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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anneasha Duberceau on Monday August 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 4410 at University of South Florida taught by David Rogers in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Physical chemistry I in Chemistry at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 08/01/16
BSC 2010 Final Exam Review Guide Mitosis and the Cell cycle – Chapter 12 Phases of the cell cycle: interphase (G1, S, G2) cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) Know in general what happens at each step of mitosis, focusing on the DNA/chromosomes: interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Be able to distinguish the phases by description of the events and visualization of figures. BSC 2010 Final Exam Review Guide Meiosis and sexual reproduction – Chapter 13 Know the definitions of haploid vs. diploid • A diploid cell (2n) has two sets of chromosomes • For humans, the diploid number is 46 (2n = 46) • A gamete (sperm or egg) contains a single set of chromosomes, and is haploid (n) • For humans, the haploid number is 23 (n = 23) Meiosis • In the first cell division (meiosis I), homologous chromosomes separate • In the second cell division (meiosis II), sister chromatids separate How is prophase I • Chromosomes begin to condense • Synapsis occurs: homologous chromosomes loosely pair up, aligned gene by gene Prophase II Metaphase I • microtubules from opposite poles are attached to the kinetochore of one chromosome of each tetrad (so as to pull the tetrad apart) Metaphase II • In metaphase II, the sister chromatids are aligned at the metaphase plate Anaphase I • In anaphase I, pairs of homologous chromosomes separate; sister chromatids remain attached at the centromere and move as one unit toward the pole Anaphase II BSC 2010 Final Exam Review Guide • In anaphase II, the sister chromatids separate The unique aspects of meiosis (3) Synapsis and crossing over in prophase I: Homologous chromosomes physically connect and exchange genetic information – At the metaphase plate, there are paired homologous chromosomes (tetrads), instead of individual replicated chromosomes – At anaphase I, it is homologous chromosomes, instead of sister chromatids, that separate What is a nondisjunction? • If both homologs or both sister chromatids move to the same pole of the parent cell Inheritance Genetics Chapter 14 Definitions of truebreeding, hybrid, homozygous, heterozygous, dominance, recessive, alleles, and definitely genotype and phenotype • Homozygous: having two identical alleles for a gene • Heterozygous: two different alleles for a gene • Phenotype = physical appearance • Genotype = genetic makeup • Alleles = Alternative versions of genes that account for variations in inherited characters. For each character an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent Understand the Law of Segregation and • A gamete gets only one of the two alleles that are present in the somatic cells of an organism • This segregation of alleles corresponds to the distribution of homologous chromosomes to different gametes in meiosis The Law of Independent Assortment • each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation Know how to use Punnett Squares to solve simple crosses determine what the possible gametes will be from a given genotype. Understand the working of multiple alleles as with blood type • The ABO blood group shows three alleles for the enzyme (I) that attaches A or B carbohydrates to red blood cells: I , I , and i. Know the difference between recessively inherited disorders and dominantly inherited disorders (Is the trait shown by a heterozygous individual or not?) Recessive pattern of inheritance: – 1. Unaffected heterozygous individuals will average 25% of their offspring being affected – 2. Two affected individuals will always produce 100% affected offspring – Can “skip” generations Dominant pattern of inheritance – Does not “skip” generations BSC 2010 Final Exam Review Guide • Affected individual will always have at least one affected parent Two affected people can have unaffected children Know how carriers are related to recessively inherited conditions • Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals homozygous for the allele • Carriers are heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically normal Patterns of inheritance of sex inked genes: understand how sexlinked traits appear in later generations, with the difference in appearance between males and females. Understand why this is, based on the location of the gene on an X chromosome. • For a recessive Xlinked trait to be expressed: – A female needs two copies of the recessive allele – A male needs only one copy of the recessive allele • Sexlinked recessive disorders are much more common in males than in females. • In humans, sexlinked usually refers to a gene on the larger X chromosome Effects of the different dominance • Complete dominance occurs when phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are identical • Incomplete dominance: the phenotype of heterozygotes (hybrids) is somewhere between the phenotypes of the two homozygous varieties • Codominance: two dominant alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways Pedigree: A pedigree is a family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations
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