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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catlyn Chapman on Monday August 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 08/01/16
Catlyn Chapman 1010 Davis 6 December 2015 Bird Species The Flores Hawk Eagle is a very interesting bird. This species of bird is a raptor, and is critically endangered. They live on the islands of Lumbok, Sambawa, and Flores. Deforestation and trade are much of what contributes to this bird being on the endangered species list. This is also similar to the parrots that were learned about in class. One very neat thing about the Flores Hawk Eagle is that it was actually a subspecies of the Crested Hawk Eagle, but it has undergone many changes that have classified it as a new species. This eagle looks a lot like a bald eagle, with a white head with very few markings and a mostly dark body. The size of this bird is a length of 7579 centimeters, and there are not very many differences between a young Flores Hawk juvenile and an adult. These birds eat small mammals, lizards, and other birds. People are able to find these animals in the rainforests where they live. Breeding season has been observed around June July which is during the dry season. This type of bird does not migrate, but it is thought to travel from island to island very regularly, especially if the islands are very close in distance. The life span of an eagle is 70 years, which is very similar to other species of birds. The negative aspect of these birds is that there are very few pairs left in the wild, and there is hope that with a declining population, the people in the world are willing to help and take care of this species of eagle before they become extinct. Perhaps stopping deforestation in the rainforest will help keep these birds populated so that species of lizards and other small mammals don’t become too overpopulated as well. The BlackWinged Starling is the second bird that will be researched. This species of bird is very beautiful, and much smaller than the previous bird talked about. This bird can be found in Indonesia, and it is also known as the BlackWinged Myna. One cool thing about this species of bird is that there are three subspecies: The nominate race, tricolor, and tertius. These subspecies are found at 3 different places in their region. This bird is on the endangered species list, and is at a risk of extinction. Many think this is because of its beauty. This bird is typically 23 centimeters and is considered mediumsized. The only color on this bird is the black tail and feathers, and the rest of its body is white. The adults of this bird species have pink around their eyes, and they also have yellow legs and a yellow beak. As learned in class, this bird is loud and has a high vocal tone. This is true of all mynas. Starlings are migratory and do this in very large groups. Each year, these birds cause so much damage to agricultural crops. Both sexes incubate, and students thought that was very interesting. The diet of this species is full of grains and fruit such as strawberries, blueberries, grapes, tomatoes, and cherries. They are adaptable and also like to eat grains such as seeds and livestock feed. That is why they are such a nuisance to the farmers around them. BlackWinged Starlings also eat protein such as millipedes and worms. These birds are monogamous, and it is interesting to know that there are fights over breeding sites that can lead to death. Another fact that is really cool is that the females more than likely will return to their original nesting site. They lay eggs in accordance to their neighbors, and are very aggressive about their eggs and protecting them. This could be because many babies do not make it in their first year of life. These birds are so tiny and are able to fit into little holes to have their nest sites, but this can also be at the disturbance to other animals who had the habitat site before they did. Their life span is short, but one starling lived to be 21 years old even though most do not make it that long. Even though this species of bird is annoying to some, they are still essential to the world, and many hope that they are able to come off of the endangered species list very soon. The Ruppell’s Vulture doesn’t sound like an appealing bird, but there was some very interesting information found on it. This bird species is endangered, and lives in Africa. It is classified as a bird of prey. Its color is a mixture of brown and black, and has a length of 1 meter. Its wingspan is 8 ½ feet! That is one huge bird. The life expectancy of this bird is 4050 years which is shorter than an eagle species. These birds have excellent eye sight and this is used when they are circling around looking for a carcass to eat. Their tongue assists them while they eat because it has spines. Their lack of feathers on their head also helps them when they eat, so that they don’t carry bacteria with them. This bird can reach species of 22 mph, and one really awesome fact is that they can reach heights of 20,000 feet. One has crashed into a plane before it got so high! These birds are not loud like mynas, but can make annoying