Notes from Week of March 16th
Notes from Week of March 16th HIST1011
Popular in History since the 1500s
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Rewerts on Sunday March 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1011 at George Washington University taught by Hugh Agnew in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see History since the 1500s in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/22/15
if h W t de DE Jim 639 WV WW3 7W 39 ORA Up Ux MR M 50 6mg of Ledufe 312015 M39scljmna wort zitMad back 14 d scw ian 0 Me 51an I 43ft l tquotU3 n 986ch Concern for Humanity Reason Shm fn 3 8 mmMMNis NewmandEitetsiimaaz1 Wu 98 W M 9quot WM Amw tquot w k Humanitarianism J r 1 L I 39gazjggggmrumm0mm V10 i C n Jff HEJMCR J GUIK15 inf 4 39 Religious toleration End to religious warfare and persecution Deism and Atheism x n Attitudes to Judaism Crelg w bob f Gotthold Lessing 17291781 Moses Mendelssohn 17291786 l 37 gm ta ta r 1 L1 701131 J um rimVim 63956 it tU zL 1a 1quotwmd Vinplat LAM MO Wm WV W quot if MU SQ f 515 61630 g t my 61 Mom emtlelswh39m r1ed 39 bland Mb G m u l chpQCu HM nomics government an administration Pione ed concept of Iaissezf 39 e SECQ OmTb Sivan 7 mm mm wth WVtmsUQ wanF er Concern for WellBeing and Rational Administration Rise of powerful states and empires made economic issues important Experience of years of trade with Asia had taught states to hoard silver and gold and try to control trade mercantilism French Physiocrats an ac 4A3Wt QqW f39j Wm ML Cabin i7 ma J J t Wm si m 0 Ht er M 6 Q 3r 5an m pwmtw ll 3 Criticized mercantilism rquot e we was om e an 39 U v quot Eezlpleaggiculnge 39d d kg v J 003505 ml 7 WP th yQMMr i of t Adam Smith and Free Trade a The Wealth of Nations 1776 The central issue of the economy was human labor productivity Mercantile restrictions did not create economic health The invisible handquot of the marketplace ought to guide economic activity Rational individuals ought to be allowed to pursue their interests rationally There are speci c stages of economic growth a Criticized British Crown policies towards the American colonies USA a bastion of free trade since As every individual therefore endeavours as much as he can both to employ his capital in the support of domestic industry and so to direct that industry that its produce may be of the greatest value every individual necessarily labours to render the annual reVenue of the society as great as he can He generally indeed neither intends to promote the public interest nor knows how much he is promoting it By preferring the support of domestic to that at torelgn industry he intends only his own security and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be or the greatest value he intends onlyhis owngainandheisinthisasin hand to promote an end which Was no many other casesled by an invisible part of his intention 312015 t a p 39 TE if C with warm L PJpqJlf W J C lifttat WWIM I u e wautvcm Gj m 0 quot jin i ltfg Of ilisl V JF Emil 00 l a g eh f4 LILJ7 AWV C M Cold 1 I UMLWL AClame Global In uences on the Enlightenment China and Chinese Civilization Some saw Confucian ideals as form of quotEnlightenedquot despotism Voltaire Others as quotOrientalquot and quotbackwardquot Montesquieu Ottoman Empire Admired for religious toleration hygiene education laws and respect for nunormes Criticized as arbitrary despotic and creating f passive subjects not citizens gwlll39TGLWEIJ Wip lr y W39qu l Cam oatism be iiian madam Jim Fusion J Z lt24 with loqlln Wt hat iiiQCIMS W a as mg to l it Matt M W W a rib W M M FUm Emma J 312015 f monarchs in the later eighteenth century 0 Frederick the Great Prussia Catherine the Great Russia Joseph H o Reforms Church under state control Administration made more ef cient centralized rational Education emphasized in Austria compulsory I W Not accidentally also tended to improve military ef ciency so concern for utility Enlightened Absolutism o Term given to policies of some European M a w 7 Mom2 leaf 10 nalghlwnl 1 Mme in mid Slat 5 WA moi13 L 7w 305ml CM 94 n Wle illl LAMS I U amigo 3 3 malq 2575 Kigali EC on 1 S WW elk amp 9mm 39 M UNIS Global ContextsThe Allure of China 9 China was in the eighteenth century the most advanced richest besteducated arguably most powerful society and country in the world 0 European views of China Jesuits who wrote accounts of their work were frank in admiration of Chinese culture Voltaire admired Confucianism as alternative to religion of his day agreed with Chinese View that the world is ordered and can he understood rationally in Chinese deference to learning he saw status the philosopher aspired to