Week 6 notes
Popular in Skeleton Keys: Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
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AP Environmental Science
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janaki Padmakumar on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3520 at University of Florida taught by Amanda Friend in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/02/16
Week 6 notes Mass fatalities and human rights Mass disasters- natural or manmade, which causes a large number of deceased individuals Natural: - Famine - Epidemics - Fire - Flood - Volcanoes Manmade - War - Terrorism - Riots - Aircraft crashes - Watercraft crashes - Ethnic cleansing Goals in mass disasters Primary goal- aid and relief to survivors; prevent any further loss of life, provide medical care Secondary goals- personal identification and determining cause and manner of death; done once scene is secured and safe. Can be important to public safety; possibility of civil litigation for reparation to vic’s family Planning for mass disasters - Can’t plan for everything- come up with general plan - Closed/open event - Fragmented or complete remains? Degree of fragmentation and number of vics determines if DNA analysis needs to be used - Fate of un-identified remains (either people themselves or fragments that can’t be recognized) Disaster mortuary operational response team (DMORT) - Part of federal response to disaster o Subset of national disaster medical system - 3 resource groups o Personnel Experts from across the nation Funeral directors Pathologists Anthropologists Odonatologists Family assistance counselors/support Evidence technicians etc o Family assistance center o Disaster portable morgue unit FA tasks in mass disasters - Personal Id/repatriation - Trauma analysis (cause/manner, determine if public safety hazard) - Prosecution of offenders (criminal tribunals, terrorists) FA at the incident morgue - Triage remains (rank from most to least fragmented remains) - Describe remains and conduct bio profile - Interpret radiographs - Analyze trauma evidence and injuries - Establish MNI- minimum number of individuals - Ultimate goal to assist in IDs Family assistance center - Provide direct info about event and status (not from media) - Coordinate with families - Collect antemortem info and info for vic IDs (family members bring info) - Provide support and counseling for family members - Common place for families to gather Disaster portable morgue unit (DPMU)- DMORT portable morgues provide consistency Jurisdiction - Law enforcement (federal/local) in charge of scene and monitor access; body with ME - All mass disaster deaths under jurisdiction of ME or coroner o Some cases don’t require autopsies- just do ID test - Needs to be established before investigation begins - Can be problematic o No existent medicolegal system o No governmental structure Identification of 9/11 vics at the WTC - Large number of missing persons - Highly fragmented and altered remains - IDs based on genetic testing Deployment at fresh kills landfill - Requested by NYPD crime scene personnel - Asked to ID osseous v non-osseous, human v non human - Assess which bone, side and ID features; re-associate remains when possible - Ultimately, every piece ID’d with DNA testing - Type II elements- soft tissue fused from two different individuals Protocol - Some remains have probative value in traditional anthropological analysis - Myositis ossifications, antemortem fractures - Observations not important if all remains are to be genetically tested Role of anthropology - Save resources - Prevent evidence techs and mortuary personnel from spending valuable time and energy sorting through non-human remains ID remains of victims of hurricane Katrina - Large number of missing persons- many were relocated before or after hurricane - Remains distributed over a large area - Remains largely intact but decomposed - Cemetery remains mix with newly deceased - Identifications done via traditional means and DNA analysis Undocumented border crossing deaths in Florida - Reasons- economic, political, social, human rights - Conditions: dangerous terrain, long journeys, coyotes (people who are smugglers); corruption - Immigration law and border enforcement- up patrol in easiest routes of access- resulted in increased casualties/fatalities - Problems with identification - Concerns in the interior Historic remains- forensic scientists sometimes called to do work purely for historical interest Not generally medicolegally significant (ussally since too much time has passed) Remains of individual who died during historical period of a given region Historical period=beginning of written documentation/US government structure Biohistory Applying bioanalytical methods to historical study Bioanalysis- any method of scientific inquiry (DNA, histology, radiology) in which the subject material is of biological origin Josef Mengele Nazi war criminal; also had a doctorate in anthro Tested on human holocaust subjects- twin studies Escaped to brazil- remains exhumed in 1985 in Brazil