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by: Brittnee Gaines
Brittnee Gaines

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittnee Gaines on Saturday July 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 07/30/16
    Rational Optimism ● Behavior can be understood ● Behavior can be improved ● Improvement is based on prediction and control ○ Know when something will happen ○ Can make something happen ○ Stop something from happening A Priori Assumption ● Before the fact ● Untestable ● Unprovable ● Necessary for action “Truth Will Out in the  ● For truth to out in the marketplace of ideas Marketplace of Ideas” ● Sometimes the truth doesn’t emerge, bad  decisions are made, good ideas by themselves aren’t  enough. Good ideas need able communicators What is Communication? ● Need to be 2 people for communication ● We think in symbols ● Cognition requires language and symbols ● Source ○ Originator versus Sender ○ Sources can be the sender but  don’t have to be ● Encoder ○ the process of putting what you  want to say into symbolic form ● Message ○ The message is what you encode,  but when you encode a message, you have to  figure out what channel ● Channel ○ The method in which the encode is  delivered ○ It is not only the message that we  encode but it’s the selection of channel  ● Receiver ○ Receives the communication ● Decoder ○ Who seeks to understand the  message ● Noise ○ Anything in the environment that  makes communication hard ○ Inhibits the decoder from decoding  the message correctly ○ Physical: Anything outside of the  speaker that impe des the message­­ doesn’t have to be auditory ○ Psychological: Anything happening  inside of you  ○ Semantic: Noise inside the  message. Accents, misunderstanding,  ○ Feedback: any type of response  (verbal, physical) ○ Communication is always dialogic,  rarely sending and not receiving ○ Requires us to be transceivers  (SImultaneously sender and receiver) Communication is the discriminatory response of an organism to a stimulus.  Stevens, 1950 Theories ● Far too broad ● Just because we respond to anything doesn’t  mean that communication has occurred The transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills, etc. by the use of symbols Berelson and Steiner, 1964 ● Communication is something more than moving  symbols and words from one place to another ● It’s about understanding what is being transmitted. ● Just because something has been transmitted  doesn’t mean communication has occurred, transmission  isn’t enough The eliciting of a response through verbal symbols Dance 1967 ● Just because you respond to a symbol doesn’t  mean communication has occurred Communication occurs when humans manipulate symbols to stimulate meaning in  other humans. Infante, 2010 ● You AIM to stimulate an individual or group of  people  Characteristics of  ●  Sign: One thing that stands out from another Communication ○ Symptom: A type of sign that is the result of another. Naturally occurring signs we  Communication is a  can’t control symbolic process ○ Symbol: Arbitrary­ made up. Can  mean anything we want them to mean. Name is  technically a symbol. Completely artificial creation ○ Ritual: Falls in between a symptom and a a symbol. Considered a combination of  both. ■ Stylized symptom ■ Entails the  appropriation or use of a SYMPTOM in a  SYMBOLIC way (eg. dog growling, sighing  as a response to something) ● Sighin g is a symptom of exhaustion or  breathlessness. When it is used as  a response, it is in a ritual or  stylized fashion ● When  you imitate a symptom to be  understood symbolically, it’s a ritual Be able to distinguish between these three terms Symptom Symbol VS Motivated Unmotivated “natural” Arbitrary (basically means we can give them any information we want, made up) Linked Conventional Learned Learned Arbitrary things only have meaning because we give them meaning Communication Involves  ● You can’t have shared meaning without a  Shared Meaning minimum of 2  ● Shared communication is something that happens  between two or more people ● Communication would be impossible if we didn’t  share meaning ● We are not communicative clones: there is a great  deal of shared meaning but each of us have an individual  relationship with the language community ● If we all shared the exact same meaning,  miscommunication would not be possible ● Communication involves Both shared and  individual meaning Communication occurs in  ● We cannot speak of communication without  a context recognizing that everything that we say, write or gesture  occurs in a context ● Communication is deeply informed by place, time  and circumstance. ● Context is the relationship between the  performers, where the communication took place and  when ● The Problem of Intent ● Overheard conversation ○ No intention of communicating with  the person that overheard the conversation ● Coroner example ○ Deceased is not communicating  with coroner ● Talking in your sleep ○ Is not a form of communication  because there is no intent ● Intent is always a part of communicative nature ● Intention is required for paradigm case but is not  always easily detected Paradigm Case ● Paradigm: stands as an ideal form of  communication (what is communication) ○ Will have a sender/source who  encodes a message and puts it into a channel in  symbolic form ○ Message reaches the receiver ○ The receiver decodes the message, recognizes the intent ○ Message creates meaning Attempted communication ● Communication in which there is a sender but no  receiver Attributed Communication ● When you think you hear someone