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Psych 101 Week 1 Notes

by: Driana Notetaker

Psych 101 Week 1 Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Driana Notetaker

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Driana Notetaker on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Miami University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.

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Date Created: 08/03/16
Driana Smith AP Psychology White 2 Unit 1 - Module 1 - Psychology's History 1­1: How did psychology develop from its prescientific roots in early understandings of mind and  body to the beginnings of modern science? Philosophers & theory:  Socrates & Plato - mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies , and that knowledge is innate  Aristotle- knowledge is not preexisting instead its grows from the experiences stored from our memories  Rene Descartes - agreed with S & P but conclude that the fluid in the brain's cavities contained "animal spirts", these spirts flowed from the brain cavities what we called nerves to muscles, provoking movement. Memories formed as experiences opened pores in the brain into which the animal spirts also flowed.  Francis Bacon- the human understanding , from its peculiar nature, easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality on things than it really finds  John Locke- the mind at birth is a blank state on which experience writes Vocab: Empiricism: the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation. (John Locke and Bacon’s idea helped form this) 1­2: What are some important milestones in psychology’s early development?  Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany Vocab: Structuralism- early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchner; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind Functionalism – early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin: explored how mental and behavioral processes function – how they adapt enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish Experimental Psychology – the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method 1­3 how did psychology continue to develop from the 1920’s through today?  Early researchers defined psychology as a “science of mental life”  In the 1920’s , under the influence of John B. Watson and the behaviorists, the field’s focus changed to the “scientific study of observable behavior” Vocab: Conditioning- behavior influenced by learning associations -Behaviorists: view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. (Direct contradiction of Freud’s emphasis on unconscious conflicts motivating behavior) Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but NOT with (2) -Fredudian Psychology- the ways our conscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior -Humanistic Psychology: a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people. -Another school of thought in psychology is Gestalt psychology—an early school of psychology from Germany that studied how people organized perceptual experiences in understandable ways. They are famous for developing rules for how we organize what we sense and perceive, and for the state that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Gestalt psychology will be discussed much more in Sensation & Perception. Cognitive neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory & language Psychology- the science of behavior and mental processes Behavior- is anything an organism does- any action we can observe and record ex: yelling, blinking, and talking Mental processes: are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior ex: sensations, thoughts, and beliefs Psychology= SCIENCE Unit 1 – Module 2 –Psychology’s Big Issues and Approaches 2­1 What is psychology’s historic big issue?  “Are our human traits are at birth or do they develop through experience?” - psychology’s historic big issue  Nature- nurture issue – the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.  Plato assuming that we inherit character and intelligence and that certain ideas are also born and Aristotle countering that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come the external world through the senses.  Locke said the mind is a blank state when born vs. Descartes believing that some ideas are innate  Charles Darwin. ( on the origin of species ) -> natural selection : the principle that among the range of inherited trait variation, those contributing to reproduction and survive will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations ,  “ nurture works on what nature endows” 2­2 What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related perspectives?  Level of Analysis- the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to social- cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon. EX: like explaining why school shooting have occurred (is it b/c shooters have brain disorders or genetic tendencies that cause them to violent or b/c they have been rewarded for violent behavior?)  Bio psychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological , psychological, and social – cultural level of analysis  Each level provides a valuable vantage point for looking at behavior and mental process  Someone working from the behavioral perspective might attempt to determine which external stimuli trigger angry responses or aggressive acts  Someone working from a biological perspective might study brain circuits that cause us to be “red in the face “ and hot under the collar” or hoe heredity and experience influence our individual differences in temperament  Someone working from the cognitive perspective might study how our interpretation of a situation affects our anger and how our anger effects of thinking  Someone working from the evolutionary perspective might analyze how anger facilities the survival of our ancestor’s genes  Someone working from the Humanistic perspective might have been interested in understanding how angry feelings affect a person’s potential for growth  Someone working from the psychodynamic perspective might view an outburst for unconscious hostility  Someone working from the social-cultural perspective might explore how expressions of anger vary across cultural contexts. 