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AST1001, Week 1 Notes

by: Brenna Quade

AST1001, Week 1 Notes 1001

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Astronomy > 1001 > AST1001 Week 1 Notes
Brenna Quade
U of M
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About this Document

These notes cover the first week of Prof. Roberta Humphrey's section of Exploring the Universe. 4 pages.
Exploring the Universe
Roberta Humphreys
Class Notes
astronomy, Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Quade on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Roberta Humphreys in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Exploring the Universe in Astronomy at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 08/03/16
Week of 9/12/16 Notes for AST 1001, Exploring the Universe Class on 9/12/16 We went over the syllabus, which you can find at The exams are based off her lectures, so the book is just supplementary. The exams will be Oct. 19 (most likely), Nov. 21 (most likely), and Dec. 19 1:30-3:30 (definitely). Actual notes: Astronomy is the study of the stars, but also planets, galaxies, the universe, etc. Time should be thought of as ages. Ex: 9  Earth, sun, solar system – 4.5 x10 years Space should be thought of as distance. Ex:  To the nearest star – 4.3 lightyears Diurnal (daily) notions of celestial beings – sun rising/setting, moon, stars Annual variation – where sun rises/sets Astronomy is the first science (because some is visible to the naked eye). It led to:  Timekeeping  Calendars  Some religions (ex: sun – Ra, Apollo)  Navigation  Geometry/trigonometry  Surveying/conquering land  Architecture It’s basically the footstone of modern development. There were also the 5 wanderers – planets (from greek “planetes”  Mercury  Venus  Terra/Gaia/Earth (not one of the wanderers)  Mars  Jupiter  Saturn Neolithic Astronomy Stonehenge: about 2800-1700 BCE Temple dedicated to the sun, and a calendar Machu Picchu – the Intihuatana (“hitching post of the sun” Marked solstices, equinoxes, positions of moon Medicine Wheel in Wyoming: about 1400-1700 AD Stone alignments in a spoked wheel pattern with cairns marking sight lines Geocentric/Ptolemaic Model Earth at the center of the solar system, with a sphere surrounding the planets, sun, and stars Problem: apparent backward motion of planets – called retrograde Ecliptic plane – apparent path of sun in the sky When people noticed retrograde, people started to theorize that Earth wasn’t at the center of the solar system, and that the planets each had an epicycle. 9/14/16 Heliocentric Model Copernicus 1473-1543 The sun is at the center of the universe Kept circular orbits and epicycles, but explained retrograde motion Galileo 1564-1642  Craters/mountains on the surface of the moon  Phases of Venus  Saturn had “ears” (rings)  4 moons of Jupiter  Milky way made of 1000s of stars  Sun was blemished (sunspots) These supported the heliocentric model (but not the geocentric) Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 Built the most advanced conservatory in Europe (at the time) Couldn’t measure stellar parallax (couldn’t be measured until 1838), but proposed that it could be measured Thomas Diggs 1546-1595 Agreed with Brahe and Gallileo Proposed that stars were beyond the “sphere” of the solar system (an infinite distance away) This was the first mention of infinite space Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 The sun isn’t the center, but one of the foci of the solar system The orbits are ellipses Laws of Planetary Motion: 1. Orbits of planets are ellipses with the sun at one foci 2. Line joining the planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times 3. Period of revolution proportional to distance of sun a. a=avg distance from sun b. P=orbital period c. P =constant x a 3 d. If in years, P =a 3 Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Laws of Motion 1. Objects remain at rest/in motion until a strong enough force acts on it 2. F=ma 3. For every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction Law of gravity – force of attraction between objects is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 2  Fgravity x M x m / (distance) These laws explain Kepler’s laws Orbital motion – inertia + gravity


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