Methods of ID used- dental comparison, photo superimposition, osteological analysis, nuclear DNA Pizzaro Conquistador who conquered the Incas Assassinated between the ages of 60-70 after being stabbed in the throat Human remains discovered under altar of Lima cathedral in 1977 1984 osteological analysis compared perimortem trauma to historical accounts of Pizzaro's death Remains under altar made better match with biological profile and trauma analysis than mummy believed to be Pizzaro Zachary Taylor Fell ill suddenly in 1850- conspiracy that taylor was poisoned to death Descendants asked Dr. Maples to test for arsenic in 1991- body exhumed to test Two independent labs take samples and test for arsenic- found, but levels not high enough for poisoning Beethoven Hair and bone fragments shown to contain extremely high lead levels- suggests that he was a heavy drinker Autopsy performed earlier showed liver cirrhosis and signs of diabetes Later tests less consistent; others believed he had tertiary syphilis (treatment was mercury) Ned Kelly Australian outlaw hanged in 1880 (cop killer) Body misplaced in 1929 Purported body Idd using antemortem trauma analysis, xrays, CT scans and DNA ID Romanov remains Czar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra Last czar of Russia 1894-1917 Married Alexandra (German princess; unpopular) Mob tramples 1400 at state event- doubts of food shortage on celebratory event; then people angry after czar went to french ambassador's party Four daugthers- Olga (1985;22), Tatianna(1987;21), Maria(1899;19), Anastasia (1901;17) Alexei 1904;13.5- Czar's heir **how were identifications made House staff Yevgeny botkin (53)- doctor Alexei trupp (60)- footman Ivan kharitonov (46)- cook Anna demidova (40) maid Romanov murder George V didn’t let them flee to germany before bolshevik revolution began- July 7,1919; were popular at the time so pictures of them were taken to "reassure" people Initial evaluation 9 skeletons- 4 females, 5 males Facial elements badly fractures One male skeleton with no upper teeth All females had dental work, no males did Skulls and teeth etched with acid Skeleton 1- Anna Demidova Pelvis suggested middle aged female Mandible had poor quality dental bridge Ankle joint had extension of joint surface- suggests a lot of crouching or kneeling Skeleton 2- Dr Botkin Only skeleton with an intact torso Adipocere held one bullet in pelvic region and one in vertebrae Skull missed upper teeth Pelvis indicated mature male Flat sloping forehead GSW to left side of forehead Skeleton 3- Grand duchess Olga Female Bulging forehead Early 20s Roots of wisdom teeth fully developed, done growing 64.9 inches tall (humeral analysis) Extensive amalgam fillings in molars GSW under jaw that exited through her forehead Skeleton 5- Grand duchess Maria Female; late teens/early 20s Root tips of 3rd molars incomplete Sacrum not fully developed Long bones indicated she just completed growing 67.5 inches tall Back had signs of immaturity but also suggested she was over 18 Anastasia ruled out bc Maria was much taller Skeleton 6- Grand duchess Tatianna Female, young but full grown No sign of recent grwoth in limbs Sacrum and pelvic rim mature- over 18 Part of clavicle mature- over 20 65.6 in tall GSW to back left side of skull Facial superimposition difficult to do for grand duchesses due to GSW Skeleton 8- Ivan Kharnitonov Badly damaged Male in 40s-50s Noticeably flat browridge and profile Healed fracture of ulna Fairly small person Process of elimination Skeleton 9- Alexei Trupp (via overall robusticity) Big, heavy boned Male Showed signs of aging Worn teeth Well over 6ft Skeleton 7- Czarina Alexandra Older female Possible bayonet wounds in the ribs Extremely expensive dental work- back molars made of platinum, porcelain crowns and gold fillings Consistent with stabbing by bayonet bc of jewelry in bodice Skeleton 4- Czar Nicholas II Middle aged Male Short stature Broad flat palate Jutting brow line and curving protruding supraorbital bones Wear/deformation on pelvis consistent with lots of horseback riding Terrible teeth (perhaps didn't like going to the dentist) Anastasia? Rate of growth based on epiphyses and teeth suggests all the females were too old to be 17yr old Anastasia Russians thought skeleton 6 was Anastasia and 5 was Tatianna All skeletons also appear too tall New discovery 2007- remains of two individuals were recovered around 70 meters from original mass grave Remains consistent with that of two individuals- one male and one female, both teenagers Much more fragmented, evidence of burning Found silver fillings in molars- people of aristocratic status DNA analysis Run on remains found in 1991 confirmed remains were related to Romanovs 2008- two bodies found outside the mass grave match the DNA of all the other Romanovs Archaeological evidence 1978- pigs meadow mass grave found 1991- boris yeltsin allows opening of burial site Burial contains 9 skeletons (4 male and 5 female) Two members of household missing The American team 1992 William Maples first to hear about Romanov remains- asks if they