Sociological Theory 411 Notes, Week 2
Sociological Theory 411 Notes, Week 2 SOCI 411
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolette Notetaker on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 411 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Hua-Lun Huang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Sociological Theory in Sociology & Anthropology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 08/03/16
Notable Functionalists One in particular, Auguste Comte. - he explained we can split human society into three parts : st Knowledge Component – (1 difference) *how to distinguish amongst each soc.* 1. Theological Society- dealing with theology (authority) Ex: a society completely structured by religion, (such as the Islamic nation); in these groups people tend to follow certain traditions based of their religion; a very sacred society 2. Metaphysical Society- dealing with a “mysterious” perspective Ex: such as political myths politicians may by considered holier- than thou and this usually occurs in a totalitarian society (parts of the Middle East, Nazi Germany, and North Korea) and is used to support “dictatorship” 3. Positivistic Society- governed around science, such as the American society for example, where science is the awareness involving causal relationships; must use causal argument to determine particular relationships, creation of products, and to justify findings (numerous knowledge provides numerous outcomes) Structure 2 nddifference (Comte) This component must be “stabilized” in order to work. - Structure involves: interpersonal/social relationships (such as family, couples, friends) and the dispersal of social resources - Structure is can also be determined by ascribed status (status you earn in society based on demographic or biological factors gender,age, political affiliation, religious affiliation) and achieved status (status you earn in society based on particular achievements) - In terms of social structure: referring to conservative or exclusive societies 1. Structure of a Theological Society mostly conservative, very exclusive (Ex: in Islamic culture, people who marry each other because of same religion is mostly favored upon, marrying someone outside of religious affiliation is not favored upon) 2. Structure of a Metaphysical Society centered around ascribed status, extremely conservative and exclusive (Ex. Klu Klux Klan (KKK)- very conservative and very exclusive group because of skin color) 3. Structure of Positivistic Society vastly liberal and inclusive; this society is based on achieved status again refers to individual achievements (Ex. One important aspect of ascribed status gender) rd Most Influential Social Unit – 3 Difference (Comte) 1. In Theological Society, the most influential social unit is the church (what its society is based upon and also an important factor in decision-making/rule –making) 2. In Metaphysical Society, the most influential social unit is a political organization. (main focus of this society) 3. In Positivistic Society, the most influential social unit is a corporation. (able to produce ‘financial resources’ for entire society, mainly due to technology) Integration – 4 th difference (Comte) - using “collective violence” to ensure order (used in Theological & Metaphysical Societies) unreasonable to a certain extent - Example of collective violence form of public punishment (Ex. In Islamic society or Saudi Arabia) - In positivistic society rely upon consensus (accord) in order for society to remain integrated using democratic decision making in order to do so; this society is known as a rational society, where emotions lead to calculations (or answers) The second notable functionalist was Emile Durkheim. -He said we can divide human society into two main categories: a mechanical society and an organic society. 1 Variable - Collective Consciousness (combination of all social customs, values, norm, expectation, and philosophy) Collective Consciousness can be broken down into 4 other subcategories: 1. Volume (certain quantity/how many social practices and rules that individuals should follow) 2. Content (if people in society can distinguish/identify all social customs and whether these social customs are dominant) 3. Clarity – (if those components are clear and understood amongst all members of society 4. Control – (deals with power/ability of those elements to regulate social members; power can be described as either strong or weak) -Volume in Mechanical Society: very homogeneous (follow same traditions, like a small village for example), but don’t have many options and doesn’t tend to share many social customs -Volume in Organic Society- very heterogeneous (Ex. A big city) has more choices; people tend to partake in many social practices (often countless) -Content in Mechanical Society- there’s clarity that will be recognized will involve social taboos and customs will be ‘sacred’ -Content in Organic Society – there’s no clarity, countless numbers, not easily recognized -Clarity in Mechanical Society- rules are understood/clear for the most part -Clarity in Organic Society- social traditions will become unclear, and highly debatable -Control in Mechanical Society- has strong influence upon social customs -Control in Organic Society- has weak influence upon social customs 2 ndvariable – Collective Representation (symbols, signs, pictures, gestures, diagrams); “eye-washing” elements (Ex. National symbol of the United States) Volume (of Mechanical Soc.) not many; Volume (of Organic soc.) a number of representations/symbols Clarity (of Mechanical soc.) mainly clear/understood (sacred value); Clarity (of Organic Soc.) numerous signs; vague Content (of Mechanical) distinguishable; concrete; Content (of Organic) cannot be completely ‘listed’ Control (of Mechanical) overall strong influence to regulate its members; Control (of Organic) overall weak influence to regulate its members Legal Code (of Mechanical) straightforward, simple (means of punishment –‘repression oriented’ in order to control social deviance); Legal Code (of Organic) complex, complicated (uses methods of restoration and preservation to assist members in maintaining or restoring the status quo and in sustaining social order) *In the end, as long as deviant actions don’t result in total turmoil, social deviance will still be tolerated (in Organic Society); however, social deviance will not be tolerated (in Mechanical society). *When it comes to interpersonal relationships, Mechanical society will be categorized as (rigid/inflexible, fixed); organic society will be known as flexible/progressive/alternative). *Durkheim explained you could transform from uncomplicated, mechanical society to complex, organic society. -this is due to population growth division of labor turns into a creation of jobs in result, this leads to a “specialization” of career opportunities (to support populations of our society) o In the midst of transformation, (three problems can occur) 1. Anomic Division of Labor during alteration, social traditions may halt operations; and this often occurs in a complicated society 2. Forced Division of Labor due to some situations, individuals may be designated to jobs they loathe 3. Poorly Coordinated Division of Labor not really being sure of how to perform for a job; this may lead to the wrong decisions *this doesn’t occur all the time, but occasionally* *social traditions/old customs may be unacceptable *may lead to social pathology (Ex. This took place in the former Soviet Union); may be poorly structured *these three problems may influence individuals to commit suicide 4 Types of Suicide: 1. Anomie- when social practice can no longer afford to offer ‘behavioral guides’ for members of society; may cause depression and as a result, suicide; people may become very anxious, depressed, and hopeless 2. Fatalistic when society turns into ‘highly suppressive’ one; as a result, people may tend to ‘lose hope’, and this is generated by “political suppression” 3. Egotistic a group of people may think a catastrophe will take place in the near future (because of a natural disaster) 4. Altruistic when some individuals may commit a possible suicide because they believe this will bring about the greater good or change in society; they may think this will ultimately improve suicide and people commit this because of social goods
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