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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Duyen Ka on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 572 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gerry Downes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 08/03/16
Duyen Ka April 13, 2016 Transactional Perspective On The Development Of Anxiety Disorder Anxiety is mainly related to worry about what might happen in the future. Anxiety is a normal part of childhood, and every child goes through phases. Phases are usually temporary and harmless but in some cases in can be impairing and associated with emotional disorders later on in life. The Carthy article examines the reactivity and regulation of anxious children by developing novels tasks that presents ambiguous situations with potentially threatening meanings. It classified emotional regulation strategies into five categories. The five categories includes avoidance, problem solving, seeking help or comfort form others, distraction, reappraisal, and emotional suppression. Anxious Children relied more on avoidance and on seeking help of others, and had a lower use of problem solving and reappraisal. Compared to nonanxious children, anxious children were less likely to use spontaneous reappraisal. Anxious children also seem to have a hard time applying reappraisal when they were cued to. However, there seems to be no significant correlations between cued appraisal and the severity of anxiety symptoms. The WoodruffBorden article examines the behavior of anxious parents interacting with their children, ages 612, to test possible transmissions of anxiety from parent to child. The results of the study suggest that anxious parents do interact differently with their children than nonanxious parents. The three individual behaviors that the parent groups significantly differed in was that anxious parents agreed less with their children, praised their children fewer times, and ignored their children more frequently. Anxious parents were more withdrawn and less productively engaged from tasks with their children. Children of anxious parents were left to struggle and cope more on their own than children in the control group. The Feng article examines the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms among 290 boys, ages 210, and evaluated the association of the trajectory groups with the child and family risk factors and children’s internalizing disorder. The four distinct trajectories in the development of anxiety symptoms includes low, low increasing, high declining, and high increasing. The risk factors that were examined include shy temperament, emotion regulation strategies, insecure attachment, maternal depression, and maternal negative control. The results showed notable differences in the developmental course of anxiety symptoms among boys form early to middle childhood. A large portion, 51%, of boys was in the stable low trajectory, and tended not to develop internalizing disorder later on. The other half experienced elevated anxiety symptoms during part of all of their childhood, with 17% that followed increasing trajectories at high rick for internalizing disorders later on. Shyness predicted initially high levels of anxiety, regardless of whether these levels increase or decreased overtime, and maternal factors predicted increases in anxiety overtime. Children in the highincreasing and low increasing trajectories were more likely to develop depression. Children in the high increasing trajectory experienced the most severe internalizing problems. The Mian article used SEM to examine an ecological risk model with multi informant anxiety outcome within a longitudinal framework, toddler to second grade. Childhood symptoms and temperament emerged as the strongest predictor of kindergarten and second grade anxiety symptoms across parent and childreport models. The meditational model strongly supported the second hypothesis that maternal and family/community factors would be concurrently associated with early child symptoms and temperament. I would say that anxiety is a mix of nature and nurture. In the Feng article, it states that there are certain temperamental characteristics that may put children more at risk to experience anxiety symptoms in early childhood. A term for this is behavioral inhibition, which is the tendency to react with unusual fear, cautiousness, and withdrawal. The findings in the article also states that the high levels of anxiety associated with shyness may reflect genetically determines biological influences on children’s anxiety. Family history and the way that the child is raised also play a role in anxiety. Children with depressed parents seem to have a higher risk for anxiety disorders. Depressed parents, often have comorbid anxious symptoms, may model anxious behaviors for their children. Observational Studies have also shown that parents with anxiety disorders engage in excessive control over their children’s behaviors and emotions, which is also called parental negative control. This can decrease the child’s sense of autonomy and mastery over the environment, which contributes to anxiety by reinforcing events as out of one’s control. Over controlling parents mostly contribute to negative effects in their children and put them more at risk for anxiety problems. In the Woodruff Borden article where they examined interactions between anxious parents and their children, it showed that anxious parents usually withdraw from their children. The result of this type of interaction pattern would be confusing for their children and would likely teach them few adaptive skills for managing their distress or expressing affect. In the Mian article it states that children of anxious parents are seven times more likely to develop an anxiety disorder. The four articles showed the importance of a transactional perspective on the development of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents by looking at the interactions between parent child, anxious and non anxious, environmental factors, and predisposing family history of disorders that may have some biological influences.
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