US History 101, study guide for final exam
US History 101, study guide for final exam
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Gao on Sunday July 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of California Berkeley taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 07/31/16
Foreign Policy Throughout George Washington French Revolution-> Federalist =( Jeffersonian =). Franco-American alliance of 1778 Neutrality Proclamation 1793: Tested by Br=won’t evacuate northern frontier posts, gave Indians weapons: General Anthony Wayne-> Treaty of Grenville, impressment +seizures-> Jay’s Treaty: sabotaged by Hamilton-> Br. Paid for seizures of ship (but future?), bind US to debts owned to Br pre-rev: unpopular, especially to Jeff.’s D-R, but treaty-> Pinckney’s Treaty 1795: Am access to Mississippi and part of disputed Florida (Spanish). John Adams (Federalist) Jay’s Treaty-> French seize Am. Merchant ship. XYZ affairs: demanded bribe from Am envoys to talk to Talleyrand= “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.”-> unofficial war: Am. Privateers captured Fr. Ships. Br.=) ->Talleyrand open talk-> Am. Send 3 envoys to talk w/Napoleon-> Convention of 1800: no more F-A alliance of 1778, US pay damage claims of Am. Shippers-> John Adams’ popularity diminished, although he deserved much credit b/c 1.) Am still weak 2.) Paved way for later Louisiana. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) Reduced military establishment, but soon=reality: North African Barbary Coast Pirates=b4 had pay them tributes. 1801 pasha of Tripoli=( a/b protection $-> informally declared war on US. Jeff. Reluctantly sent US Marine Corps-> bargain price to pay for hostage. Mosquito fleet: tiny gunboats: Jeff thought they are great, but in fact horrible. 1800 secret pact-> Spain ceded France Louisiana-> Sp at New Orleans w/drew right of deposit guaranteed Am.-> Am. Furious. Jeff sent James Monroe to Fr. w/Robert Livingston to buy New Orleans and as much land to east as possible w/minimum of $10 M. But Napoleon suddenly decided to sold Louisiana b/c 1.) Santo Domingo L’Ouverture-> no need for food stuff anymore, 2.) don’t want to drive US to Br. So he sold Louisiana for 15M. Napoleon provoked war w/Br. For 2 years US maritime=juicy commercial picking, but 1805 Battle of Trafalgar=br. Naval supremacy, Battle of Austerlitz=Fr. Land supremacy.-> Br=Order in Council: closed stropean ports under Fr control to foreign shipping, including Am unless 1 stop at Br. Port. Fr= seizure of all ships entering Br. Fort. Br also impress: 1807 Chesapeake: Br. Demanded surrender of 4 refugees, but capt refused-> killed 4 Ams. -> Congress 1807 Embargo Act: embargo on Fr+ Br. But hurt US 1 : mounting piles of unexportable goods, closed ship-> illegal trade along Canadian border. N.Eng esp angry-> 1809 embargo repealed, replaced by Non-Intercourse Act: reopened trade w/all nations except for Br +Fr. Reason embargo failed: 1.) Br=bumper crop 2.) Latin American opened trade 3.) Napoleon=most of European under control. Embargo did led to some ind. Renovation in New England James Madison Non-Intercourse Act expire in 1810, but Congress dismantled it completely, instead= Macon’s Bill No.2: if either Br./Fr repealed commercial restrictions, Am would restore embargo against non-repealing nation. Both Br +Fr=vague promise: Napoleon=Fr decrees repealed if Br. Also lifted its Orders in Council: in fact, he hoped to embargo against Br. But Madison ignored trick and =gave Br. 3 months to live up to their implied promise, but they did not. Gamble failed. Br. Armed Indians to fight ->1812: Madison believed war w/Br. Inevitable. War hawks=) Congress decleare war on June 1, 1812= The War of 1812: South and West, Republicans in middle states=), Federalists, esp in N.Eng=( Reason: sympathized w/Br+ don’t want Canada, another agricultural state. Country=divided. War: US Army=ill-trained+ill-disciplined. Wrong strategy for Canada-> 3 routes all beaten back. Br + Canada instead=winning: captured fort Michilimackinac, led by Br. General Isaac Brock. Am ship=fair better: ie. Constitution had thicker sides, heavier firepower, and larger crews. Am navy officer Oliver Hazard Perry captured Br fleet on Great Lakes,+ General Harrison beat Br at Detroit at Battle of Thames. But by 1814 US =defending their own border. Br tried to attack NY but a weaker Am fleet led by Thomas Macdonough won by turning ship a/b w/cables, forced Br. To retreat. 