art history 1 study guide
art history 1 study guide ART 212-002
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jalaina Felker on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 212-002 at Colorado State University taught by Michael Fenton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see art history 3 in Art at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 08/04/16
Art History- Exam #1- Study guide Chapter 1: Prehistoric Art ( Paleolithic-Neolithic) Paleolithic: -Hunting gathering society: for food/survival -small communities. High mortality rate, short life -Spear weapon- mammoth- team hunting -small art, portable = traveling (art of reproduction, animals) Sympathetic magic: what you create, you will get something out of it Architecture: cave, mammoth bone hut-Ukraine. Red circle of okra on bottom Venus of Willendorf: Austria -Venus roman goddess of love. Sensual, beautiful. -sculpture in the round -fat woman- high status –leader -fertility object: you will have children/ good fertility -no facial features: not one person. Soul captured -memory figure, generic image of woman -cavemen (known to be not hygienic- women sculpture contradicts) High relief sculpture: flat with sculpture sticking out Two Bison, France: example of sympathetic magic Bison from the Altamira Cave, Spain -First cave found w/ cave painting -carbon dating (redeemed person who found it) -horses common in caves: contradicts sympathetic (don’t eat horses) -idea: paintings done by women- handprints (spit charcoal paint on hand) Initiation nights: prove yourself for the hunt Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux Cave France -most famous -reoccurring paintings, paint over it when they return from travel Chavet Cave, France -old. Found underwater Ancient Near East - Neolithic Agriculture: planting/ gathering society- women -farming began = surplus =extra food = no need to be nomadic (more jobs now) -population rise -evidence of war, procession of land rights/water rights. Bow and arrow Jericho: first Neolithic city Human Skull, Jericho: plaster over real skull -funeral practices, form of religion -ancestor worship, help household, pray to them Ain Ghazel, Jordan: uphill protection, houses on terraces Catalhoyuk, Turkey: no street or open spaces = protection -Deer hunt, Anatolian godess giving birth sculpture (art connects with Paleolithic – animal hunting) Elements of Architecture: -post and lintel: sturdry, small spaces -Corbeled: not sturdy, larger spaces (brick like) (Skara Brae, Scotland) -use stone, wood was scarce resource Dolman, Ireland: Tomb for one person -Megalithic architecture (made of stone, huge, ton of weight) Menhir alignments, France: standing upright stones- fields Stonehenge: Salisbury Plain England ca 2550-1600BC -myths: aliens, giants -solar calendar: predict changing in weather- communication from god = temple -Healing center- blue stones healing powers -June 21 huge gathering, sunrise. Solstice? -Trilithons Avebury: largest diameter, village in middle Trilithon: Stonehenge thing Pottery: didn’t need them cause of gourds- vessels mimic gourds Chapter 2: Ancient Near East Sumerian, Akkadian, Neo-Sumerian, Babylon, Hittite, Assyrian, Neo- Babylon, Persian Near East: Mesopotamia/Fertile crescent (good soil) -rivers crucial: tigress/Euphrates -god in charge of all natural things (river flood = pissed off god) -violent cultures- river, god, religion Summerian Art 3500-2300BC Improving: -wheel -plow: agriculture effiecency (more food, more population) -bronze: tools/weapons -city-state: has own political unit -writing (cuneiform): lead Cuneform: wedge shaped writing. Pressed in clay. Stylus -Epic of Gilgamesh Ziggurat: giant hill, staircase, top is temple. Place of worship. -top? –for gods to live while on earth, out of flood range -Priest: main communicators to god- king talked to priest about war/advice -main focal point of town/society -White Temple, Uruk, Iraq -Female head Inanna- goddess of moon, sensuality, love Warka Vase- offerings to gods – good river Statuettes (votive figures): offerings to godes -statues of elites -barter with priest to take to ziggurat and do rituals -huge eyes = fear and revealing souls Statuette of Urnanshe -broken arms- where musical instrument should be -music: religious, ceremonies, rituals -musical man, his profession, known to man and god Propaganda art: tool of politics -literacy was for servants to read to masters -communicated through art instead of writing -Stele of the Vultures: Victory of Eannatum king of Lagash Standard of Ur: tomb Ur, Iraq -celebration of victories of war -war side and peace side (shows benefits