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PSYC 101, Chapters 1-3 Class Notes & recap of test material

by: Ricki

PSYC 101, Chapters 1-3 Class Notes & recap of test material Psyc 101

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These notes are simple to understand and contain definitions, real life examples, and wording that my professor used during lecture.
Introductory Psychology
Beth A. Gallihue
Class Notes
what, IS, Psychology, scientific, method, behavior, Foundations
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricki on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.

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Date Created: 08/02/16
Chapter One: What is Psychology? 02/11/2016 ▯ Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes  systematic methods  behavior: what can be directly observed  thoughts, feelings, motives ▯ ▯ Critical Thinking: involves the process of thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence  Open minded- avoid narrow thinking  Skepticism- check for inaccuracies and errors (ex: sign that says coffee good for health outside of starbucks) o Be wise consumers of science  Objectivity- multiple determinants for behavior o All of the different reasons why somebody is engaging in this behavior  Curiosity- probe, explore, question, inquire o All explanations and factors ▯ ▯ History of Psychology  Western Philosophy- Socratic method  Biology and Physiology- biological foundations and connection between the body and the mind ▯  Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920)- birth of psych as a science o 1879 established 1 psych lab  Wundt’s Structuralism  Structures of the mind, components of brain  Introspection- looking inward, inside  First to focus on systematic detailed self report of introspection  William James (1842-1910) o James’ Functionalism  Functions/ purposes of the mind  Minds interaction with the outside world (looking outward and how environment reacts with who we are)  Stream of consciousness – how it changes from moment to moment  Saw the mind as fluid and changing ▯ ▯ Contemporary Approaches  Psychodynamic approach o Freud- developed psychoanalysis o 3 concepts of psychoanalysis  unconscious aspects of the mind- most thought processes are beyond our awareness  conflict between biological drives and demands of society (sleeping in class but doesn’t go with society)  early childhood family experiences (as a way to explain who you are)  Behavioral Approach- How behavior is shaped by our environment o Observable behavior- “we are what we do” o Rejected explainations referencing Thought o Notable behaviorists  Ivan Pavlov  John Watson  B.F. Skinner- monstrous experiment- controlled daughters (Deborah) environment – no noticeable harmful effects, grew up successful artist  Cognitive Approach- Mental processes involved in thinking and knowing o How humans process information, weigh it, store it, and apply it o “We are what we think”  Social Cognitive- behavior is determined by how thoughts modify the impact of the environment on behavior o Ex: Albert Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism  Interaction of: behavior, environment, person & cognitive factors  Biological Approach- neuroscience o Brain and nervous system – central to understanding behavior o Chemical changes in the brain o Thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain o Study of structure, function, development, genetics,  Sociocultural Approach o How social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes o Differences  Between ethnic and cultural groups  Within and across countries  Humanistic Approach-positive psychology o Positive qualities- build on a strength o Capacity for personal growth o Freedom to choose destiny Carl Rogers ▯ ▯ Scientific Method ▯ 1. observe some phenomenon  curiosity  variables  theory ▯ 2. formulate hypotheses and predictions  testable prediction  derived from theory ▯ 3. Test through empirical research  operational definition of variables – all on same page, looking from scientific perspective  analyze data using statistical procedures (mean, median, mode)  ex: binge drinking among college students at TU, 5 or more drinks in one setting but how much is one drink to each scientist ▯ 4. Draw Conclusions  replication of the results (be able to do it more than once)  reliability- about the same results over and over again ▯ 5. Evaluate the theory  change the theory?  Peer review and publication  Meta-analysis – compare different studies – compare binge drinking among college students at other college campuses and analyze them together ▯ ▯ Descriptive Research  Describing a phenomenon o Through observation  Naturalistic “real world” – no attempt to change real world  Ex: Jane Goodall w/ chimpanzees  Hard to replicate, variables that could effect data  Laboratory “artificial” –when people know they’re being observed so they don’t do what is against the social norm (ex: pick nose at stop light) o Surveys and interviews o Case studies –one individual in detail  Descriptive research doesn’t answer questions about why things are the way they are. ▯ Correlational Research  Identify relationship between two variables o Strength of relationship o Direction of relationship  Positive or negative? ▯ Experimental Research  Able to determine causation o Random assignment into groups o Experimental group (INDEPENDENT VARIABLE) and control group  Ex: Evaluating effectiveness of medication that treats anxiety  Experimental: gets med, control: none  Evaluate effectiveness/difference between groups WHAT IS BEING MEASURED IS DEPENDENT VARIABLE  Experiments allow you to directly test why something happens, to test for cause and effect  Experimenter bias- can impact the behavior of people getting observed  Research participant bias- act how you think youre supposed to feel  Placebo Effect- what has to do with the actual medication effect, don’t actually get medication  Double blind experiment- researcher and participant neither know who is control who is experiment, eliminates bias ▯ ▯ Research Ethics  Research participants have rights  APA guidelines – developed to protect participants o Want to study something that is beneficial to society o Informed consent ( participants informed of what experiment entails & its risks) o Participants can withdraw for any reason at any time o Confidentiality- results are confidential and participants remain anonymous o Debriefing- informed of purpose of study and results o Deception- some needed to get accurate results  Institutional Review Board (IRB) ▯ ▯ Animal Research in Psychology  Has benefited humans – help us give answers to human problems  Used by 5% of researchers  90% of the time are rats and mice – quick reproductive cycle, DNA close to human, less domestic connection  standards of care in animal research: o humane housing o feeding requirements o psychological and physical well being ▯ ▯ Reality TV ethical issues? ▯ Informed consent?