squealing noises as they are feeding. These vultures are highly social and feed in large groups. They enjoy living in open lands in Africa, where one can imagine that there are many dead carcasses left from lions and other predators. These birds are very dedicated and will travel very far to find a dead carcass. Their breeding groups can consist of 1,000 breeding pairs, and this pair is for life. Their nest site can change, but some choose to go back to the one they have already used. Both parents share the duties of incubation, and this is similar to the mynas. Humans are really the only predator of this species of bird, and this means we have the power to keep them alive and off of the endangered species list. One way to possibly save the lives of these birds is to be careful with how other animals are killed in Africa. Many people kill animals with lead shot, and that could be used when people poach in Africa. This lead that the class learned about in class the other day had an effect on other birds that ate carcasses, and it could be affecting vultures in Africa as well. The Madagascar Fish Eagle is a beautiful bird as well. It has a stable population, and is nonmigratory. They are the largest raptor in Madagascar, and they are a very rare bird of prey. This bird is found on coastlines, lakes, rivers, and islands. It is endemic to Madagascar. These birds are reddishbrown with an almost all white head. Juveniles have streaks, and have a darker tail than the adults. They have all of their adult plumage after 5 years. These birds also have a specific call, “Ki Koy”, which is different than other birds. Their length is around 7080 centimeters. They depend on large tree branches to perch and nest, so many are found on the sides of rivers. These birds like to soar over large bodies of water, and they prefer clearer and deeper water. These birds can shallow dive and love to eat fish, hence the name fish eagle. They sit on their perch and look through the water and spot fish. They can also eat turtles, crabs, and other birds. This eagle carries its prey with it to the shore line to eat it. Eagles are known to pirate prey from others, and that’s exactly what this bird does too. This is a type of eagle, therefore it can live to around 70 years. Breeding season starts in May, and a clutch is 2 eggs. Often, siblicide occurs and that means only one chick lives. There hasn’t been a major downward trend in this bird species, but it is still endangered. People believe that it is a naturally rare bird species and that there isn’t a random event that has caused its population to decline. This species has very little genetic diversity, and perhaps that is why it is slowly becoming more endangered. Many find this bird to be more interesting than others because it loves the water so much, and so do people. Perhaps if fishermen were aware of the rarity of this bird they would be more careful when fishing and not leave fishing line in the water. It is certain that there have been cases where these eagles have had injuries or have possibly died because of something a fishermen left out in the water. The next bird that will be talked about is the Christmas Frigate Bird. Many haven’t heard of this bird until now, and it is a different type bird that was cool to learn about. This species is endemic to Christmas Island, which is around Australia. They breed in this one place, and are nonmigratory. All of these things are what cause this bird to be critically endangered. The rise of humans has also caused their species to decline. It almost seems like a very exclusive bird, and that also isn’t good for its population. These birds are 90100 centimeters and are mostly black with white bellies. These birds are also seabirds like the sea eagle that was last talked about. These birds can be found in nests in tall trees. They prefer gliding rather than flapping and are able to fly for longer periods of time because of this. They eat flying fish, jellyfish, plankton, and offal. They catch and eat their pray by dipping their beak into the water. They can also fly over the water with their head emerged under the water. A gruesome side to their eating habits is that they take other eggs and chicks from seabirds and eat them. Fishermen are once again a threat to these birds and are known for poisoning, shooting and sedating them. They also get tangled up in their fishing line. Displaying males are known to be very noisy. During breeding season, the males also have bright red chests that bulge out. The Christmas Frigate bird doesn’t mate with the same partner every year. Only one egg is laid, and both birds do the incubation. The chick is born naked and then covered in white feathers. Their life span is 1525 years. This bird has seemed the most interesting thus far, and it also seems like it is in the most danger. It doesn’t migrate and its location is such a small span of distance that they are confined and cannot reproduce more than they do now. This bird, in the opinion of many, is one of the more endangered ones and is very evident on Christmas Island. Its population needs to increase if it has such a large existence on one island. The next bird