is known as - Functional tolerance o Important source of f.t. is the regulation and receptor proteins Decreased responding to a drug after repeated exposures Agonist drug is a ? regulate - Down-regulate o Decrease the number of available receptors to which the drug can bind Antagonist drug is a ? regulate - Up-regulate o Increase the number of available receptors to which the drug can bind Tolerance of a drug often generalizes to other drugs belonging to the same chemical class this is known as - Cross tolerance General term that refers to factors that affect the movement of a drug into, through, and out of the body - Pharmacokinetics Block sodium channels and therefore action potentials to stop neural transmission in pain fibers this is called - Local anesthetics Presynaptic neurons often use ? to monitor how much transmitter they have released - Autorecpetors o Kind of a feedback system o False feedback- promoting the presynaptic cell to release more or less transmitter Adenosine acts as a - Neuromodulator It is normally co-released with primary transmitters to control synaptic activity by inhibiting transmitter release. - Neuromodulator By blocking adenosine, ? increases catecholamine release, resulting arousal - Coffee Alcohol up regulates the number of receptors for - GABA Antipsychotic drugs block ???? receptors - Dopamine D2 Curare blocks - Nicotinic ACh receptors LSD is an ? at some types of serotonin receptors - Agonist Antidepressants inhibits the reuptake for - Serotonin Thee chemical breakdown of a neurotransmitter into inactive metabolites - Degradation Agents that inhibit the enzyme AChE are called - Cholinesterase inhibitors- allow ACh to remain active at the synapse and alter the timing of synaptic transmission o They include pesticides and chemical weapons Producing bizarre visual experiences through strong stimulation of a subtype of serotonin receptor found in visual cortex. - LSD Antipsychotics drugs relieve the symptoms for - Schizophrenia Positive symptoms for schizophrenia include - Delusions - Hallucinations Good at relieving the symptoms of schizophrenia that a DOPAMINERGIC explanation of this disease became dominate - Typical neuroleptics A major class of ant schizophrenic drugs that share antagonist activity at D2 receptors - Typical neuroleptics Nondopaminergic actions especially the blockade of certain serotonin receptors - Atypical neuroleptics o Negative symptoms- social withdrawal and blunted emotional response Antidepressants relieve ? mood problems - Chronic Antidepressant that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters at axon terminals thereby reducing transmitter activity. - Monamine oxidase (MAO) Increasing synaptic ? availabity appears to be a key activity of all antidepressants - MAO Act by increasing the synaptic accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine - Tricyclic antidepressants A class of substances that are used to combat anxiety - Anxiolytics Anxiolytics belong to the general category of - Depressants- drugs that depress or reduce nervous system activity A class of antianxiety drugs that bind to sites on GABAa receptors - Benzodiazepine agonists Members of Benzodiazepine agonists include - Valium - Lorazepam Benzodiazepine binding site is - Orphan receptor- a receptor for which an endogenous ligand has not been conclusively identified A steroid deriverd from the hormone progesterone, acts on yet another site on the GABAa receptor - Allopregnanolone o Alcohol increases brain concentrations of allopregnanolone o This steroid may mediate some of the calming influence of alcohol. Serotonergic agonist is - Buspar- an effective anxiolytic that lacks the sedative effects of benzodiazepines. Superior frontal association cortex are the brain areas that are most affected by - Chronic alcohol. In the absence of clear cut alcoholism- periodic overconsumption of alcohol (bingeing) may cause brain damage. ? the major active substance in opium is a very effective painkiller (analgesic) that has brought relief from severe pain to many people - Morphine Opiates morphine, heroin, and codeine bind to specific receptors - Opioid receptors – receptor that responds to endogenous and or exogenous opiates Opioid receptors are found in - Locus coeruleus and in the periaqueductal gray- gray matter that surrounds the aqueduct in the brainstem Cannabinoid receptors are concentrated in the - Substantia nigra - Hippocampus - Cerebellar cortex - Cerebral cortex CB1 and CB2 are both - G protein coupled metabotropic receptors o CB1- found in the nervous system o CB2- found in the immune system An endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors, an analog of marijuana that is produced by the brain - Endocannabinoid o Can function as retrograde messenger An endogenous substance that binds the cannabinoid receptor molecule. - Anandamide Nicotine from cigarettes enters the blood and brain - More rapidly than does nicotine from other tobacco products Dependence for emergent drug effects that occur only when two drugs are taken simultaneously - Dual dependence A molecule that resembles the structure of the catecholamine transmitter and enhances their activity - Amphetamine A class of drugs that alter sensory perception and produce peculiar experiences - Hallucinogens o LSD- a hallucinogens drug Mescaline affects - Noradrenergic system - Serotonergic system LSD, mescaline and psilocybin act on - Serotonin receptor agonists or partial agonists at 5-HT2A receptors LSD resembles - Serotonin PCP also called angle dust is an ? agent that is also ? drug - Anesthetic and psychedelic A type of drug that produces a dreamlike state in which consciousness is partly separated from sensory inputs - Dissociative drug *PCP causes degeneration in the hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus* PCP molecules relative to - Ketamine- less potent NMDA antagonist that is used as a dissociative anesthetic drug Major actions of MDMA in the brain include - Increase in the release of serotonin - Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors - Changing in the levels of dopamine and certain hormones -
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