Childhoods Around the World, Complete Class Notes
Childhoods Around the World, Complete Class Notes ANT 2416
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CHILDHOODS AROUND THE WORLD 2416 COMPLETE LECTURE AND CLASS NOTES (includes notes on films watched in class, all of professor’s lectures, PowerPoint notes, and summarizations of required articles) 1-12-2016 What is a child? What is childhood? Why should anthropology be interested in children and childhood? Anthropology- the study of humans -there are many disciplines to study humans -anthropos=human -logos=word, study of -anthropology looks at the holistic study of humans, it studies them through economics, political science, psychology, relationships, etc. -it’s a comparison across time and space -Ex) anatomy: some anthropologists study the bones and remnants of humanness and relate them back to the relationships between humans -comparisons between different human groups -compare how we are different and the same -comparisons across time and space, and across species -Ex) chimpanzees, how we are different and the same -anthropology is used as a means to compare and study what humans are about and the relationships they have with each other Human -there are many versions of humans and humanness -a child is a version of a human -versions of human can be sorted into stages -there are distinctions between an infant and an adult human -childhood: part of a sequence of stages that occur over the lifespan of all humans Are humans the only species to experience childhood? -it all depends, the word child is reserved for humans, childhood is reserved for the human version -a young giraffe would not be called a child -a child is a member of our species -other species can also be very different from infancy to adulthood -Ex) pandas, dogs, cats -others do not have stages in their lives -Ex) paramecium, a one stage system organism -species vary in the number of life stages -species vary in the duration of life stages How do we know one when we see one? How are children different from adults and adolescents? -body size and proportions -expressive behavior -voice quality, higher pitch -speed of speech -body movements -big dreams for the future vs. acceptance of limitation, children project things that we as adults know are not going to happen “Give me a child until he is seven, and I will show you the man” The Up Series -Michael Apted -Interviewed 14 kids and interviewed them at 7 year intervals starting in 1964 -the same individual was looked at over and over as the individuals aged -the individuals were looked at and studied as their lives unfolded -some of the individuals come from very elite backgrounds -the film series shows the passing down of “eliteness” through the individuals’’ lives and the power hierarchy in Britain -Tony: jockey to cab driver -Suzi: chain smoker to happy mother -Bruce: sensitive teacher - Paul: from children’s home to Australia and bricklaying -John: barrister (courtroom lawyer) -Andrew: solicitor (people’s lawyer) - Charles: BBC producer 1-14-2016 Understand what a child is - A child is a version of humanness - It’s not an the adult version, it’s something different - As part of this enterprise, we look at the documentary 28-up, an account of people from the age of 7, 14, 21, and 48 - It was used to ask questions of what a child is, how it’s different from an adult, and how it’s different from an adolescent - 28-up gives both the child and adult version, giving us the difference in the accounts of the same people from when they were 7 to when they were adults - It gives us a record of humans who were born in 1956 and how they lived and grew in their life - Suzi: also comes from an elite background like Bruce, and we ask the question, do we see any continuity between the Suzi we see at 7 years old and the Suzi we see later on when she is a mother? - Tony is from an economically deprived background but he was a real go- getter who wanted to be a jockey but ended up being a taxi-driver and went on to have a reasonable middle class life, he was able to have a house, own a taxi, and support a family - Bruce came from a very elite background, he was working in a public school system (in Great Britain it’s called a state system) and he went on to be very interested in teaching children in a more general way despite his elite background, and getting away from his background - The constant reference to public school by people of elite backgrounds, they are not referring to free public education. They are referring to a system, that is privately funded and very selective, prestigious, and often a boarding school in Great Britain - When we met Suzi, we see that she was just 9 years old when she went off to boarding school and her husband Rupert was 8 when he went to boarding school - Bruce at age 7 was already at boarding school for a year - What we see is that children in Great Britain who are from an elite background are often separated from their families in order to continue their education - In the interviews the children would predict what prep school they were going to go to when they got older, school was something that was constantly on their minds - Later on we see interviews of three women who come from the East end of London, a more economically depressed area and they go on to a state- supported education - One of them, Lynn, attends something called a grammar school - Grammar school is a selective admission school that you could only get into if you got really good exam grades - Michael Apted talks to the other two women and asks why they too didn’t go to grammar school, they went to comprehensive school, which is the school that is similar to our public education system in which everybody goes and everyone can get in, not just the elite - We also saw that Apted has repetitive questions that he asks people; he often asks them about some other social class, he’ll ask the elite children what they think of the poor and vice versa and tries to pull out of them that Britain has a class system and there’s a great deal of precision of consciousness - He also asks them about relationships, planning for their future and their education, and where they would like to be in 7 years - Cast of 28-Up: - Tony—jockey to cab driver - Bruce—sensitive teacher - Suzi—chain smoker to happy mother - Paul—from children’s home to Australia & bricklaying - John—”barrister” (courtroom lawyer) declined last interview - Andrew—”solicitor” (people’s lawyer) - Charles—BBC producer (declined last interview) 1-19-2016 TopHat question: True or false: In Great Britain, a grammar school is a state-funded, selective- admission secondary school. A public school is a privately funded selective- admission secondary school. -boarding school is a norm for economically privileged people in England -children were sent off to boarding school as young as 8 or 9 A: TRUE - We all think what a child is - but, we want to step back and ask ourselves, “if an extraterrestrial came to earth, how would they know what a child is? How can we explain and tell them what a child is and what it is not?” - John, Andrew, and Charles are all from elite and privileged backgrounds - They all end up fairly content with their lives - John has a sense of entitlement in which he defends his status and justifies the social hierarchy “if people have the money to spend on good schools and nice things then they should.” - Personalities of 7 year olds and 28 year olds: -Charles was insecure and unsure of himself when he was younger and he becomes more defiant and confident when he ages - Jackie: doesn’t want children (comprehensive school) Lynn: librarian (after selective grammar school) Sue: happy mother (after comprehensive) -all non-privileged girls -all the girls’ parents let them choose their own school and career paths -the privileged are less likely to say that they were lazy - the privileged were pushed along by a system - there’s a pattern with the underprivileged in which they want better education for their children than they had themselves What is the relationship between the childhood stage and later stages? what is a child? - a child is a version of a human - to explain what a child is, you have to explain what a human is - if a child is a version of a human, then what is a human? 