that was researched is the PurpleWinged Ground Dove. This bird is very close to extinction, which is sad because it is so beautiful. The female is more of a brown color while the males are bluegrey. These birds are only 1923 centimeters. This bird has a highly specific diet that consists of bamboo seeds. These birds follow flowering plants and therefore don’t stay in the same location. They live in wooded forests and near the blooms of bamboo. This species can also eat fruit if other food supply is limited. These birds lay a clutch of two eggs and breed in the summer. They also do not live as long as the eagle species. This species isn’t known to make very many noises. The PurpleWinged Ground Dove has been protected under Brazilian law since 1973, and many hope it can be more protected in the future that way it will not become extinct. The Golden WhiteEye is the next bird on the list, and this bird is small and bright orange. This species of bird lives on the island of Saipan, and there is talk that a new snake is going to be established on this island which could cause a dramatic decrease in population in the next year. Because of this occurrence, the Golden WhiteEye is classified as critically endangered. They are 14 centimeters and are considered mediumsized. They resemble the color of a peach and have bright colored legs and beak as well. They have a white ring around their eye as well. They are known to have a raspy sounding voice and then have a loud whistle. They are famous for these noises. It is hard to tell the difference between the males and females, but the best way to tell is by looking at its wings. Sexual Dimorphism occurs with this species because the male has larger and longer wings than the females do. Juveniles are not as pretty to look at, and they seem dull all around their body while their parents are still very brightly colored. These birds are monogamous and only lay 2 eggs in a small nest. The chicks are altricial and are fed mostly caterpillars when born. Both parents share the duties of incubation and taking care of the babies. They are also very territorial and diurnal. There is a global population of 73,000 birds, and they are originally from the Northern Mariana Islands in the USA. They are mostly seen around the foliage of trees, and they like to eat insects, nectar, flowers and fruit which is similar to other birds around the size of this one. They prefer limestone forests and can also live in suburban areas and shrub land. They do not have to migrate and live around 20 years. An interesting fact is that they have the highest recorded density of any bird. Typhoons have interestingly caused some difficulties for these birds, but they remain alive and are easily able to adapt. This has caused their population to not decline as much as one would think. There is a conservation plan where 46 birds have been taken into captivity in order to breed without the possibility of the Brown Tree Snake having too much negative effect on its population. This bird is tiny, but beautiful. Its presence is needed and conservationists are trying to help conserve it as much as possible. Tristan Albatross is a part of the D. dabbenena species. The Tristan Albatross is a fairly big seabird known for spending time near the ocean waters. The Tristan Albatross, which is hard to differentiate from the Wandering Albatross, has a wingspan up to 910 ft. and is primarily white with a dark back. Compared to the Wandering Albatross, they are slightly smaller, a little darker and they never really obtain their full white plumage. Their geographic distribution is very tough for experts and researches to find know due to the simple fact that they look so much like the Wandering Albatross. Although experts aren’t completely uninformed, by using tracking devices there is research that shows them in a wide variety of different places. Males have been seen in South America while females have been seen in Africa, but they have also been spotted in Brazil and Australia. The majority of them are regularly found on Gough Island. To this day experts are still working day after day to get more information on where they’re locating and making their home. This wild seabird has a pretty simple yet delicious diet, which consists of a wide variety of seafood such as squid, fish, shrimp, crab, lobsters and much more. Their way of capturing/killing their meal is by waiting for it to hit the surface of the water and they snatch it right up, or they have the ability to dive up to 16 feet down in the water to capture their food. The Tristan Albatross breeds biennially, which means the breed every other year and they don’t start breeding until they are about 10 years old. Also, while breeding they have a tendency of nesting in a wet heath up to 2,500 feet in elevation. Throughout their life, which can be up to 60 years, an Albatross can fly up to 65,000 miles. Lately, the Tristan Albatross has been in some serious danger between mice and fish lines. Mice will kill and eat the Albatross chicks even if they’re twice its size. Since they’re babies they’re not old enough to know how to defend themselves so they suffer. Also, longline fishing is