want assistance Russians wanted photos and evidence to stay in Russia Ritual use of human remains Some religions use human remains for practices and as relics- like Catholics use saints bones Santeiria and Palo Mayombe o Afro-caribbean religions o Syncreatic religions o Similar symbols and characterizations of deities Santeria- "the way of the saints" o West African religious beliefs and Christianity- of Yoruba origin o Animal sacrifice (legal)- essential for priest ordination and initiation into the community o During life events o Blood, feathers and mercury used in rituals o Does not use human remains in rituals Palo mayombe "stick" Cuba o Congo basin- bantu origins mixed with Christianity o Religious receptacles or altars containing earth, sticks, and human or nonhuman remains o Cauldrons, mercury, nails, beads, stones, sticks etc (add different items based on rituals) Forensic significance Suspected homicide Human v non human; bone fragments Context Associated artifacts Taphonomy Relics Trophy skulls- US soldiers bringing back Japanese skulls as trophies Ethics? Trophy skulls Forensic sciences overview American academy of forensic sciences Est 1948- leadership to advance science ad application to legal system- functions as a way for multidisciplinary organization. Gives standards within practices, holds conferences to educate members and others wishing to enter the field Criminalistics Recognition, identification and evaluation of physical evidence Run and interpret lab tests DNA ballistics, fingerprints, chemical analysis, traces etc Pathology/biology Application of principle of pathology and of general medicine to legal needs of society MEs, entomologists Toxicology Study of harmful effects of chemicals or drugs on living systems Forensic tox- did alcohol, drugs or illegal substances contribute to person's death at crime Physical anthropology Odontology- application of dental sciences to medico-legal problems; human ID and bitemark analysis Psychiatry and behavioral sciences Competence to stand trial and testify Ability to waive legal representation Eligibility for execution Assessment of mental illness- diminished responsibility or innocence by reason of mental illness/defect Civil cases- o Involuntary psych hospitalization o Right to refuse treatment o Competence to participate in DNR Jurisprudence Science of philosophy of law Study of convictions, case types State of evidence, expert testimony, and legal system Questioned documents Who wrote it True signature Additions/erasures present What paper/pen type Ransom/kidnapping cases Digital and media services Detection of file deletion, corruption, alteration; file recoveries Engineering sciences Art and science of engineering for law purposes Look at materials/parts that fail, resulting in injury or death General section Home of newly emerging forensic science specialties Est areas of sciences not fitting narrow definitions or membership requirements of other sections Forensic specialists who's numbers aren't enough to support a separate section Forensic scientists Minimum qualifications include bachelors in natural science- bio, chem, physics, geology etc Look at AAFS website under current job postings/career ops FA Minimum of master's degree, most likely need PhD- "diplomate" status after board certification Need to work cases, minimum of 3 years post PhD Avg time to get PhD is 8 years post bac; avg recipient age is 34 years Knowledge base o Human evolution o Anatomy and physiology o Developmental biology o Biometry and stats o Clinical medicine o Biomechanics o Archaeology o Comparative anatomy Academia at college or universities Enables research and teaching; consult with ME and law enforcement as necessary Intense competition for jobs, rarely specify forensics in labs ME or coroner's office ID skeletal remains- burned damaged etc May help with trauma analysis in other cases Usually cross trained to perform other tasks o Autopsy, quality assurance etc Govt institutions National transportation safety board FBI DMORT and more JPAC-CIL DPAA largest employer of FAs in the US Field and lab work combo NGOs Human rights missions ID vics of civil and military conflicts Usually not full time jobs Opp for fieldwork and experience Museums Curator or collections manager at a museum Smithsonian Natl museum of health and medicine Private consult/for-profit work Often done in a part time basis/ some make a living like this Professional orgs American assn of physical anthropologists American academy of forensic sciences International assn for identification International assn of forensic sciences Board certification- ABFA Permanent resident of US, canada or territories PhD in anthro with concentration in bio anthropology 3 years of prior pro experience post PhD Submit sample case reports Document contributions to discipline Oral and practical exam May only retake exam once- need to wait 2 years if you fail Scientific journals- publish or perish Contact CA pound Human ID lab Contact sam coberly- firstname.lastname@example.org
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