1-21-2016 If a child is a version of human then, -it has various traits and characteristics that allow us to identify it as a child - in order to identify a child we have to first back it up by identifying what a human is -human= a species -species: an important concept in biology that has helped us to organize and understand the variety of life on earth -eight to nine million species exist on earth -unique traits make species different from each other -there has to be an ability that can pass on traits to offspring. Therefore, they are sexually reproductive organisms -millions of species have been identified Species traits -this is opposed to stage traits, which are used to identify how a child is different from an adult -humans share basic properties with other species: family, relationship Linnaeus -he proposed that species with similar observable traits should be grouped into the same genus -in this way, he made a taxonomic hierarchy of the animal kingdom -people before Linnaeus had the sense that some species were very similar to others -L. found that we could group different groups of organisms into classes, orders, kingdoms, phylum, families, subclasses, and subfamilies -it’s a system that tells how any particular species fits into the big picture -if we consider ourselves mammals, primates, and hominoids, then we first need to define what a mammal is -the question is how do we differentiate different genus groups from the other? -we distinguish animals from plants and fungi by their cellular makeup, their lifestyles, and how they live -Ex) biologists say that plants sit around making their own food by consuming energy from the sun -therefore, the reason that we are different from plants is because we do NOT sit around and photosynthesize. We must consume our food for survival. In this way, we are different. what is a mammal? -creatures that give birth to live offspring that nurse, lactate, reproduce through gestation, and perform parental care -mammals give intensive parental care, have emotional bonds, and they play in ways that we do not see in reptiles and amphibians -mammals are warm-blooded and have fur, and process their food differently (mastication) -they have teeth for chewing food -all other vertebrae swallow food, whereas mammals bite and process food before their swallow What is a primate? -they emphasize visual processes, instead of smells -primate eyes face forward, whereas mammals eyes face sideways, which gives them good peripheral vision -ex) monkey, lemur -touch, manipulation, they have grasping hands and feet with nails, tactile pads with touch receptors, and friction ridges -primates are very good at putting together vision and touch, they are visually guided -primates reach for what is in front of them, they do not bring themselves to the food, they bring their hands to the food and the food to themselves (how we eat) -primates have large brains and longer life spans -primates have bigger brains than usual -they also have a long period of immaturity and a long period of maturity Hominoidea- primate group that includes humans and apes (excludes monkeys) -most monkeys are 4-legged walkers -“breakeation”: when gibbons or some primate uses their arms as transportation through pendulum swinging using alternate arms -there’s a big difference between monkeys and apes -hominoids have front limbs that are much longer than their back limbs -hominoids have 4 arms that are adapted for suspension and have a versatile range of motion -Ex) they have long muscular arms rotator shoulders, fully extendable elbows, 180 degree rotation of forearm. These anatomical traits are shared among hominoids (humans and apes, but not monkeys and chimpanzees) Biological evolution why are we able to rotate our limbs and shoulders when we don’t even climb trees? -there is no purpose for all of our versatile rotating limbs, we don’t use them to climb trees -evolution= an explanation for the origin of organisms -descent modification: Darwin concluded that generations were different from each other and similar to others -evidence for evolution: comparative anatomy: we can look at different organisms and see comparisons and similarities among them fossil record: we can see that different species drew similarities from similar bone structures comparative molecules: we could see the similarities of molecular makeups and the degrees of similarities and differences in genetic makeup what traits distinguish humans from other hominoids and all other species? -how we walk around, we are not quadrapedal, we are habitual striding bipedalism -only a few organisms walk bipedally: a system of locomotion that includes putting all your weight on one side to get around 1-26-2016 What is human? -acquire skills through training, we are not born with skills -we are born with versatility and mobility that we use to acquire skills -humans share traits with other mammals, primates, and hominoids -lactation is part of the reproductive system that we share with mammals -mammals chew their food and other vertebrates don’t -only mammals chew their food -we are primates because we have grasping hands, long fingers, opposable thumbs, eyes facing a full plane -primates are good at judging distance and can use their eyes and hands together -as hominoids, we have versatility and mobility in our limbs and our joints -all hominoids show signs of sensory adaptation What traits distinguish humans from all other species? striding bipedalism -we are the only species that can walk on two feet effortlessly bipedalism frees the hands from locomotor duties -a consequence of bipedalism is that we are unable to walk on all fours human hands are the only hands that have long thumbs -all other primates have short, small thumbs -African apes have hands that are adapted for suspension and knuckle-walking -human hands are not used for locomotion hand-power -we have the greatest versatility in our hands -we are able to use our hands to make tools large braincase and brain power -we have brains that are unusually large for a primate or a mammal -humans have a large braincase and a small, flat face with small front teeth -chimpanzees have an entire chewing apparatus that sticks out of their face -they have a lot of anterior bite power -we have very flat faces and small incisors -human brain is 6-7 times bigger than expected for a mammal of our body size -we have cognitive powers that haven’t been matched by any other species speech/language speech vocalization learned unlearned cerebral cortex limbic system-involved in vocalization and displacement gives us the tone and cadence in our open system speech here and now referencing closed system -there are some biological aspects that determine when