2ndBr force landed at Chesapeake Bay->Washington D.C, burned it. But at Baltimore Ardheld firm. 3 strike: at New Orleans, Andrew Jackson placed in command. Br=mistake of frontal assault-> astonishing victory for Am. Royal Navy=blockade-> Us economy crippled. Tsar Alexander I wanted Br to focus on Fr, not US-> brought 5 Am to Ghent, Belgian 1814: Br demanded Indian buffer state in Great Lakes region, control of GL, and part of conquered Maine. Am refused, but news of Br reverses in NY and Baltimore- >Treaty of Ghent: armistice, “Not one Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost”: no mention of previous grievances: Indian menace, search and seizure, Orders in Council, impressment +confiscations. During war N.Eng prospered: illegal trade, “Blue Light” Federalists: N. Eng who helped Br. Hartford Convention: reps from Mass., RI, Conn., + Vermont +N.hamp= financial assistance to compensate lost trade + constitutional amendment: 2/3 to declare embargo, admit new states/declare war. Also abolish 3/5, limit prez. To single term, +prohibit election of 2 successive prez from same state. They sent envoy to Wash, but= ignored b/c of N.Orleans victory-> viewed as traitorous. War of 1812 consequence: earned European respect +brought fed. Unity, war heroes emerged, manufacturing prospered, Canadian=felt betrayed at Treaty of Ghent. 1817 Rush-Bagot agreement: Br+US severely limited naval armament of the lakes. Napoleon defeat-> reactionism +conservatism in Europe. Latin America rose from ruins of monarchy-> US =) but worried Europe might intervene. Russia 1821 pushed southward. Br=isolated b/c profit from revolutions b/c countries opened up port-> Br foreign secretary George Canning approached US: Br + US denounce interest in acquiring Latin American countries. John Adams=suspicious, but =could hide behind Br blockade-> 1823 Monroe Doctrine: European powers= 1.) noncolonization +2.) nonintervention. Effect: Europeans angry, but hands tied in Europe. =little effect in south America. Russo-American Treaty of 1824: Russia=southernmost limits at 54 40. John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Martin Van Buren William Henry Harrison John Tyler By 1842 = increasingly anti-British: 2 Anglo-American war, and pro-British Federalists had died out. Br travelor=travel books of how Am are crude and rude-> “Third War w/Br”: War on paper only. 1837 Caroline: attacked by Br force. 3 years later a Canadian boasting a/b this incident was arrested +tried for murder, but=allowed to go free w/an alibi. 1841 Br in Bahamas offered asylum to 130 VA slaves who rebelled. 1840s dispute over Maine: Br want to built road from Halifax to Quebec, but need to pass through Maine-> Aroostook War. 1842 London Foreign Office sent Lord Ashburton to established relations w/Secretary Webster: Maine=split, Br=less land than they wanted but got route. Br taking Hong Kong-> US sent Calev Cushing-> Treaty of Wanghia: US=most favored nation, +Extraterritoriality: Am accused of crimes in China try b4 Am offcials, not Chinese courts.-> Am trade w/China flourished, Am missionaries poured into China. James K. Polk Zachary Taylor Millard Fillmore 1852 sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry to Japan= Treaty of Kanagawa 1854: proper treatment of shipwrecked sailors, Am coaling rights in Japan, establishment of consular relations. Franklin Pierce Br increasingly encroached on Central America. Both want a canal. Clayton-Bulwar Treaty of 1850: neither Am/br would seek exculsive control over any other future isthmian waterway. Nicaragua: Am William Walker backed by armed force took this area, but Central America overthrew him. Cuba: Pierce tried to buy it from Spain but Sp refused-> southern adventurer -> Cuba but=repelled: last expedition-> ppl killed->Am =(->Am sacked Sp’s consulate in New Orleans. 