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by: Duyen Ka
Duyen Ka

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Gerry Downes
Class Notes
Cognitive Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Duyen Ka on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 572 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gerry Downes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 08/03/16
Duyen Ka April 13, 2016 Transactional Perspective On The Development Of Anxiety Disorder  Anxiety is mainly related to worry about what might happen in the future.  Anxiety is a normal part of childhood, and every child goes through phases. Phases are  usually temporary and harmless but in some cases in can be impairing and associated  with emotional disorders later on in life.  The Carthy article examines the reactivity and regulation of anxious children by  developing novels tasks that presents ambiguous situations with potentially threatening  meanings. It classified emotional regulation strategies into five categories. The five  categories includes avoidance, problem solving, seeking help or comfort form others,  distraction, reappraisal, and emotional suppression.  Anxious Children relied more on  avoidance and on seeking help of others, and had a lower use of problem solving and  reappraisal. Compared to non­anxious children, anxious children were less likely to use  spontaneous reappraisal. Anxious children also seem to have a hard time applying  reappraisal when they were cued to. However, there seems to be no significant  correlations between cued­ appraisal and the severity of anxiety symptoms.  The Woodruff­Borden article examines the behavior of anxious parents  interacting with their children, ages 6­12, to test possible transmissions of anxiety from  parent to child. The results of the study suggest that anxious parents do interact  differently with their children than non­anxious parents. The three individual behaviors  that the parent groups significantly differed in was that anxious parents agreed less with  their children, praised their children fewer times, and ignored their children more  frequently. Anxious parents were more withdrawn and less productively engaged from  tasks with their children. Children of anxious parents were left to struggle and cope more  on their own than children in the control group. The Feng article examines the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms  among 290 boys, ages 2­10, and evaluated the association of the trajectory groups with  the child and family risk factors and children’s internalizing disorder. The four distinct  trajectories in the development of anxiety symptoms includes low, low increasing, high  declining, and high increasing. The risk factors that were examined include shy  temperament, emotion regulation strategies, insecure attachment, maternal depression,  and maternal negative control. The results showed notable differences in the  developmental course of anxiety symptoms among boys form early to middle childhood.   A large portion, 51%, of boys was in the stable low trajectory, and tended not to develop  internalizing disorder later on. The other half experienced elevated anxiety symptoms  during part of all of their childhood, with 17% that followed increasing trajectories at  high rick for internalizing disorders later on. Shyness predicted initially high levels of  anxiety, regardless of whether these levels increase or decreased overtime, and maternal  factors predicted increases in anxiety overtime. Children in the high­increasing and low­ increasing trajectories were more likely to develop depression. Children in the high  increasing trajectory experienced the most severe internalizing problems. The Mian article used SEM to examine an ecological risk model with multi­ informant anxiety outcome within a longitudinal framework, toddler to second grade.  Childhood symptoms and temperament emerged as the strongest predictor of  kindergarten and second grade anxiety symptoms across parent and child­report models.  The meditational model strongly supported the second hypothesis that maternal and  family/community factors would be concurrently associated with early child symptoms  and temperament. I would say that anxiety is a mix of nature and nurture. In the Feng article, it  states that there are certain temperamental characteristics that may put children more at  risk to experience anxiety symptoms in early childhood. A term for this is behavioral  inhibition, which is the tendency to react with unusual fear, cautiousness, and withdrawal. The findings in the article also states that the high levels of anxiety associated with  shyness may reflect genetically determines biological influences on children’s anxiety.  Family history and the way that the child is raised also play a role in anxiety. Children  with depressed parents seem to have a higher risk for anxiety disorders. Depressed  parents, often have comorbid anxious symptoms, may model anxious behaviors for their  children. Observational Studies have also shown that parents with anxiety disorders  engage in excessive control over their children’s behaviors and emotions, which is also  called parental negative control. This can decrease the child’s sense of autonomy and  mastery over the environment, which contributes to anxiety by reinforcing events as out  of one’s control. Over controlling parents mostly contribute to negative effects in their  children and put them more at risk for anxiety problems. In the Woodruff­ Borden article  where they examined interactions between anxious parents and their children, it showed  that anxious parents usually withdraw from their children. The result of this type of  interaction pattern would be confusing for their children and would likely teach them few adaptive skills for managing their distress or expressing affect. In the Mian article it  states that children of anxious parents are seven times more likely to develop an anxiety  disorder. The four articles showed the importance of a transactional perspective on the  development of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents by looking at the interactions between parent­ child, anxious and non­ anxious, environmental factors, and predisposing family history of disorders that may have some biological influences.


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