Others more critical Diderot and Montesquieu focusey on quotdespoticquot features of Chinese government 74 U3Eq3i5 Add 033Yl m51U quot723 12H row vims We in WW4 J C harmed U China In uenced both Political Thought and Taste 9 Chinese as model of Enlightened Despot such as some philosophes desired 9 Impact of Chinese models on elite taste Besides porcelain lacquerware and silk Chinese wallpaper other designs adopted in Bourbon royal courts Duke of Cumberland had quotChinesequot pleasure boat in a lake on one of his estates Art and architecture Chinese pavilion in Kew Gardens Chinese in uence in Chippendale furniture Prints even in middleclass homes as decoration 7Pqu in 26 M l lt34 t for Mat 61 0M quotWe 3gt 312015 The Duke of Cumberland39s Mandarin Yachtquot Mad 3 5733 Cfnf n vv f Japan India Islamic World 9 Sources on Japan limited to Dutch accounts ambivalent Heavy punishmentsquotLord High Executionerquot Light taxation order prosperity peace Oriental despotism or natural law in the state 9 India better laiown scientific study of language Voltaire 395 Dialogue between a Brahmin and a Jesuit I756 Discovery that Sanskrit shared linguistic features with Greek and Latin 0 Persia and Ottoman Empire exotic imagery but also examples of government good and bad Montesquieu39s Persian Letters satirizad European culture Ottomans admired for religious toleration hygiene education laws and respect for minorities Criticized as arbitrary despotic and creating passive subjects not citizans quot39 OUG39PA 7 WWW MLM J Grip A 39 e Y m C lit913w a 7in q 9 a skid 3 33 16 CI 1683 J M U gt Edward Wortley Montague portrait in Oriental dress 1776 His father had been ambassador to the Ottoman Empire ml t W Q let Ul brain 5 W lm a Enlightenment In uences outside of Europe 9 China Limited interest in religion Attracted to science and technology especially military 9 Japan continued to restrict contact Still great interest in science and technology Emergence of quotDutch studiesquot o Other Asian regions Like Japan Korean thought reacted to Confucian ideas not Western in uences but some interest in Catholicism and women 39s issues Persian reactions similar Thailand less open to outside thought Ottoman and quotL Ajspanese anatomy book from the late 12703 fruit of years of Dutch Studiesquot Religion Reason and Romanticism o Enlightenment characterized 312015 13le m a gamut bane x 3r x Jmi m P erb was by rejection of organized religion and Deism quotquot Yet same period saw remarkable revival of religious expression and feeling Pietism in German Moravian emi rants to North rugMi M I tiemg Ha Arnerica Count inzendorf and errnhut 0 John Wesley and Methodism Religious revivals Ionathan Edwards an eorge White eld All stressed inward personal experience of religion feeh39n g Music also achieved sublime heights in expression religious beliefs M Ha57 0quot x v es W w w SEXQWMR EV R10 v39 j Hail 0m txwmu Om to t l 39 mama dim q sinm w Winkmot QWWQW 5 Mum l lr Vi b l t5 3 H works We 06W xi 312015 The Cult of Nature and the Development of Romanticism 3 New World and man in a state of nature a Slave trade natural law and individual rights 9 Abbe Rayna1l391131796 looked at natural history exploration and commerce condemned the Spanish in Mexico and Peru criticized the Portuguese in Brazil and the British in North America suggested that a balances o Wild Childrenquot as natural human beingW good government required checks and ifh lfae no 01395 W f 551310 lbw quot U r jamb get em by m The Huron as Noble Savage French missionary accounts provided raw material to construct ideal image of natural man 0 P 4 5 Natlt Made easier because all the Huron were dead decimated by the white man39s diseases EtaHm mi Zf c Wetn quot New Worlds and Natural Man in the Pacific o Bougainville and Cook Put to rest myths ofthe Paci c Torra Australia Brought back much genuine knowledge 4chin SW03 Q2212 a Travel accounts and public demand Early depiaions of Australian aborigines typically demeaning Polynesians however usually idealized as evidence that being white European and Christian was not necessary to being a moral person 9 Diderot39s Supplement au Voyage de Bougainville l 772 Depicted the Tahitians as quotoriginalquot human beings Described humanity in its natural state Celebrated the Tahitian s uninhibited sexuality and freedom from religious dogma 9 Travel literature as social criticism J U6 1 9 Tatar quotl Omai a native Tahitian who left with Captain Cook and came to England Where he was lionized by London society Idealized as the type of a quotnatural man not European not white not Christina he is depicted here by Sir Joshua Reynolds most