we had language passed down to us -we know from our surveys that there are 6 to 7 thousand different languages being spoken -we also know from experiments that there are particular locations in the brain that are responsible for speech -damage to the cerebral cortex disables someone from properly saying the speech of a language -the limbic system is involved in vocalization and gives us the tone and cadence in our speech -humans can speak of memories across time and space -no other species is able to speak about something that happened in the past Language -learned, arbitrary -cerebral cortex dependent -displacement (communicate about things distant in time and space) -open system: duality of patterning, grammar -all of language is an arrangement of different phonemes that mean different things when put together -we talk in phrases, not in words -we use word order to convey meaning -all languages use two systems: 1. word endings 2. word order Words -interview as a source of information is only possible with humans - Words are symbols, representation of physical objects and concepts shared by a community of speakers -Humans live in a sea of symbols, they enable us to communicate, but also shape what we experience and provide us with thinking tools What is culture? -the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom and many other capabilities and habits acquired by man -culture is behavior, learned, shared by a group, intergenerational, cumulative -much of this intergenerational transfer occurs in childhood -no other species can take in as much as humans do in terms of culture -for humans, there is a change in the relationship among individuals -the power of cultural sharing amplifies the abilities of the individual -humans don’t just live in groups, they live in supergroups that include the influence of individuals who are distant in time and place -humans have no problem in identifying themselves as part of a supergroup -we have abstract concepts that allow us to share information Do bipedalism, tool use, symbolic language, and culture describe humans at all stages? Species traits vs. stage traits -not all species have stages -not all species have as many stages as humans have species vary in patterns of -total life span -age of first reproduction -rate of maturation of offspring -number of stages, the length The path to maturation in humans Distance curve (for humans) -shows distance of size change during maturation -shows the distance curve for humans for general body mass, for brain mass and for reproductive tissue Velocity curve -shows the velocity curve for humans for height The human pattern of velocity changes during maturation -infants grow very fast -long interval of slow growth -adolescent growth spurt -adult growth ceases 1-28-2016 Barry Bogin wrote an article called the Evolutionary Hypotheses for Human Childhood -he proposed that the human life is divided into 7 stages: embryonic, infancy, childhood, juvenile, adolescence, adulthood, old age embryonic (gestation) -in mammals this begins when the fertilized egg embedded in the uterus for internal gestation - in mammals this stage ends with the birth of an infant that must now survive outside of the mother’s body infancy how do we know whether an individual is an infant? when does it begin? -it’s a stage that all mammals have that begins with birth and with the fact that they nurse -it has the characteristic of nursing on lactation -this trait makes them different from fish, amphibians, etc. -it ends when they stop nursing -species have a particular time period for nursing -ex) an infant has a window for 3-5 months to nurse, and when the mother no longer lactates then the infant would move out of its infancy stage -there is a definite time period for when species stay in their various stages -it’s called their “life-history profile” when does infancy end for humans? -Bogin asked the question of looking at different cultures to see when they terminate nursing -Bogin determined that traditional cultures stopped nursing their children around 3 years -infancy ends when nursing ends what’s the stage after infancy? -Bogin says that it depends on the species -for rodents, the stage ends and they transition immediately into adulthood after infancy -for primates, they transition into juvenile stage in which they learn how to forage for their food before they go into full adulthood Juvenile how do we know a juvenile when we see it? -juvenile: likely to survive the death of their caretaker or loss of parental provisions but have not yet matured sexually -they feed independently but lack sexual maturity -infant: not likely to survive the death of their caretaker or loss of parental provisions -as soon as infancy is over, rodents become adults, primates become juveniles, and humans become children -child, according to Bogin : -no longer nursing, but still food dependent -immature dentition and small digestive tract -rapid brain growth (needs lots of food) -motor, cognitive, social deficits (needs protection) -child’s body growth is steady Milestones in Bogin’s Childhood Child (3-7) Juvenile (7-12) body growth is steady body growth is steady brain growth is rapid brain growth is almost complete deciduous dentition permanent dentition 2-9-2016 Hunting and gathering: a term that is replaced by foraging. -foraging is a subsistence pattern, it’s how we survive -a consistent and central aspect of any culture is subsistence (food) Different forms of subsistence: -foraging: food collection of what the environment produces without help from humans (hunters and gatherers) -horticulture: have to put a lot of energy into land that produces a small amount of food everyone in a horticulture society has to have their own garden -pastoralism -agricultural: can yield a lot of food on plots of land -industrial Subsistence affects the size and character of the social group small-scale societies (band, tribe) -foraging -horticulture -pastoralism Small-scale society (Parakana) vs. large-scale society (Iran) -household composition: who lives together? - family relations vs. relations beyond the household - child work: how much? What kinds? -education: observational learning vs. formal teaching -personal freedom vs. social duty Parakana children -growing up in a small-scale society which uses foraging as the major form of subsistence - children spend most of their day with other children (not adults) - children are free to move about the village and interact with all members of the community (not just their parents and siblings)… everyone in the village is familiar -parents are not physically or verbally aggressive with children -Parakana children spend most of the day playing (they are not expected to contribute to subsistence activities or to carry out household chores) -Parakana children do not attend school why do they receive so little direction from adults when children in large-scale societies receive so much? how do humans change as they mature? -children are different from adults in appearance and in motor ability -infants have so much that they can’t do, they constantly need someone to do everything for them - children are so helpless that they need to be carried, fed, put down, and picked up -newborn humans have almost no voluntary motor control, instead they depend on reflexes, many are not present in adult humans Moro reflex: newborns will fling their arms out and try to grab something in order to prevent itself from losing its grip. A human infant can perform it but