calling or  something ringing but there’s  nothing there ● Receivers don’t realize they’re making a mistake  ● There is a receiver but no sender Perception ● Hard to tell when someone is sending a message ● Ex. stomach growling, dog growling ● How a person PERCEIVES a message ● Phatic: when you communicate with someone  simply to acknowledge that the channels between two  people are open ○ Saying Hi or speaking to someone  in passing  ○ What we do to make sure we’re  cool with someone Motley v. Anderson ● Interactive ○ Communication has to be an  interaction between people ● Encoding ○ Communication must be encoded ○ You don’t have to encode a  symptom because it’s a reaction ○ Genuine communication has to be  encoded ● Exchange ○ Message must be exchanged or  communication has not occurred  ● Fidelity ○ Mixture between signal and noise ○ Measure of the ratio between signal and noise ○ High fidelity: a lot of signal and a  little noise ○ Low fidelity: a lot of noise, very little  message/signal If communication is intentional, then it is planned Communication ● Planned ● Verbal & Nonverbal ● Routine vs. Novel ○ Things you do regularly ● Scripts Transactional Dimension  ● Dialogic Vs. Linear ○ A transactional notion of  communication puts an emphasis on  communication being dialogic ○ Communication is not shipping but  is transactional ● A transactional notion of communication  recognizes that content matters ● Relation  ● Transcendental functions: ○ Are always in play  ○ Occur in every situation ● Specific ○ If they’re not transcendental, they  don’t occur every time ○ Occur in some contexts but not  others ○ Public Speaking ● Cicero (died 43 BC) ● Entertain ● Inform ○ You want to provide someone with  information ● Persuade ○ Occurs when you want people to do something differently, to change ● Stimulate ○ Further, deepen an attitude or  behavior Transcendental Functions ● Clarke and Delia (1979) Husband and Wife  I Scholar ● When you think about how communication works  and what it is, it’s clear that every time we communicate,  we use communication to realize an instrumental  objection ● Communication is a form of action ● Instrumental Objectives  ○ Form of action ○ Serves as a vehicle to achieve a  goal ○ Have to communicate with purpose ○ We always encode symbols to get  things done ○ Communication allows us to say  something about our relationship with each other  (in all situations) ○ The language we use shapes the  interaction between two people ● Interpersonal Objectives ○ Every communication says  something about the relationship between the  parties ● Identity Objectives ○ What we say, how we communicate is a form of brand management. There’s no  guarantee that how you communicate influences  what people think of you ○   Transcendental Functions ● Dance and Larson (1976) II  ● Linking ○ Being able to connect with the  world and people in it  ○ Communication allows us to  connect with other people ● Mentation ○ The tools we use to communicate  shape our understanding of the world we live in ○ How communication allows us to  think about the world, to understand the world that  we inhabit ○ Communication shapes thought  and makes our understanding of the world  possible: language allows us to make sense  ○ Ex: Categories­ eat hot dogs, not  real dogs. Carry dogs in your purse, not hot dogs ● Regulatory ○ Communication allows us to know  what to do and how to behave ○ Language provides direction to  what’s possible ○ Ex: when you are expected to  understand the word no, it changes what you are  able to do and where you are ○ Ex: BYOB vs. Cocktails at 7 Sharp ○ It’s implicit in the language or  communication Specific functions ● Occur in some times and places but not others,  not universal or acontextual ● Creating Cooperation ● Non­cooperative ○ Receptive Orientation ■ Entails being the  type of person who is always waiting for  someone else to contribute ■ Mindset that you  have nothing to give or offer ■ Always willing to  receive but doesn’t give ■ Have nothing to offer ○ Exploiting Orientation ■ A person that feels  permissible to take whatever he wants ■ A predatory  orientation ■ Only wants to take ○ Hoarding Orientation ■ Holds on to  information, refuses to share what they  have for the benefit of others ■ Afraid to share what  they possess out of fear of losing, ■ Cannot share ○ Marketing Orientation ■ Most contemporary ■ The type of person  that demonstrates this is always marketing  themselves, networking, moving up the  branch ■ Always on  ● Acquiring Information ● Forming Self Concept ○ Observing or changing how you  communicate ○ Communication shapes our sense  of who and what we are ○ Examples ■ Need money, find  ATM at 3AM, project power and confidence rather than fear. Don’t demonstrate fear  and there is less chance to be victimized.  ■ Assertive training ■ Changing how you  communicate in order to present yourself  differently ■ Speak and sound  differently in different environments ● Entertainment ○ Primary function ○ Functions as a way to change or  enhance our mood TRUTH WILL OUT IN  ● Communication is a vehicle that allows us to  THE MARKETPLACE OF discover truth IDEAS ● When we can express more opinions, truth is  somewhere involved ● Our relationship to thought/ideas and truth follow a general cycle Evolution of Ideas ● Cronkhite (1976) ● Recursive ○ Circular process ○ Continually starting over ○ Does not end ○ Always modifying what we know  and how we understand the world ○ ● Variety ● Selection  ● Retention ● ● ●


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