another threat that they run into. When trying to find food they can run into a line, which can kill them. The Albatross population has hit an unexpected decrease in the last couple of years. The RedThroated Lorikeet is a very beautiful bird that is also critically endangered. This could be a result from the recent predation of rats which caused a loss of habitat. These birds are 18 centimeters and have a flight that is not as strong and powerful as other birds, and is considered “fluttering.” These birds are almost completely green, except for a few red parts of their body which include their cheeks, thighs, and throat. There are not many differences between the sexes of both birds, and the juveniles are duller than and not as bright as the adults. The voice of this bird is very highpitched when they feed or are flying. This species of bird can be found on islands of Fiji near flowering trees. This species is a lot harder to find now than what it used to be, and this is because of logging and construction. This habitat loss also increases the rat population and is a reason why barely 50 individuals are found to this day. They are also found in mature forests at altitudes of 500 meters. These birds do not migrate, as it stays warm year round where they live. This species of bird does not travel in large flocks, rather it is found feeding in canopies with a small group of birds. Lorikeets feed on nectar and pollen from flowering trees. The breeding habits of this bird are unknown, which was found to be very interesting. Perhaps because there are so few left, it is nearly impossible to catch them when they are breeding. The RedThroated Lorikeet has not been spotted since 1993, and that is a very scary fact. Such a beautiful bird could potentially be extinct within the next few years, and most of it would be because of humans. It is sad that a bird of this species has not been seen in a very long time, and hopefully the world will see it is necessary in the wild and will help with conservation efforts. The Mangrove Finch is the next bird researched, and it is extremely endangered. It is very rare because as of now, there are only 100 individuals left in the wild. There are not very many Mangrove forests left either for these birds to live in. The Mangrove Finch is one of Darwin’s Finches which originates from the Galapagos Islands, and is one of the rarest birds in the wild today. This bird has a very specialized beak used to rip bark off of trees and eat certain insects. Their feathers are brown and become duller on the back side. The way to tell the difference between the males and females is that the males have black coloration around the head and neck. These finches are only 14 centimeters and weigh only 18 grams! Insects along with spiders are eaten by this bird by foraging in leaves and dirt, and grubs can also be found this way too. Their beak allows them to get these animals out of the inside of the tree bark as well. This species seems very smart like the crow, and will use sticks and twigs when it is really desperate to get grubs and insects from the depths of a tree. This is the first of these researched birds that starts breeding season in December. This is considered the moist and hot season for the Mangrove Finch. Other finches like this one are monogamous as well, so that is another similarity for all of Darwin’s Finches. There has been change in mating pair observed, but more than most stay with the same partner to breed for life. Three eggs are laid and they are incubated by the female. They don’t live very long, so a safe life without threats is very important to keep their population growing strong. A crazy fact is that this bird is actually extinct on one island named Fernandina, and it has very few observances on other islands. Perhaps a reason the Mangrove Finch’s status is so endangered is because they only habitat Mangrove swamps that are off the sea. These birds like a large accumulation of leaves and other forest things because their prey and dinner lives amongst all the moist parts of the forest. This finch is in dire need of help because with rats, cats, parasites, and El Nino, their population is declining. Fatuhiva Monarch is a part of the Pomarea whitneyi species. The Fatuhiva Monarch is identified as a sizable flycatcher. It has a shiny purple black tent to it and sometimes looks a little brown. It has reddish wings, a white belly, and fluffy feathers on its forehead, and a little bit of red on its face, neck, and back. They are mainly found in Marquesas Islands, French Polynesian. They are very suitable to thickets, wooded areas, valleys and cultivated land. They also like wet areas and will nest in a thin tree. Their nest consists of moss, plant fibers, leaves, and more. The Fatuhiva Monarch eats insects such as beetles, spiders, and seeds. Right now the Fatuhiva is in serious danger. Throughout the last three generations the Fatuhiva population has declined around 90% leaving anywhere from 4070 birds left. Black rats have been a major threat for a while now and still are making a dent in the Fatuhiva population. About 41 of the birds left have are mature so that leaves the rest of