it is completely useless for it Trends in motor ability (3-7 years old) -increase in strength (more muscle, more bone, less fur) 2-11-2016 (2-16 and 2-18 have no notes because movie was watched in class) -**Movie notes are included for those who need a refresher or for those who weren’t in class to watch it, keep reading** A new-born infant has no locomotive motor skills -over time (3 months) they can roll over or lift their head - it takes about 9 months to do any special skills like walk or crawl Motor development -profound changes in motor ability mark the first year of life… - Barry Bogin’s Childhood stage (years3-7) -the childhood stage includes new locomotor skills (hopping, skipping, and galloping), high motivation to engage in climbing and suspension and the development of fine motor skills of the hand and fingers - many of these skills are useful to adults…others (like skipping) are not found in adults and seem to be stage-specific -children seem very inclined to climb and suspend themselves on bars, even when adults or anyone else around them weren’t demonstrating it for them -climbing and suspending are solely part of the childhood stage -they spend their time in ways that adults would never spend their time -children really are different from adults What is play? And why does it exist? -no behavioral concept has proved more ill-defined, elusive, controversial, and even unfashionable than play -play is hard to define. Respectable psychologists have sternly concluded that play is indefinable and therefore is not a fit subject for study -play is simply a descriptive term that may be applied to behavior in of the primary categories how do we know that it is play? - short sequences (fragments of motor patterns seen in other contexts) - repetitions - reordering - exaggeration - rapid alterations of behavior - no obvious immediate benefit - metacommunication - vocalization (laughter) sounds communicate that there is no intended aggression - “play face” chimpanzee upper teeth are covered and lower teeth are exposed. A child’s teeth are exposed and the eyes are slits but why does play exist? - Robert Fagen: “Why do young and old animals of many species spend time and energy, and even risk physical injury, performing the apparently unproductive behaviors colloquially?” - “Resources allocated to play cannot be allocated to growth, fat storage, feeding, predator avoidance, or non-play social behavior” - Costs of play: time and energy expenditure, accidental death or injury - Play is especially particular to mammals - Play doesn’t occur after birth it appears sometime later - After play appears, its rate of expression quickly rises to a peak - Mature children play, but adults don’t - A newborn gorilla clings to a mother and nurses from the mother when its hungry - Adults travel, feed, then rest for 11-12 hours in the day - The most active stage of the gorilla is 17-21 months of age because 1) they don’t have to look around for food; they just hitch a ride on their mother 2) they don’t have to look for food because they just nurse from their mothers - Therefore, they’re the most active stage of gorillas because all they do is play what kind of activities are play? - locomotor play: chasing each other, play-fighting, hanging off branches - even if mammals don’t have play partners they jump around wasting energy; they move around aimlessly - social play: seen more in species that live in groups. Mother-offspring play in two closely-related species; other species cannot play in this way because they do not have the kind of movement versatility found in chimpanzees and humans - humans are good at combining object play; using toys and objects with imagination what benefits does play convey? - practice - knowledge - bonding - flexibility Summary: Who plays? -mammals, immature How do we know that it’s play? Do some species play more than others? when Linneas named our species, he said that homo sapiens are the great species, a knowledgeable species -J. Huizinga, a Dutch scholar said that humans are the play species Parakana: hunting and gathering people that live in northwest brazil -the children of the Parakana perform a lot of play -Parakana don’t hunt or gather, or build houses or shelters, they don’t cook or clean. -the life of the Parakana children is solely a playful life, it allocates a very large part of the day to playing play for the Parakana - exercise play: wide locomotor movements - exercise play with objects: creating stilts and walking around on them - object play: fine movements - construction play - social contingency play, playing with each other - rough and tumble play game play -humans are the only ones that improvise, perform fantasy play, pretend, and make things up along as they play -no other species does fantasy play, tells a story, and construct plays and pretend- stories New kinds of play: -more object play - more construction play -symbolic play -games with rules Quantity of play -play is limited to immature mammals Central do Brasil (Central Station) -Focuses on a 9-year-old boy, Josué - He spends some time with an older woman who is not his mother, Dora (55 years old) -Dora is a retired teacher -she’s a letter writer now, meaning she is literate -she wrote letters for people who are illiterate to send to their relatives -Josué is the same age as Ali - there’s some similarities between the two boys - they behave differently because of where they are from -Dora and Josué meet in Rio de Janiero - they travel to the northeastern part of Brasil and make contact with the Sertao region in northeastern Brazil in search of Josue’s father - Irene: Dora’s friend -Ana: Josue’s mother -Pedrao: brutal manager of train station services - Cesar: truck driver -Isaias: half brother of Josue Children and care - children are made to expect care and support from a parent - mammals are different from sea animals and amphibians in that they require a dependent relationship with their parent - they expect care and expect it to be there - Josue had a mother and he never thanked her for her care, he took it for granted and never fully realized his mom’s support - His next big goal after his mother dies was to find someone who can take care of him, his father - It is built into Josue and into children to be taken care of - The other interesting thing is that adults expect to take care of children - Dora subconsciously chases after Josue in the pilgrimage village even after she curses him - She senses a sense of obligation to take care of Josue, she phones Irene and tells her she has to take care of him - Only after that she discovered that he had brothers who could take care of him that she left Josue aspects of human nature: - universal biology, 9 year olds need caretakers - Ali and Zahra never expressed gratitude to their parents for taking care of them, it was just an expected thing that children don’t completely sense for themselves Review for midterm: - what makes anthropology different? - Anthropology: the study of humans by putting together cultural and social studies in order to examine the humanness of people - We discover new features of people and humanness when we look at children - In order to do this we have to define what a human is - Taxonomists try to see the big picture of how life is linked on earth and put us in the order primates, in the class mammals, and in the superclass hominoidea - We have the mammalian system of reproduction, taking bites of food, childcare - We have primate traits in forward facing