famous society portrait painter of his day 312015 Maori war canoe as described by Captain James Cook K The Complications of Rousseau o Rousseau s quotThe Social Contract 1750 r Origins of civil society and legitimate government Criticized social inequality and private property Argued against division of sovereignty 39l39he GeneralWillquot More than sum of individual wills Citizens subordinated to it if necessary by coercion o quotEmilequot 1762 ideas on education and quotnaturequot 9 Julie ou la nouvelle Heloise 1761 Humans ruled hyhearts as much as minds Sensibility and quotcult of feeling Gender questions Education for both men and Women Were men and women different with different quotnatural rightsquot Gender differences quotnaturalquot or socially created What nib0w apew Em 91739Wamp SW an LFmsao Meow 11 16 W75 it Hi Weid wilka 51 Wires HWWS Wt valid bk 7M1 if EW 3 my wig 3 WU M all it mm fMary Wollestonecraft 1 7591 797 e Vindication of the Rights of Man 179 l rst response to Burke 0 Vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 The family illustrated the legal inequalities of marriage law Women were taught to be dependent and seductive in order to win husbands A proper education should promote liberty and self reliance MNWV Mot Fin q me SM had at Pblqua39UABIHP WW inn 3m to ath 10 312015 Did the Enlightenment Cause Ed 6m 53 81 the French Revolution l x I W 1M o Attitude expressed inWilliam Burke39s Re ections on W M the Revqutjon in Fiance 1790 r l Restatement of the claim of tradition L C P Comparison with English example 5 Revolution arose out of unique and speci c J circumstances Costs of SeVen Years War then support for American independence forced summoning of Estates General hadn t met since 1614 Public opinion to Enlightenment had created climate of opinion in which quotthings as they are subjected to criticism often very strident l39rom the Revolution to Napoleon Enlightenment Betrayed o Estates General becomes National Assembly Feudal rights renounced quotDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizenquot Civil Constitution of the Clergy o Monarchy overthrown 1792war with Europe s monarchies Rise of extreme parties The Terror and Robespierre 9 e Ufa it 3 will if Lu Leading general carries out essentially Coup d39etat Emperor after 1804 I E 1 kin Wars with European states leads to global con ict I constructive accomplishments Ff h ICC Lap a a mu m eta 9 The Tennis Court 0athune 1789 painted bylacques Louis DavidThe National Assembly pledges not to disband until France has a constitutiob 11 312015 11994915 mk an lvrir m mummm 4W WM 0 Economic thought Adam Smith and free trade Suited the interests of the Atlantic stat 0 Constitution of 1787 Links to Mont esquieu and others in provisions SoVereign people instead of sovereign government Pmrs moved from executive to legislature Constitutional guarantees of freedom in Bill of Rights Assumption of equality for white adult males American Revolution did not lead to an American Napoleon Contemporaries expeded US to end up as a military didatorlhip George Washington did not attempt it The American Revolution Enlightenment Vindicated MW in MAP Mela r tor73 marw W39 m in COKEKPSSQS 2 Meifmgn has 56W1Lm5 COME Wcm fj quot I The Worlds of the Enlightenment o Europe39s global context profoundly in uenced the ideas of the Enlightenment and of th Romantic movement 6 The Enlightenment was a mental revolution opening up new possibilities for society culture and life 0 Could also lead to egoism and brutality Napoleon de Sade affecting all humans because of global reach of Europe s empires 9 Opened an era in global history Previously in uences were mutual or outside Europe P f 39 m Jf COUH fad r 9an Jazz in CaleW Now in uences from Europe to the world 12 3162015 History 101 llOWorld History since 1500 Lecture 14 Global Impact of Industrialization Demographic Backdrop e Global population rise continues In 1800 about 950 million people globally In 1900 16 billion growth rate of more tha l Against expectations People crowded together conditions for disease to spread conununications made it easier sanitation in cities also contributed In uenza pandemic of 1918 carried off 30 million population continued to rise Rural populations prone to famine new food attziizzngzztzndiiztrsgim Fm VWQ 0139 Hi Qer 1 m 1 WI 184649 other famines in Europe India China Overall population growth con rmed l 0 MOMS F 1mm 5f 24mm intftaieg we quot quot 33 NHL 7 Food Supply Overcoming Malthus s Predictions e People practiced some form of birth control to limit birthrates 9 Food supplies increased more than population More land devoted to food o More