HIST 1010 Week 9 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan)
HIST 1010 Week 9 Lecture/Book Notes (Bohanan) History 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday July 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 07/31/16
World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 9 Book Notes (pgs. 267-296, 587-616) CHAPTER 10: African Societies and Kingdoms Early African Societies v Agriculture and Its Impact • The slash and burn method was used to plant grains on plots of land. - Millet and sorghum are indigenous to Africa. • Early African societies were influenced by iron working. v Bantu Migrations • Ironworking spread was linked to the Bantu people. - Bantu: speakers of a Bantu language living south and east of the Congo River. • Bantu people originated in the Benue region. - Population increase happened with intermarriage. v Life in Kingdoms of the Western Sudan • Sudan: the African region surrounded by the Sahara, the Gulf of Guinea, the Atlantic Ocean, and the mountains of Ethiopia. - People of Sudan made a shift between a nomadic and hunting lifestyle, to a settled agriculture lifestyle. - Blood related families would live in villages/city-states together. o A chief governed the village. • Female rulers led Mende and Sierra Leone. • The Sudanese religion was animistic and polytheistic. - The oracles that would speak to the gods were very important. The Trans Saharan Trade v The Berbers of North America • Berbers: North African peoples who controlled the caravan trade between the Mediterranean and the Sudan. - Berbers developed a caravan route between the Mediterranean coast and Sudan. • The Tuareg were a big threat in the trading business. - They lived in the desert and prayed on the caravan that would pass through. v Effects of Trade on West African Society • There were effects that the steady growth of the Tran Saharan trade had on west African society. - It stimulated gold mining. - The trade of gold and other goods created a desire for slaves. - It stimulated the development of urban centers. v The Spread of Islam in Africa • Conversions to Islam introduced the West Africans to a rich and sophisticated culture. - Ghana’s king adopted the diwan (agency to keep financial records). • The Muslims founded the city of Mogadishu. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 9 - Mogadishu: a Muslim port city in East Africa found between the 8 and the 10 th centuries—today t is the capital of Somalia. African Kingdoms and Empires v The Kingdom of Ghana • Ghana - The ruler of Ghana was known as the war chief. o A council of ministers assisted the king in the government’s work. § Court was held in Kombi Saleh. ⋅ Kombi Saleh: the city in which the king of Ghana held his court. • The highest level of Ghanaian sociality was the king and staff. v The Kingdom of Mali • Mali had strong agricultural assets along with 2 rulers. - The founder of Mali is Sundiala, who set the capital at Niani. • Timbuktu started out as a desert for nomads, but it eventually grew into a trading center. - Timbuktu: originally a campsite for desert nomads, it grew into a thriving city under Mansa Musa, king of Mali and Africa’s most famous ruler. v Ethiopia: the Christian Kingdom of Aksum • Aksum: a kingdom in northwestern Ethiopia that was a sizeable trading state and the center of Christian culture. • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were all influenced by Ethiopian society. • Church Christian fathers that served as “author goals” by writing the Kebra Nagast. v The East African City States • The East African city-states were shaped based on their proximity to their trade routes. • The Zanj was what the Arabs called “the land of the blacks”, in which Bantu speaking people lived. • The East African coastal culture was called Swahili. - Swahili: the east African coastal culture named after the Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences. - Eventually the city of Kilwa became more powerful. th o Kilwa: the most powerful city on the east coast of Africa by the late 13 century. • The Arabs referred Northern Somali as Ras Assir (the cape of slaves). v Southern Africa and Great Zimbabwe • Southern Africa contained many mineral resources—gold, copper, diamond, platinum, and uranium. • The earliest of the Southern African population were hunters and gatherers. • The nuclear family was the basic social unit that practiced polygamy and traced decent in the male line. • The most impressive monument in Africa was Great Zimbabwe. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 9 - Great Zimbabwe: a ruined southern African city discovered by a German explorer in 1871, it is considered the most impressive monument south of the Nile valley and the Ethiopian highlands. - It was a political and religious capital. - Due to the large population, it also became agriculturally exhausted and; therefore, it declined. CHAPTER 20: Africa and the World West Africa in the 15 and 16 Centuries v The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin • Senegambia served as an important entry port for desert caravan. • Chattel: an item of personal prosperity; a term used in reference to enslaved people that conveys the idea that they are subhuman, like animals and therefore may be treated like animals. • Age Grade System: among the societies of Senegambia, groups of men and women whom the society initiated into adulthood at the same time. - Age grades were groups of teen males and females that the society initiated to adult hood at the same time. • An oba was a king. - Oba: the king of Benin. • Benin was a wealthy place due to the money it made from trade. - The British conquered Benin and burned it down. v The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausa-land • During the reign of the king, Sonni Ali, the expansion of Songhai began. • Taghaza: a settlement in the western Sahara, the site of the main salt mining center. • Slavery played a big role in Songhai economy. - Enslaved people would produce rice. • Kanem-Bornu and Hausa-land were east of Songhai. v The Cities of the People of West Africa • Women and children were highly desired due to them being domestic and being social support/security in old age. • Men could get wives in one of two ways. - A couple could just simply “elope”. - A man’s family could give wealth to the bride’s family. o There was a fierce competition for wives. o Children ended up being the primary goal for marriage. v Trade and Industry • West African economies depended on agriculture. - They had a well-organized market system. • Salt was one of Africa’s most important trade items. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 9 • Tuareg: along with the Moors, warriors who controlled the north south trans-Saharan trade in salt. • Cowrie Shells: imported from the Maldives, they served as the medium of exchange in West Africa. Cross Cultural Encounters Along the East African Coast v Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia • Ethiopia was a Christian kingdom that practiced Coptic Christianity. - Coptic Christianity: Orthodox form of Christianity from Egypt practiced in Ethiopia. • Adal was a Muslim state that began incursions into Ethiopia. • Prester John was a powerful Christian monarch. v The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese • Swahili: means “people of the coast”. - The land was very fertile and well watered—it yielded rice, grains, citrus fruits and cloves. - The end of the Swahili city independence happened when the Portuguese explorer, Vascoda Gama arrived. The African Slave Trade v The Institution of Slavery in Africa • Islamic practices influence African slavery. - Slavic slave women were a symbol of wealth and status. • The Dutch East Indian Company was the largest slave owner in Cape colony. - In cape colony, the Dutch used a strict racial hierarchy and paternalism to keep strong control over those that were enslaved. - There was also no marriage or family in Cape Colony. v The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade • The transatlantic slave trade involved the largest number of enslaved Africans. • The first people that the European settlers enslaved were the Amerindians. • As slave demand increased, the slaves moved down the West African coast to move more densely populated regions. - The Middle Passage: African slaves voyage across the Atlantic to the Americas, a long and treacherous journey during which slaves endured appalling and often deadly conditions. • British ships would carry collections of goods that were grouped together by a method called sorting. - Sorting: a collection nor batch of British goods that would be traded for a slave or for a quantity of gold, ivory, or dyewood. - Shore Trading: a process for trading goods in which the European sips set boats ashore or invited Africans dealers to bring traders and slave out to the ships. World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 9 Lecture Notes LECTURE #21: 7/23/16 (Africa Before the Transatlantic Slave Trade, Africa and the Slave Trade) Role of Islam in Africa The slave trade was a huge event. West Africa is where the trade took place. Due to the arrival of Islam, West Africa was very strong—the elites would convert. The contact with Arab merchants is what introduced Islam and popularized it in Africa. Merchants were “middle men” that brought and sold goods to and from people. The intrinsic appeal of the religion is what caused so many conversions. Sufism wanted to involve a very personal relationship with god—prayer and meditation was how that was accomplished. Sufis would also act as missionaries and would spread the word of Islam. Arabs and Sufis were important in the spread of Islam to non-Arab parts of the world. The impact of Arab merchants is that economically, Africa gets drawn into a larger community. In West Africa, there was a social dimension of the conversion to Islam—the elites