eyes - We have hominoidal traits in limbs that have a full range and versatile motion - We are a lineage that has been separated from other species for 600 million years - We are the only species that have extreme versatility in our hands, huge brain size, a system of communication that enables us to transfer vast quality and quantity of information to each other 2-23-2016 Central Station recap and in-class discussion - Isaias and Moises ask about their father to Dora and suddenly Dora and Josue realize that they are dealing with Josue’s half brothers - Josue hangs onto Dora and doesn’t tell Isais that he’s his brother, and lies to him when Isais asks for his name, saying his name is Giraldo, he gives him a false name - Why? Maybe it’s a good idea when you meet your relative who’s really a stranger that you don’t know, to lie to them - The question is, is Josue ready to give himself up to this stranger, so he doesn’t let this person know who he really is, Josue remains very cautious - We know that he eventually stays with Isaias and Moises but he’s hiding behind this deceit so he can find out what these people are like and if he really wants to stay with them - Josue’s desperate circumstances: he was upset, going through all kinds of grieving, but he was also going through the fact that he had lost his caretaker and his means of support - He didn’t know how he was going to sleep, eat, or where he was going to stay - We saw that he was chased out of the train station - Josue had a really difficult situation to deal with, not just emotional stress but also to figure out how to live and what to eat - How did he attempt to solve this problem? He went to Dora and told her to write a letter to his father - He used his brain and said “let me see if I can find my father” he was looking for a caretaker, somebody who could do what his mother did for him, he desperately needed a caretaker - If Josue was a sea turtle, he wouldn’t need any help or care - A mother sea turtle lays her eggs on the beach and then goes back into the ocean - The eggs will hatch and crawl back to sea and never see their mother or receive any care from her, because that is the reptilian system - But the mammalian system is different because it’s one in which the mothers care for their offspring, engage in lactation, and protective behavior that we just take for granted in mammals, and that is especially true for humans, we have a system in which our parents take care of us, there was no worry that there won’t ever be any care for them - Josue tries to solve this problem he has but Dora rebuffed him and said that she isn’t going to write a letter for him unless he pays her, then eventually she exploits him when she finds out that she can make some money off of him, she sells him to a nefarious couple who sells the organs of children - Josue eventually ends up taking a ride with Dora from Rio to northeastern Brazil to a pilgrimage town where he believed his father lived - It wasn’t Dora who gravitated towards Josue, she felt guilty for selling Josue to the couple and so she got him back and tried to help him out of a guilty conscience - She rescues him and tries to help him, but it was Josue who approached her first - Dora tried to leave Josue behind at the bust stop and abandons him - But, Josue had gotten off the bus with her, a kid who couldn’t stop being mad at her and calling her bad names - He followed her off and went along with her, he did it because it was better than nothing - Despite all the bad things she had done for him, she had done some nice things for him, like bought him a bus ticket and tried to help him get to his father - Josue felt that Dora was better than nothing - However, Josue was never grateful towards Dora despite the nice things she did for him - Josue knows that Dora tried to exploit him and becomes mad at her, but what we have a kid who’s never grateful - He doesn’t say thank you when Dora buys him the bus ticket, instead he makes demands for her to buy him food - Why does he demand? Kids demand all the time, they always expect things from adults with whom they have a relationship with. Josue expected everything from his mother and never felt grateful - Josue seems to be built to expect caretaking from someone, especially if it’s a person that he has a relationship with - Children expect to be clothed, housed, and fed - They expect the world’s system to be one in which the parents look after them and take care of them - That is the human system, and children are built to expect adults to help them and adults are built to help children - Ex) when Zahra drops her shoe, an adult came to help her because he expected it of himself to help her - When Josue walked into the store with the boy eating food and a father next to him, Josue stopped and stared at him because he had a father who was feeding him, the very thing that Josue yearned for - Dora’s character at the beginning of the film: a liar, cheater, disrespectful, corrupt, mean, cynical, cold, and isolated - She doesn’t have a great life and doesn’t seem like a very nice person - But by the end of the film she changes: at the end of the film she writes to Josue about how she misses her father and how she longs for everything, how she remembers riding his truck and blowing the whistle - She longs for connection by the end of the film, both Josue and Dora have constant hostility between them with subtle notes of kindness in between - Ex) Josue buys Dora a dress, signs of affection emerge and the two of them develop some kind of relationship and a strong emotional bond, their separation caused tremendous pain for both of them; they both cry, and meanwhile Dora and Josue look at the picture they took - Expressions of affection and liking one another are expressed when Josue tells Dora that she can stay with Josue and his father for a couple of days - Ex) when Josue is hungry, he tells Dora that he’s hungry, she yells at him and tells him that he’s a curse; Josue runs off but Dora runs after him because there is an innate love and care for Josue that Dora possesses - Josue displays a characteristic of a child when he expects Dora, a person which he has a relationship with, to feed him - There is some kind of bond between the two of them despite the hostility that exists between them - When Dora was writing letters, the letters she wrote were of people trying to maintain personal connections with each other; they stated how the person was doing, and asked questions of how the receiver of the letter was doing where they were, they were only concerned with the here and the now and wrote letters to maintain and nurture personal relationships, this is humanness on display, using the medium of letter-writing as a means of maintaining relationships - Josue is a problem-solver in that he used his brain to try to solve his problems - He started by wanting to write a letter to his father instead of mourning his mother - When Dora runs out of money, he uses his brain to make Dora write letters for people in exchange for money, he uses problem-solving skills to solve the problem that they are in - We as a species have universal features that unfold in predictable patterns as we mature, and that they are different from adults - We see similarities between children of the same age despite the different cultures that they are from: Ali and Josue are both problem solvers and vulnerable. Ali tries to solve Zahra’s shoe problem, Josue tries to solve Dora’s no money problem - The human brain: the