ef cient methods of producing food Bringing more land into food production North America South America Australia grazing lands Grain succeeded livestock raising fertilizers increased productivity 5 Impact of Industrialization Techniques of preserving refrigerating processing A quotm initial qit d 3162015 YKDMX NC and itPPLi fmnomi Waking3 J is moanquot DammitL 53quot t0 transporting Food becomes another industrial product subject to long range trade m I J ditt md moi m P fao mc um Cige b 3996 H i viifi fi at mid Jet 10 n me at Si fig 2 39 Wolqu is Um bani quotquot WWWOW WW 184546 WV Ct CamiQB Qqiic a U J Refrigeration made possible shipping meat m long distances Chicago matpacking firm 1892 Wm 3Qv imd ggioip ng ifi wm 451in 039 I t I t J 01 MMmMi39Jb 3162015 quot in CWJOM rmth ft au agn 3 i Zi mt Patterns of trade distribution of maustrhhzation and technology with special reference to the production at food f The First World Countries at the Dawn of the Industrial Age r lt9 cm a 1 I r N 1 Large labor pool huge domestic market I i r N 1 I Exprtdtti1 139t di39 1 quot x ms mm W L W 4p 39 Opium trade began to cut into surplus 39 Since fteenth century lack of interest in foreign trade M 39 V W Cermption ate into pro ts 9 India 39 r U Cn apsedMughalEmpixeremedsomenfeonapicunns consumption v 39 British East India Company Seizure of Bengal inmased revenues 39 New markets for good Forced domestic textile manufacturing into decline Britain Exemplifies the Advance of Industry to Why industrialize and why does Britain lead Used to stress Britain39s location and raw materials Other factors Government policies that favored industrialization Relatively high cost of labor advantage of mechanization Increase in population and increase in Wealth stimulated demand Driven by steam Croats demo for to steamengines so impact on metallurgical industries Used in mines ceramic production steel later transportation Britain39s control of overseas territories Markets for finished products Which in turn depends on fuels N Sources of raw materials quot Industry s early development was in relatively rural setting such as Coalbrookdale in the English midlands s f39 Sincere attery Industrialization in the Rest of Europe a Link to military needs and militarization Mass armies mass production Need to be fed amp housed developments in preservation Transportation railways and communication telegraph with military implications Industry and warfare new weapons Active role for governments Belgium parts of France Germany Italy Russia Empires as in British case seen as important part of industrialization policy NV 1 p 3162015 2me UM Mm am 6W 5 quotmMJlrzA39b SV39VL arkng dl fmb ii m adj mfg7W5 555 M Ma in Cost 0qu lebximti a d gt qux 1L LilHag 63quot 51ml 20W Ji7 awnJAE quotth tz il l D W IW inc43 AfN ti g Sizes W0quot gtmqmty no Hume ak rmm iuti39 4 quot Y 7 39 P L f jimf UM A GW W 4 W 8 0W 5 MoiY 0 Fawn slur OR 015 gifted 70m 4 39 517 anmt t I ir v IIIIIVE E 3 397 313 3 Ironclad steam powered ship built during the US Civil War 18603 m 1M ma aWA IS We a hut 39 amn Industrialization in the United States a Some similarities to Britain39s situation Government support of business Relative scarcity of labor leads to impetus to mechanize in spite of growing population giventen itory ofUSA it was labor poor Steam adapted in textiles ceramics mining Steam revolutionizes transportation Railways Transcon nental railway line completed in 1869 Shipping Transat1antic steam packets outstripped sailing quot r Commuruoation revolution telegraph under the Atlantic by 1869 o Developments contributed directly to opening up and exploiting potential of Arnerica s plains for food production mining and other resources 3162015 W5 bIQ WM 5quot COWPd 54ft Had Shitquot 15L WWIt at MOI3th QAdMrc 39uCL im wncnt Wt UMWM l L L 39 K O ow Ar 51 9th i QXC 2 g NW Mm WM 61 07f bf imug Qt HW39 j063M lt5 5039 UCS V K W Ml WW 0 65 itmoh was 56M 4 f C Egrei p l 3162015 U a as 9 A After several earlier attempts to lay a transatlantic telegraph cable it was nally accomplished in 1866 Map of the transatlantic cable 5 route 3162015 Grain elevators transformed the storing and shipping of wheat f and other cereal F crops US Minnesota late nineteenth century China Tries to Strengthen Itself HW aU MW Md V K Q 146 quot71 1qu to China inthe nineteenth century 9 After Opium Wars became market for European manufactures Declines as producer especially for export 9 Reaction set in after 1860 Peasant rebellions especially the Taiping Rebellion in the 18505 threatened Qing rule r n quot t a a AngloFrench occupation of Beijing later help in suppressing 4 quote quotl x l at k 0 l