- expect unexpected ▯ Deception? ▯ Psychological and or physical risk?- wife swap ▯ Is the behavior real? ▯ Neuroscience- the study of the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry ▯ ▯ Nervous System  Complex  Integrated – a lot of factors that work together  Adaptable- plasticity  Electrochemical transmission ▯ ▯ Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain and spinal cord  99% nerves ▯ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Carries messages to and from the CNS to muscles and organs o Somatic NS (voluntary)  Sensory nerves  Voluntary movements (muscles) Autonomic NS (involuntary)  Organs  Sympathetic NS- arousing body  Parasympathetic NS- calming body ▯ Ex: tiger in front of you, sympathetic NS because threat in front of you ▯ When we feel nervous about taking a test heart races - sympathetic NS kicking into gear ▯ Driving and someone cuts you off and you jump ▯ ▯ NS Pathways:  Afferent nerves (sensory) receive incoming information from body and carry info to brain for processing  Efferent nerves (motor) send commands from the brain to the body (control brain’s output)- ex sends message to legs to make them move ▯ Afferent question on test* ▯ Efferent question on test* ▯ ▯ NS cells:  Glial Cells- provide support and nutrition  Neurons- (about 100 billion in brain) function is to process information o Transmits info from one end of neuron to other end and from one neuron to the next neuron  Cell body- command center  Contains nucleus, cell preservation  Dendrites- receive info from other neurons  Info comes in through dendrites through cell body  Receive messages from other neurons  Axon- sends messages away from cell body and to the next neuron  *Act on* next cell  Myelin sheath- layer of fat, speeds up neuro transmission ▯ Neurons don’t actually touch each other  Jody miller, brain plasticity  Sometimes we need to create new pathways Synapse- space between two neurons Neurotransmitters- chemicals that cross synapse Receptor sites- channels ▯ Synaptic transmission  Electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal  Axon releases neurotransmitter into gap  Dendrite receptor site detects neurotransmitter ▯ ▯ Functions of neurotransmitters (have about 50 in brain)  Chemicals that cross the synapse o Acetylcholine  Muscle actions, learning, memory  Deficiency associated w/ Alzheimer’s disease: low acetylcholine levels o GABA  Body’s natural chill pill  Helps us to be calm  Works w parasympathetic NS that calms body  Anxiety: low GABA levels o Norepinephrine  Stress and mania: high norepinephrine levels  Can trigger stress and mania  Depression: low levels  Regulates sleep states in conjuction w w acetylcholine o Dopamine  Voluntary movement  Reward anticipation  Addiction/craving  Stimulant drugs activate dopamine receptors  Eat chocolate  Parkinson’s disease: low dopamine levels  Schizophrenia: high dopamine levels o Serotonin  Regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning  Depression: low serotonin levels  Sometimes people with ADHD that’s where antidepressants can be helpful  Prozac: high serotonin levels o Endorphins  Natural opiate- natural pain killer  Mediate feelings of pleasure and pain o Oxytocin  Both a hormone and neurotransmitter  Related to attachment and emotional bonding  “love at first sight” –mother to newborn  release during orgasm- cuddle factor o Note: drugs can interfere w neurotransmitters ▯ Components of the Brain  Parts of the brain o Hindbrain  Brainstem  Medulla- control breathing, regulate reflexes  Pons- sleep and arousal  Cerebellum- motor coordination –2 round like structures o Midbrain  Reticular formation  Connects the hindbrain to the forebrain  Stereotyped behavior patterns (walking) o Forebrain  Limbic system- network of structures  memory and emotion  amygdala o emotional awareness and expression- how we process o needed for survival  hippocampus o formation and recall of memories- where we store memories  Thalamus  Relay station for much sensory info  Basil Ganglia  Coordination of voluntary movements  Could get activated when we deal with anxiety ex:figgity  Hypothalamus  Body’s regulator- Eating, drinking, sexual behavior  Body’s internal state- temp  Emotion, stress, reward system o Cerebral Cortex  Highest level of forebrain where the mental functions of thinking/planning take place  Four lobes:  Occipital (vision)  Temporal (hearing, language processing, memory) (right near the ears)  Frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles) – most sophisticated thinking  Parietal- on top like headband on top of our head (spatial location, attention, motor control, sensory experiences) ▯ Phineas Gage story  Victim of accident 1848  Using blasting powder to construct road bed  Drilled holes in rock and gravel then tamped down with iron rod  Powder exploded iron rod when up through side of face and up through head  Phineas became different person from mild mannered hard working and emotionally calm well-liked to hot-tempered, unreliable  Didn’t die because it hit the frontal lobe- which has to do with intelligence and personality  ▯ 50 questions mult choice ▯ ch 1-3 ▯ ▯ ch1 ▯ defined what is psychology ▯ importance of critical thinking ▯ history and chronology in diff view points  each diff type of view points and components  scenario- which approach is this ▯ positive psychology ▯ ▯ ch2 ▯ scientific method -5 stages ▯ descriptive research- describing phenomenon ▯ surveys interviews advantages disadvantages ▯ case study- 1 indiv in detail ▯ correlational research 2 variables focus on strength and direction ▯ cause and effect- independent and dependent ▯ bias and expectations – factor that can effect data ▯ mean median mode ▯ research ethics –beneficial to society, informed consent, potential risks- deception—IRB approves ▯ ▯ ch3 ▯ nervous system ▯ electrochemical communication system (tree that drew on board) ▯ difference btwn afferent and efferent ▯ synaptic gap ▯ neurons cross synapse (syn gap) through neurotransmitters ▯ neurotransmitters ▯ components of brain and functions


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