1854 Sp seized American steamer Black Warrior-> Am ministers in Sp+Eng+Fr met up at Ostend, Belgium-> Ostend Manifesto: urged Admin $120 mn for Cuba, if refused-> US take Cuba by force. Manifesto leaked out-> Northern free-soilers angry-> matters dropped James Buchanan Abraham Lincoln 1863=final Anglo-American crisis: G.B John Laird and Sons constructed 2 Confederate ship-> Minister Adams=war if gave to Confed->London gov relented and bought the 2 ships for Royal Navy. Emperor Napoleon III of Fr. Took advantage of Civil War to occupy Mexico, but war ended Secr of State Seward prepared to march South-> Napoleon w/drew. Andrew Johnson Ulysses S. Grant Rutherford B. Hayes James Garfield Chester A. Arthur Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison Grover Cleveland William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt William Howard Taft Woodrow Wilson Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Dwight D. Eisenhower John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard Nixon Gerald Ford James Carter Ronald Reagan George H.W. Bush William J. Clinton African sterican history 1619: 1 Africans sold at Jamestown. 1650: VA=300 blacks, end of century=14% of pop. West Indies Barbados=slave, brought to Carolinas: slave trade and code, African slaves=rice crop in Carolinas. Slavery=found in all plantation colonies, though only after 1750 in Georgia. COLONIAL SLAVERY: Earlier most white colonists=no slaves, b/c=struggle to live. 1680s rising wage +large planters increasingly afraid of mutinous former servants- > blacks slaves>white servants. 1698 Royal African Company: lost charters->Americans, esp. RI rushed to slave trade. 1750 blacks=nearly half of population of VA by 1750. Middle Passage: journey across Atlantic. 1662=VA first slave codes. Deep south slavery life=worse: South Carolina rice +indigo plantation=hard +lonely. Chesapeake region=better: Tobacco plantations=closer to each other. By 1720 Chesapeake slave societies=perpetuate itself by natural production. 1712 NY City slave revolt, 1739 Stono River rebellion, Bacon’s Rebellion. AMERICAN REVOLUTION: blacks fought on both sides. Br promised freedom to slaves=at end of war evacuated many blacks to Nova Scotia, Jamaica, and England. MAKING OF STATE: slave trade continue until 1807, 3/5 compromise: slaves count as 3/5 of a person for population representative purpose. PRE-CIVIL WAR: 1819 Missouri wanted to become slave state: North=threatened-> Tallmadge amendment: no more slaves brought into Missouri+= gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents-> Southerners =(. Amendment=defeated in Senate, but led to problems 1820 Henry Clay-> The Missouri Compromise: Missouri=slave state, but Maine=free state. Future bondage=prohibited north of 36’30 line. Compromise avoided the question, not solve it. 1793 Eli Whitney’s Cotton gin-> increase cotton-> increase profits-> slavery. South=Cotton King: knew British depended on their cotton Planter aristocrats: only top owned 100 slaves/more, over 2/3 of slave owning families=fewer than 10 slaves, a/b ¼ =owned slaves/belonged to slaveowning family. But plantation culture=land butchery, economic structure=unstable, overspeculation in land and slaves=financial instability, +=depended on one crop Free blacks in south: many=from revolutionary days, but many purchased their freedom, many=even own slaves, but =prohibited from working in certain occupations, no testifying against whites in courts, can be hijacked back into slavery. Free blacks in North: also unpopular, many=can’t vote, can’t go to public schools. Especially hated by Irish immigrants: competed for jobs. Even after 1808=smuggled slave trade. But huge bulk=from natural reproduction. Slaves=investment-> sometimes=spared from most dangerous work. African struggled to keep culture: Ring shout Dance+ Response preaching
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