human brain is one of the largest and most sophisticated brains of any species - The brain of a child is not the brain of an adult - From the time of birth to the age of 6 or 7 brain size quadruples - An increase in brain size and a little bit more growth after age 7 - What’s not finished is the development of neurons and connectivity of the neurons - There are things going on even after the child attains full-size brain size that have to do with the microscopic things that go on inside the brain, changes in size and changes in what goes on inside the brain - At birth, a human has a brain that is twice as big as a newborn chimpanzee - Humans quadruple their size in brain size - One of the things that happens is for most mammals growth rate is rapid before birth and then slows down after birth - For humans, the rapid rate of brain growth continues to happen after birth, giving us a bigger brain - The brain is a major user of metabolic energy - In a chimpanzee, less than 10% metabolic energy goes to the brain - For humans, much more is devoted to the brain because it’s so big - We use a lot more energy for our brain than the rest of species - A newborn human directs 60% of its metabolic energy to its brain, its brain uses more metabolic energy than any other entity on earth - A newborn human has a brain that uses more metabolic energy than anything else on earth - As we mature from birth to adulthood, the brain is made up of functional communication cells called neurons, and the glial cell which is the support cell for the neurons, as well as myolin which is a fatty later that speeds up transmission - Neurons have a cell body, bushy branches called dendrites, and a long projection called an axon that is surrounded by myolin and is used to communicate with other neurons - We get neurons from neurogenesis, a neuron can divide and produce more neurons - This process all happens before birth - You’re born with about 100 billion neurons, at adulthood you have less neurons, you can only lose neurons as you age, not grow more - The process of creating connections between neurons is called synaptogenesis, because there’s a gap between the first and second neuron and the connection has to travel over that synapse, and getting those neurons connected with each other is something that happens with high frequency throughout the period of immaturity and happens in low frequency throughout the rest of our lives - Neurogenesis: creating new neurons, and is not done after birth, it is mostly completed by 7 months of age (gestation) the neurons move, they aggregate into layers and start connecting and creating connections in they embryo - After birth, no more neurogenesis, but what you have is more and more synaptogenesis and increasing dendrites that can receive connections from other neurons - Synaptogenesis: starts before the fetus is born and continues at rapid rate during the period of immaturity and at a slower rate during the rest of the person’s life - It’s not just about making connections, another important part of creating a mature brain is pruning away connections among neurons, not all those connections created are going to stay, a lot of them are pruned away - When action-potentials are travelling down the circuitry that involves particular connections among neurons, that stays, but if nothing’s happening, if there are no uses for that circuitry, then it withers away and pruned away, the ones that are used are used, and the ones that are not wither away - At birth, each neuron has about 2500 synaptic connections, and that connectivity matures as you age 2-25-2016 - every version and stage of human gives us even more ideas of what humanness is about and how we are different from other species - we built on the work of biological anthropologists (Adolf Schultz and Bogin)to develop stage systems for identifying changes in the stages in maturation - across the primates, including humans, have gestational stage, an infancy stage, a juvenile stage, and an adult stage - Bogin expanded on that and said that humans are really different and have extra stages that other species don’t have - Bogin: They have a childhood and a juvenile stage, and an adolescent stage characterized by adolescent growth spurt and a post-reproductive stage that we don’t see in any other primates - In this way we focus on the different stages of humans and compare how they are different and similar - We know that at different stage of maturity humans look, act, and talk differently - We know that from birth to maturity there are big increases in size - As Bogin pointed out, it’s not just changes in size, but also changes in proportions and behaviors - Distance curve: shows how size in brain mass, body mass, size of reproductive tissue changes during periods of immaturity - Shows what the absolute sizes look like at different ages - Velocity curve: shows how fast everything is changing in different stages - Velocity starts high at birth (body size doubles within 6 months, brain size quadruples within 6 or 7 years) - Distance and velocity curves of humans compared with those of chimpanzees: we see that dramatic adolescent growth spurt in humans doesn’t exist in chimpanzees. We see a very prolonged, slow-growing juvenile period in humans that’s much shorter in chimpanzees. We see a little bump in humans, a slight increase in the rate of growth about 6 to 7 years of age that marks the end of the childhood stage. We discover new ways that humans are distinct from chimpanzees. - Motor behavior: we know that newborns don’t have voluntary motor control, but they do have huge repertoires of reflexes that are extremely useful to them, including sucking reflexes, the rooting reflex, and the stepping reflex - A lot of these reflexes drop away during the first 6-12 months of life - Reflexes are very obvious in a newborn, they become less obvious as they get older - What happens is voluntary motor skills kick in: an infant can learn to lift its head off the bed, learn to sit up, crawl) - Eventually it will get up on its legs and get a version of bipedalism that looks like the striding bipedalism of adults but not quite like it - Humans around the world are going through these stages of having reflexes and then learning to walk - We also saw that there are kinds of behavior that we see in certain stages that are not part of the adult repertoire - Ex) children are very motivated to climb and hang, even when adults don’t do it. Likewise, adults don’t have a locomotor skill of skipping, it’s not a skill used by adults, it’s unique to children - None of these skills prepare children for anything, yet they do it - Children play a lot: it is a behavior that is difficult to explain why it exists, they use a lot of energy to do it and play can get dangerous, yet they are still driven to play - Robert Fagen observed that it’s mammals that are the species that play more than any other species - It is a behavior that is potentially limiting growth and development - Brain changes: between birth to adulthood there is a quadrupling of brain size but most of that is done by 6-7 years of age - Change of brain size is happening during the first part of immaturity - But then, there is also a change in the micro-architecture of the brain in the neurons and how they are connected to each other - It turns out that connectivity is a very important part of the brain - There are changes that occur in the maturation of the brain - We see that newborn infants come into the world with 100 billion