l rebellions acquaints Chinese with military technology V 1 I e SelfStrengthening Movement trim K 0M quotgillWt C W M quot including telegraph SineJapanese War of 189495 Exposed Chinese weakness Chinese Essence Western Practice I 9 Loss of position in global trade Indian De Industrialization CS MO Nd 039 6 India tieindustrialized Policy or accident b i 4 6quot Textile industry declining before Britain set xed policy 39 collapse of demand as Mughal state ended British controlled tax revenue not recycled 5 o l an India became source of raw materials and market for nished rim 3 ms d or Produced cotton tea opium quinine i k 39 i Purchased nished cloth other manufactures I quot k 6 Infrastructure developed to serve imperial economic interests not develop India s internal economy wt mt 1 e Labor migrated outside both in and beyond the x British empire Y e U 0 quot39 1 WW J m we 0M gem es tasters including some Westerners sampling the season s 1885 China39s quotSelf Strengtheningquot movement attempted to adapt Western technology to Chinese traditions Industrialization and South America Consequences of long and exhausting independence struggles Economic disruption New states maintained large military establishments 0 Labor force not an issue Earslaves Native Americans uneducated laborers Colonial patterns reproduced only native elites replaced foreign Having fought for independence under Free Tradequot slogan did not protect local industries Continued to produce raw materials coffee sugar tobacco meat Provided market for cheap foreign goods 6 Fuels resentment ot neighbor to the North 3162015 39 Gagadim iiadt iim39 bits We Mme7 3 Sir indtl t RWZL ertdi W et South America ca 1900 economic act wities Lf ti I s 29 8 l R 1 A l a I 4 V xt pll u Japan A Successful Attempt to Buck the Tide 6 Tokugawa policy of isolation ended by Commodore Perry in 1853 o Already urbanizing commercial growing middle class Develop army rst then economy By 18805 succeeded in reversing unequal treaties of I 8505 Focus on traditional economic activities State support Patriotism and economic development o Not seen as threat to European imperial interests r 3162015 XEr 30 52 WMMe 2an we ow 156m 2r va swam Wows W IV aquotan i A 35le ILA r itbtm 5016 WQ A4 mi W1 SW coww saw 5 mm W M w x m lt J WM 660 d 3162015 39 Rice cultivation in Japan rst half of the nineteenth cenh1ryWithin the next 100 years food production increased dramatically without bringing more land into cultivation 1876 print or a railway station on the Tokyo Yokohama line built with Western technical help but still a marker of how quickly lapan industrialized after the Meiji Restoration in 1868 10 Egypt Failed Attempt to Buck the Tide Mehmet Ali 18051849 French advisers developed industries army British intervention loses protective tariffs Egypt exports cotton 8 sugar 3 Ismail grandson 1863187 9 Barrows abroad1 returns to Mehmet Ali s goals Suez Canal Bankrupt abdicates British protectorate Britain Egypt India Suez between India and Britain No industrial power between the two The first shipping passes through the newlysopened Suez Canal 1869 05 within irau r39 wr m quot FWWMWMEMB mm mm 3162015 I797 Napolfa 7 5 EMQ Otl mcm Em rt 5 0010 t Cation a await f ldi macmce 77 EAL15y 60 W 0 27 3355310 M1295 Eat20 Wt in MM Camirt 0 Vitod i also It EDNA1quot u r J m mwtcm k VacW5 0 antral 7 31lml prmi VK 9 970 bag U 1 ram Co int 0V 67 1 3 PDQrt 6th u 11 3162015 I Share ofWorld Manu ictu ng Quipgr 1 9501900 gt 1750 1300 W 1830 7 1 18 so 1880 1900 Europe 231 281 341 5315 620 630 China 328 333 298 397 125 62 India 245 1 97 1 75 86 28 L7 Western Industrial Domin avnhc De C1 ch Z l 39 a 9 Already controlled systems of longrange trade I 4 empires J o Economic liberalism states encourage trade support business e Population growth particularly rapid in Europe more than doubled in 190 even though 40 million emigrated e Started behind therefore motivated to overtake China and India to innovate and to develop new technologies for production 12 311 812915 History 101 1 10World History since 1500 Lecture lS n ushy and Society f Machines Manufactu ngzapd ng LAME allocation Llfe Industnal Clues CHM been bit Sited near sources oimwmaterials 0mm rural mvzgxmmwa WM W 2 50 5 mm H Um W WW Factories duster workezsdose by v Storesfollawto aelltomdreu MUN w l v 9 Effect on environment and health V Noise pollution sickness poverty crime Riches rmlriticmalde ciencyhzkaf mninb bemusedna sunlight W mem supplies Shef eld England in the midnineteenth century industry still nestled in a countyside with traditional liie existing beside it a l w
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