them in even more danger since they’re younger. The Fatuhiva, like every bird, sings songs making noises like a whistling flute. But other people and experts have said that it kind of sounds like a cat getting stepped on. These birds are Monogamous, meaning they only have one partner during their lifetime. Each chick stays in the nest for 1018 days and then they leaving staying next to their parents for a while and then set free on their own. The Swift Parrot is a beautiful bird that is also in danger. It is bright green with pointed feathers and a pointed tail. This parrot has a Latin name of “discolour,” and that means very colorful. This bird has other colors on it as well like red and orange, but it is mostly green. It also has blue on the crown and the wings. A person can tell what bird it is flying around if they see under their wings which will be a bright red color. The main difference between the sexes is that the female is a little duller in color. Juveniles are also different and have pale orange bills and brown coloring. The call of this bird is very unique, and it is recognized a loud clinking noise. This is also very evident as it is flying. This species of bird is slightly larger than some of the other ones that have been researched, and it is a full 25 centimeters. This is one of the few bird species that seems to migrate. At the beginning of August, the Swift Parrot comes from the mainland back to Tasmania where they are from. A lot of the population continues to arrive in Tasmania until September. A really neat fact about this bird is that the breeding season happens in line with the flowering of a tree called the “Tasmanian Blue Gum.” While they are breeding, the nectar from these trees becomes the major food source. Another really neat fact is that as soon as they arrive, they all begin to look for suitable nests. Both sexes help during this, which also makes it seem like it’s a competition which is also really cool. Old eucalyptus trees are their favorite, and they prefer them to be hollow so they can build a nest inside. These birds are very social and like to nest in close proximity to others. The female parrot will stay in the nest before and after the chicks are hatched. She seems the most dedicated out of all of the birds! The pairing between these birds is very sweet because the male will go search for food and will return to feed the female every few hours throughout the day. 4 eggs are normally produced which are very shiny. This is also more than most other birds. As the chicks are growing, they actually form a group with the other juveniles before flying out with all of the adults. This is very interesting because it probably helps them really develop social and gathering skills together. Post breeding habitat is in the more wet grasslands. These birds basically rely on the eucalyptus trees that are flowering, so when the trees around them stop flowering, they will travel westward. In the fall, these birds will travel to Australia and stay for the winter on the islands. This bird is classified as endangered, which is a status one step above than most other birds that were researched. This is surprising because these birds are so beautiful and bright. The main concern with this parrot is the decrease of its breeding habitat. It has decreased by 44% because of logging, habitat destruction, and residential development. This species relies on the eucalyptus trees, and if they are continually cut down then their breeding habitat will be gone. Only 5% of the remaining habitat is actually suitable to breed in. This is such a small number for so many birds! Another interesting fact is that these birds actually die quite often because of vehicle collisions and window incidents. They also have a habit of running into power lines. There is a protection plan that is helping preserve the rest of the eucalyptus trees in Tasmania, and this has to stay constant or else this species will die off. Their whole existence is dependent upon these eucalyptus trees. Within the next 10 years, there is a vision that these birds will no longer be on the endangered list and will be on the vulnerable list instead. There are only 1,000 couples left in the wild which seems like a stable number, but it is expected to decline. This bird species is very beautiful like most others, and it is reliant on the human species to help it preserve its trees for breeding. References http://theanimalfiles.com/birds/birds_of_prey/vulture_ruppells.html http://thewebsiteofeverything.com/animals/birds/Passeriformes/Sturnidae/Sturnusmelanopterus http://www.arkive.org/swiftparrot/lathamusdiscolor/ http://www.arkive.org/mangrovefinch/camarhynchusheliobates/ http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=2571 http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/factsheet/22707192 http://www.eagledirectory.org/species/flores_hawk_eagle.html http://www.eagledirectory.org/species/madagascar_fish_eagle.html http://www.itsnature.org/air/birdsair/goldenwhiteeye/ http://www.mascotarios.org/en/lorigorgirrojo/ http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/albatross/
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