2.3 What are psychology’s main subfields?  The tribe of psychology is united by a common quest: Describing and explaining behavior and the mind underlying it  Psychometrics: the scientific study of measurement of human abilities, attitudes and traits  Basic Research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Researchers:  Biological psychologists exploring the links between the brain and the mind  Developmental psychologist studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb  Cognitive psychologists experimenting with how we perceive , think, solve problems  Educational psychologists studying influences on teaching and learning  Personality psychologists investigating our persistent traits  Social psychologist exploring how we view and affect one another  Applied research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems  Industrial – organization psychology: the application of psychological concepts and methods or optimizing human behavior in workplaces  Human Factors psychology: and I/O psychology subfield that explored how people and machines interact and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use. Psychology is also a helping profession devoted to such practical issues as how to have a happy marriage, how to overcome depression & anxiety, and how to raise thriving children  Counseling Psychologists : help people to cope with challenge and crises and to improve their personal and social functioning  Clinical Psychologists: asses and treat mental , emotional m and behavior disorders  Psychiatrists :medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of Psychological disorders  Martin Seligman -> positive psychology : scientific study of human functioning with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive  Community Psychologists: work to create social and physical environments that are healthy for all. Ex: if school bullying is problem , the community psychologists instead seek ways to adapt the school experience to early adolescent needs 2.4 How can psychological principles help you learn and remember and do well on the AP exam?  Testing Effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading info.  SQ3R: a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read ,Retrieve, Review Study tips  Distribute your study time  Learn to think critically  Process class information actively  Overlearn  Be a smart test taker Unit 1- Module 3- Careers in Psychology 3­1 What do Psychologists in various professions do, and where do they work? Basic Research Fields:  Cognitive Psychologists: study thought processes and focus on such topics as perception, language, attention, problem solving, memory, judgment and decision making. Work as professor, industrial consultant or human factor specialists in an educational or business setting.  Developmental Psychologists: conduct research on age-related behavioral changes and apply their scientific knowledge to educational, child-care, policy, and related setting. Work setting could be an educational institution , day care, youth program or senior center  Educational Psychologists: interested in the Psychological processes involved in learning. Work setting is a school or government of charged with designed and implementing effective employee-training programs in a business setting  Experimental Psychologists: investigate a variety of basic behavioral processes in humans and other animals. Work Setting might be a zoo, research intuition, business, or government  Psychometric and Quantitative Psychologists: study the methods and techniques used to acquire psychological Knowledge. Work setting is university ,college, testing company, private research firm, or government  Social Psychologists: interested in our interaction w/ others. Work for hospitals, federal agency, and businesses performing applied research. Applied Research Subfields:  Forensic Psychologists: apply psychological principles to legal issues. Work setting university psychology department, law school, etc.  Health Psychologists: researches and practitioners concerned w/ psychology’s contribution to promoting health and preventing diseases. Work setting hospital, medical school, health agency, etc.  I/O Psychologists: study the relationship b/w people and their working environments. Work setting government , college, or self employed  Neuropsychologists: investigate the relationship b/w neurological processes and behavior. Work setting: hospitals neurology, neurosurgery or psychiatric unit  Rehabilitation Psychologists: researchers and practitioners who work with people who have lost optimal functioning after an accident, illness, or other event. Work Setting: university, medical school, rehabilitation agency, etc.  School Psychologists: involved in the assessment of and intervention for children in educational settings. Work in academic setting, government, etc.  Sport Psychologists: study the psychological factors that influence, and are influenced by participation in sports and activities. Work setting: academic or research setting or a team or organization The Helping Professions:  Clinical Psychologists: promote psychological health individuals, groups, and organizations. Work setting: school, private practice, etc.  Community Psychologists: deal with broad problems of mental health in community settings. Work settings: government, or college  Counseling Psychologists: help people adjust to life transitions or make lifestyles changes. Work setting : academic setting


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