neurons and they’re not going to add to the number of neurons, but they are going to connect and reconnect - “use it or lose it:” connections in the neuron’s circuitry is constantly being used by the organism. But connectivity that is not used is pruned away - if you use it it’s kept, if it’s not it gets pruned away - 28-Up: used to demonstrate that the same individual goes through consistent and dramatic changes - difference in size, body proportions, and behavior are seen in each person - why are we not brought into this world fully grown and fully developed? Why do we come into the world having to develop from birth to adulthood? - Children of Heaven: Ali and Zahra. Everyday life of growing up in Tehran, Iran. Although it was a different cultural setting, there were many similarities recognized: Ali and Zahra had caretakers and constantly tried to please their teachers and parents. We also saw that everything in the film was idealistic, everyone helped everyone - Central Station: Josue starts out with a caretaker who dies and then he ends up in big trouble because he is still a child and is in need of someone to take care of him. Not having a caretaker is very hard for a 9 year old. Children expect care, and adults equally expect that they take care of children. When there is an emotional bond, there is a greater urgency to look after others. - The brain changes in size and micro-architectural changes during maturation - Newborns at birth have 250 synapses per neuron - Glucose metabolism in children (3 years old) is intense, they use twice the rate of adults and glucose metabolism shows us very high rates of synapsegenesis - Synapse genesis is creating connections between neurons - Connections are being made and pruned away as the child ages - Rates of synapse genesis change with age, as well as play - We know that immature animals play more than adults do - John Beyers: many species it’s only the immature animals play - Play has a different rate of expression in different stages of development *********End complete lecture notes from the beginning of the semester to the midterm and everything on midterm topics list********** SUMMARIES, NOTES, AND EXPLANATIONS OF ASSIGNED READINGS THAT WILL BE ON MIDTERM Why Don’t Anthropologists Like Children? Hirschfeld -all contemporary anthropology is based on the premise that culture is learned, not inherited. -Anthropology has generally shown little interest in the lives of children -The lack of child-focused study and examination is a product of: 1. an impoverished view of cultural learning that overestimates the role adults play and underestimates the contribution that children make to cultural reproduction 2. a lack of appreciation of the force of children’s culture, especially in shaping adult culture -the marginalization of children and childhood has obscured our understanding of how cultural forms emerge and why they are sustained -many readers object that anthropologists have done a lot of research on children -one observer said: there are “enough studies of children by anthropologists to form a tradition” -anthropology recognizes that work with children is a reasonable goal to pursue -however, many anthropologists agree that childhood study is a subject that can be ignored -Hirschfeld disagrees, he states that study of children cannot be ignored and deserves extensive study -Hirschfeld’s argument is that this marginalization to ignore the study of children is widespread, and that there is ample reason to believe that child-focused research should be carried out. -He further argues that attending to children, their culture, and their unique conceptual architecture reveals important insight about adult nature -He believes that there is a relationship between the culture of children and the culture of adults -He suggests that adult cultures are sustained because of the way the child’s mind is organized and the way children organize their own cultural environments -Many cultural forms exist because children find them easy to think and learn -Anthropology has marginalized children because it has marginalized the two things that children do well: their ability to acquire adult culture and adeptness at creating their own culture -Children learn how to participate in life and in their culture by watching others, but these processes have drawn little attention because anthropologists see these processes are unremarkable -Children also create their own cultures that are not learned from their parents, these cultures are independent from the adults that they live with -By making their own cultures, children adopt conceptual skills that mold their own cultures and the cultures of their adults -Hirschfeld points out that by studying children’s culture, we can expand our own understanding of other cultures -College texts and research hits have barely any information on the study of children -In addition, there is a significant decrease in the interest in studying children -Children are not only underrepresented in our texts, but also under theorized and outright neglected -Modern anthropology is committed to the notion that culture is learned, not inherited. -Although acquiring cultural skills is a life-long thing, children do most of cultural learning -By adolescence children in every culture have elaborate ways of making meaning out of things and modes of behavior that are pretty well developed -Although not all the way there yet, by adolescence children are pretty big participants in a culture -There are age dependent “costs” of transgression: a young child’s errors in a culture has a low cost that has little to no condemnation -In contrast, errors made by post adolescents that are closer to the adult stage are seen as more serious and are more likely to have criticism or punishment -In other words, the actions of a child and their errors are dependent on how old they are, the older they are the higher the consequences are for their action -The reason for this difference in cost is the conviction that by after adolescent a certain degree of cultural competency is required; a child is expected to behave a certain way in a culture after they reach a certain age -It is by childhood that having a range of emotions, the ability to produce cultural performance, and the capacity to have cultural relations that these achievements are reached. -Anthropologists are only interested in identifying, understanding, and conveying what people do, but Hirschfeld argues that the exploration of how they come to do it should be studied too -Another reason to study children: “embarrassment management” -The scenario: an ethnographer studies one group whose cultural identity is one of maturity and competence (elite) and another whose cultural identity is one of immature and incompetence (subaltern). There is extensive contact between the two groups. The elite group holds power over the subaltern group although the subaltern outnumbers the elite. The elite group publicly punishes the transgressions of the subaltern group and praises it successes. However, the ethnographer never mentions the subaltern population in her writings and makes little reference to the economic and emotional relations that dominate the elites’ interaction with the subaltern group. -The ethnographer’s account of the two groups is flawed because it ignores the dependence that the subaltern group has on the elite -The ethnographer’s argument is that the elite/subaltern relationship is universal and involves a relationship of