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by: Jessica Notetaker

tester BIOL 100 7012 01

Jessica Notetaker
Truman State
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Biology with Lab
Laura J. Fielden-Rechav
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Notetaker on Monday August 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by Laura J. Fielden-Rechav in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.

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Date Created: 08/01/16
Project 4.3.1: What is Cholesterol? Introduction In Unit 2 you learned that there are different types of lipids. Lipids are a necessary  component in your diet; however, it is important that your diet includes the right lipids in the correct amounts. One important lipid, cholesterol, is needed for the proper  functioning of cells and for maintaining a healthy body. However, too much  cholesterol can lead to health problems, including heart disease and blocked  arteries, which can lead to strokes and heart attacks.  Cholesterol is naturally produced in the liver and also absorbed from food as it  passes through the intestines. Regardless of where cholesterol originates, it must be transported to all the cells in the body. As with most substances transported through  the body, it is carried by the blood stream. Cholesterol is needed by all cells in the  body. One type of lipoprotein (a combination of lipid and protein), LDL, is responsible for transporting cholesterol to the cells. Another type of lipoprotein, HDL, is  responsible for removing excess cholesterol from the blood stream and transporting  it to the liver. Too much cholesterol in the blood can cause a build­up inside the  arteries. Therefore, a balance of these two molecules keeps circulating lipids from  becoming trapped inside arteries.  You most likely know someone who has dealt with high cholesterol, or you have  probably seen the ads for foods or medications that may help lower cholesterol.  Many people have misconceptions about cholesterol, LDL, and HDL. Because of  pharmaceutical and food marketing, much misinformation has been spread about  these molecules. It is not uncommon to hear LDL referred to as “bad cholesterol”  and HDL as “good cholesterol.” In reality, neither is actually good or bad. But a  balance needs to exist as they both do their jobs.  In this project you will design and create a brochure, poster, newsletter, or webpage  that accurately informs high school and college students about cholesterol, LDL, and HDL. You will use what you learn to analyze Anna Garcia’s cholesterol test results  and make recommendations about her cardiac care.  Equipment  Laboratory journal  PBS Course File  Computer with Internet access  Project 4.3.1 Medical History Resource Sheet  Activity 2.2.2 Nutritional Terms Chart  PLTW Biomedical Science General Rubric   © 2013 Project Lead The Way,Inc. Principles of Biomedical Science Project 4.3.1 Cholesterol – Page 1  Computer printer  Poster board (optional)  Colored pencils or markers (optional)  PLTW Biomedical Science Documentation Protocol Procedure 1. Refer to your Activity 2.2.2 Nutritional Terms Chart. Review the connection  between unsaturated fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol with overall  health.   2. Access the webpage Cholesterol and Health—Functions and Food written by  Chris Masterjohn at http://www.cholesterol­and­­and­ health.html. Use the links on the left side of the webpage to read about the  many functions cholesterol has in our cells and body. List and describe these  functions in your laboratory journal.  o Cholesterol is a health­promoting substance o  It is a critical component of cell membranes, the precursor to all  steroid hormones, a precursor to vitamin D, and the limiting factor  that brain cells need to make connections with one another called  synapses, making it essential to learning and memory. o essential nutrient for at least the one percent of the population that  has a genetic defect preventing efficient cholesterol synthesis o Cholesterol is found in every cell of your body. It is especially  abundant in the membranes of these cells, where it helps maintain  the integrity of these membranes, and plays a role in facilitating cell  signaling­­ meaning the ability of your cells to communicate with  each other so you function as a human, rather than a pile of cells. o Cholesterol is also present in membranes of organelles inside the  cells, although it usually makes up a smaller proportion of the  membrane. o One of the many important roles cholesterol plays in the body is in  our nervous system, enabling learning and memory to take place. In fact, one of the reasons that sleep is beneficial to our learning and  memory is because it enables our brain to make more cholesterol! o The human body uses cholesterol to synthesize bile acids, which  are important for the digestion of fats.  o Cholesterol is the precursor to a hormone called pregnenolone,  which has important functions itself, but is also the precursor to all  other steroid hormones. 3. Answer Conclusion question 1.   © 2013 Project Lead The Way,Inc. Principles of Biomedical Science Project 4.3.1 Cholesterol – Page 2 4. With a partner, design and produce a brochure, poster, newsletter, or webpage  that informs and provides accurate, easy­to­follow information to high school and  college students about cholesterol, LDL, and HDL.  5. Use appropriate Internet search strategies to access reliable sources and  research information that provide answers to the questions listed below. o What are LDL and HDL? o How do LDL and HDL differ structurally and functionally? o Why do doctors monitor the concentrations of LDL and HDL in patients’  blood? o How are the concentrations of LDL and HDL associated with the risk for  heart disease and associated disorders?  o What other molecules in a patient’s blood are monitored along with LDL  and HDL? o What do the results of a cholesterol test mean? How do patients interpret  each value? o What can patients do to change the levels of LDL and HDL in their blood? o How does intake of unsaturated, saturated, and trans fats affect  cholesterol levels and overall health? 6. Write notes from your research in your laboratory journal and include the  information you will need to properly cite your sources. 7. 8. Obtain a PLTW Biomedical Science General Rubric from your teacher. Review  the requirements for successful completion of the project.  9. Design your final product to be informative, yet simple to follow. You do not need  to go question by question. These are provided as a guide of the types of  information you should include. Final organization of information is up to you. 10.Check your brochure or poster to be sure you answered all the questions listed in Step 4 and that you included information about the structure and function of  cholesterol. 11.Be sure to properly cite all the sources of the information you used to develop  your product. 12.Review the components of the scoring rubric to be sure your final product meets  all the expectations. 13.Share your final product with the class. Discuss the importance of cholesterol  testing and heart health as a group.  14.Obtain a Project 4.3.1 Medical History Resource Sheet. Note that Anna’s  bloodwork is back from the laboratory.  15.Use what you have learned in the project to interpret Anna’s results. In the  Follow­up/Diagnosis section, write a paragraph that explains whether each  number in the panel is considered high, low, or borderline.    © 2013 Project Lead The Way,Inc. Principles of Biomedical Science Project 4.3.1 Cholesterol – Page 3 16.Pretend you are Anna’s physician. Add information to the Recommendations  section regarding a potential plan for Anna to address her cholesterol values. 17.File the completed Project 4.3.1 Medical History resource sheet in the  appropriate tab of your course file. Use the PBS Course File – Table of Contents  as a guide. 18.Answer the remaining Conclusion questions.  Conclusion 1 Explain how cholesterol plays an important role in at least two different human  body systems. 19.List five factors or behaviors that affect cholesterol levels in the body, how these  factors affect cholesterol levels, and whether the effect is positive or negative  with regards to a person’s health.  20.Explain how cholesterol levels could be linked to health events such as strokes  and heart attacks.  21.What do you feel are the pros and cons of using cholesterol­lowering drugs to  treat high cholesterol?   © 2013 Project Lead The Way,Inc. Principles of Biomedical Science Project 4.3.1 Cholesterol – Page 4   © 2013 Project Lead The Way,Inc. Principles of Biomedical Science Project 4.3.1 Cholesterol – Page 5


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