converted. There was also a raise in literacy levels due to Quranic schools being built so that people could read the Quran. A pool of educated and literate people was created due to the spread of Islam. West African states shifted from democracyàbureaucracy—this change made the states stronger and more cohesive. Ibn Battuta was an Arab traveler that visited Africa and documented his travels in a “travel journal”. In the journal a compare/contrast method was written in, along with an analysis and an outsider’s perspective, which is why it was so important. He visited the city of Timbuktu, which was a great exotic city. The book trade was very popular there. Africa Empires and Kingdoms Sudanese is just what the cluster of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai are referred to. The most legendary state in the Sudanese was Ghana—not to be confused with modern Ghana. Ghana was very rich due to gold and salt—these items are what the Arab merchants would buy and sell. Ghana was overtaken by Mali. The founder of Mali was Sundiata. He was said to lain the foundation of Mali and to have created a highly productive organization of society. Mansa Musa is who the Europeans regarded to be the wealthiest man in the world. He went and performed Hajj with 500 other people, after completing it, him and his crew went to Cairo—this is where he wanted to spend a ton of money and ended up creating an inflation in their (Cairo’s) economy, and almost ruining them overnight. The Songhai Empire took over the Mali Empire. It was strong/cohesive and had a bureaucracy economy with many literate people. Askia the Great was the emperor who was a man of letters and created a very literate culture. Congo was a cohesive/powerful state that was ruled by a monarchy that tried to not get involve in the slave trade. Zimbabwe was a powerful single city-state. It was very self-contained. People moved out from Zimbabwe and went somewhere else, leaving it empty. Due to the Chinese porcelain found in the empty city, trade was something that we assume they participated in The Zanj is a series of city-states that are very vibrant economically. Many trade with East Africa and stele there as well—this affected tee ethnic and linguistic cultures of east Africa. Slavery in World History: Insider vs. Outsider The Europeans arrived to replenish the depleted work forced by getting more slaves. The question of why the Europeans chose Africa rose—the “Insider vs. Outsider” theory helped to explain it. People mostly do not enslave their own people and go to the outside people for it. Europeans had a more lose definition of insider that the Africans did—they thought of insider as World History 1010—Lecture and Book Notes Week 9 everything in Europe, so if one was in Europe, no matter which part, you were considered an insider, and you wouldn’t be enslaved. To the Europeans, the Africans were the outsiders, plus a very old slave trade was already going on there, so this is probably why the Europeans chose Africa. Slaves were sold to the Arabs. In Africa, the definition of insider was more specific—the notion of insider can be specific to a kingdom—when they used slave labor, it wasn’t from their community, but form one outside their community—it wasn’t continent wide like Europe’s was. Slave Trade in Africa The slaves in Africa were used for a variety of things. Around 4 million Africans were taken from Africa. Muslims wanted more women slaves for domestic reasons. The European trade started with Portugal (they dominated the trade), but the English then took over until the parliament banned slavery. The slave trade may have been done by one European merchant to one African merchant with negotiations or European merchants to African governments. To ensure that there was an abundance of slave supply, the Europeans would start up a conflict to see—they would go to one place to see if they have slaves (if no), the Europeans would sell guns to the neighbors of that community. Africa got involved in a method called triangular trade—it was essentially a back and forth trading system between 3 places. Europeans would sell them guns, whiskey, textiles, irons, from which Europeans bought the slaves, etc. Europeans used guns to make sure that they had a steady supply of slaves. European merchants worked with African merchants directly. The Europeans either built forts and the location of their business, or they would use the ship to shore method so that one could get more operation of business throughout the coastline as needed. Muslims wanted young women as slaves and the Europeans wanted young men—this demographic was a diaspora. The voyage of the slaves was very inhumane. Many would die/get sick due to the inhumanity. The slaves were crammed on the ship and were chained up shoulder to shoulder. A rotation every 3 days to the top of the deck would happen so that they could see some fresh air.
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