power, authority, and economy and that many anthropologists don’t feel the need to study it closely. -Hirschfeld’s argument is that the ethnographer’s account is only brief and that the study o the relationship between the subaltern and the elite can be used to extend our knowledge of cultural environments -Anthropology’s indifference to children is not because of an absence of child-focused research. -Explanations for the marginalization of children: children’s association with women. Children are tied to the home and the hearth, just as their mothers are, and so the traditional sphere of influence garners little attention for their study. Another reason is intrinsic dullness. Most anthropologists see children as adults in the making, and not as entities that deserve individual study o f their own. This translates into the notion that children are culturally incompetent creatures whoa are just “appendages to adult society.” Bogin 1997 (63-67) -some argue that childhood evolved from heterochrony, an evolutionary process that alters the timing of growth stages from ancestors to their descendants. -Childhood is a period following infancy, when the youngster is weaned from nursing but still depends on others for feeding and protection -Childhood includes: immature dentition, a small digestive system, and a calorie- demanding brain that is both large and is growing rapidly -Evidence says that childhood evolved a new stage hominid life history -The value of childhood is in learning many aspects for human culture -Childhood provides extra time for brain development and learning -However, the initial value of childhood is in parental strategies used to increase reproductive success -Understanding childhood helps to explain why humans have lengthy development and low fertility, but greater reproductive success than any other species -All human cultures recognize a time of life that is called childhood -Childhood occupies the first 3-7 years of life -Human evolution is a paradox: we have become larger, with long life and immaturity, and few, much loved offspring, and yet we are more, not less adaptable -“mental agility buffers environmental change and has replaced reproductive agility” -this means that we are reproductively frugal compared to other species that breed dozens, hundreds, or thousands offspring in each litter -Humans reproduce less than all other species, but if we are so interested in our immortality and in our DNA, then why don’t we produce more offspring, instead of a few mentally agile offspring? -Our offspring take a long time to reach reproductive age, it takes two decades of postnatal development to reach reproductively successful adulthood -Also, our path from birth to maturity has both periods of rapid and slow development, our rate of growth takes a serpentine pattern -Why don’t our offspring take a more direct and rapid path to maturity? -The childhood stage is not found in the life cycle of any other living mammal -Childhood is “the period following infancy, when the youngster is weaned from nursing but still depends on older people for feeding and protection -Infants are partly or exclusively breast-fed -Weaning age is the end of breast-feeding age, 36 months -Though no longer breast fed after infancy, children are still dependent on older people for feeding -3 major factors in terms of feeding: 1. Children continue rapid brain growth and need a diet heavy in energy and protein to support this growth, 2. Children have deciduous teeth, with thin enamel and shallow roots and can’t process an adult diet, 3. Children have a small body size, and hence a small digestive system, which limits food intake, furthering the requirement for nutrient-dense foods -These 3 characteristics are coupled with motor and cognitive immaturity, as well as social inexperience -All of these factors render the child to be dependent on older people for care -The childhood stage is before the juvenile stage. A juvenile stage is a time of feeding independent from older people -Human children enter the juvenile stage at age 7. Therefore, the human childhood stage of life is from 3 to 7 years of age. -Childhood is likely to be a new life cycle stage that was evolved from newly into hominid life history -Neoteny and hypermorphosis are the most popular agents of human evolution -Neoteny is the slowing down of the rate of development. It produces an adult descendent that retains many immature characteristics of its ancestor. -Hypermorphosis is an extension of the growth and development period of the descendent beyond that of the ancestor. It produces a descendent with feathers that are hypermature compared with the ancestor -Both are inadequate accounts for the evolution of childhood Bogin 1997 (72-87) -Much of human evolution and childhood evolution are the result of the introduction of new life stages into the general pattern of primate growth and development -Comparison of mammals and primates vs. human patterns: most mammals go from infancy to adulthood seamlessly and without any intervening stages, and while their growth rates are in decline -Highly social mammals like dogs, lions, elephants, and the primate, postpone puberty by having a period of juvenile growth and behavior between infancy and adulthood. -Juveniles can be said to be prepubertal individuals that are no longer dependent on their mothers for survival. This applies to social mammals, non-human primates, and humans -Juveniles are not children because they are more independent than children are -In social mammals, puberty happens while the rate of growth is decelerating and there is no growth spurt -Human growth and development from birth to maturity has 5 stages: 1. Infancy, 2. Childhood, 3. Juvenility, 4. Adolescence, and 5. Adulthood -Humans add childhood and adolescence to the pattern found for primates and other social animals -Each of these stages can be defined by rate of growth, feeding, and reproductive behavior Rate of growth -Changes in the velocity of growth from birth to adulthood signal the transition between the 5 stages -During infancy growth rate plummets, followed by a period of slower velocity decline in childhood -The period of childhood is marked by a small increase in velocity, called the mid-growth spurt -After childhood, the rate of growth decelerates during the juvenile stage, and then drops to its lowest point since birth -Adolescence is marked by a sudden and rapid increase in growth rate -The mature adult stage begins when growth of the skeleton stops -The mid-growth spurt is important because it’s associated with the increase in the adrenal androgen hormones, they produce the mid-growth spurt in height, increase the rate of skeletal growth, stimulate pubic hair growth, and regulate body fat distribution -It’s possible to view the combination of adrenarche and the mid-growth spurt as marking the transition form the childhood to the juvenile stage -These are markers of developmental maturation -The “5-7 year old shift:” involves changes of the maturing child-shifts in cognition, self concept, visual/perceptual capacities, and social abilities -The transition marks increasing capabilities for strategic and controlled self-regulation, skills at inhibition, and the ability to maintain attention -After the shift, the child becomes a juvenile capable of its own feeding and care -The association of adrenarche, the mid-growth spurt, and the 5-7 shift all mark the transition of the child to the juven
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