of war- economy grow) Lyre: instrument. Bull on side -plaque on front tells narrative: heaven must be fought for (only elites) -Found in tomb- practice of ceremony -human sacrifice- musician after funeral ceremony. (Often badge of honor) Cylinder seal: individual signature. Roll in wet clay Queen tomb of Pu-abi: golden jewelry, headdresses. Soldiers died with her Akkadian 2300-2150BC -military state -first kingdom Akkadian ruler: portrait bronze (scarce resource) -wax, clay, bronze mold -rulers- living gods, divine: could see through artwork alive or dead = ripped off ears and eyes Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, Susa, Iran: placed in conquered areas-reminder of victory Neo-Sumerian -Guti (regained independence) -Lagash -Gudea Ziggurat from Ur Gudea: King of Lagash -figure put in the top of ziggurat -Carved feet details- Gudea is equal to the gods. Rivers won’t flood -votive statue of Gudea Babylon -Hammurabi (1792-1750) Stele of Hammurabi, Susa -Eye-for-an-eye law code: written in stone = no changing the law (stability of society) (Only for class structure) -Hammurabi: friend of gods/kings (Shamash-god of justice) -Shamash gives Hammurabi power to make the law Iconography: common visual vocab Painting from the palace at Mari: fresco, destroyed in fire Hittite: Lion Gate Assyria Empire -Military society (the boss ass bitches) -first real empire- ruthless nature like summerians -stormed/took over cities killing everyone. Marched to other cities with cut of heads on stakes- terrorized people Guardian figures at gate of Citadel Sargion: mythical creatures (what scares you is my pet- intimidation) Relief art: not sculpted on all sides Palace of Ashurnasirpal II: river around palace gates. Men with pig skin life jackets to defeal walls Ashurabanipal hunting lions: must win, (capture lions, cage them, hire hunters to kill them) Neo-Babylon -new Sumerian people rebuild city after Assyrians are defeated Ishtar Gate, Iraq: impressed people. Technology -bright blue coloring, arched doorway Garden of Babylon: made for wife Persian Empire -king of king-king of the world. Best empire in the world in their opinion -simulators Persepolis: capitol of empire, Iran -royal audience hall, sculptures -“we may not be the best warriors, but we have the most” -copycats of other artisans, inspired by other eras Processional frieze: relief art, more rounded, smooth sculpting Darius and Xerxes receiving tribute: shows high archival scale from Sumerians -peasant covers mouth/breath so he doesn’t breath on king (he would die, and king would be cleansed) Daric Under Darius I of Persia: bartering system w/ livestolk -coinage: propaganda of king -mints prevalent Chapter 3: Art of Ancient Egypt Predynastic, Early Dynastic, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom Nile River: highest importance to culture -flows S to N- perfect river -trading, transportation, highway, predictable weather patterns -given by gods -flooding predictable-leaves rich soil, farming society -long surviving society Predynastic - before 2920BC -Agriculture 5500BC Late Paleolithic human skeletons -faced skeletons toward sun- journey to heavens/rebirth -buried in dry sand: natural preservation of body (mummy) Ka: Soul that lives on after death –must be preserved Early Dynastic (1,2) -Pharaoh Palette of King Narmer: 3000-2920BC -2 sided table -Narmer: Pharaoh of southern Egypt (lower) -Wearing crown: red and white crown for first time -Pharaoh of two kingdom- all of Egypt = unifying Egypt -twisted perspective = living person -bulls on top rep: Haythor (goddess of underworld) – personal protector of Narmer -killed people cant come back to haunt him -Horath: Pharaoh is god-living god. Can become any god he wants, whenever -Human sacrifice ritual -papyrus: symbol of conquering Northern Delta Region -people already killed –going to underworld -survent holding shoes -swirling head monsters: coming together as same nation- make up mix bowl Icons: Falcon- god Horus Pharaoh Ankn- key to next world Beetle scarab- good luck charm- everyone will be reborn White crown-upper Egypt Red crown-lower Egypt Doubt crown- unified Egypt Mastaba: stone bench -how pharaohs/elite buried -put next to each other- priest do rituals quickly -village for dead -hold on top: spiritual release (go to chapel) Old Kingdom (3-8) -Pyramids (Imhotep) -Pharaoh slowly loses total power, leader figure Rosetta Stone: written in ancient Greek/Egyptian- education of language Pyramid: first stepped pyramid: stacked mastabas, tomb underneath. (Imhotep built) Djoser in a Sed Jubilee robe, Saqqara: burried in pyramid Imhotep: invented pyramid concept -mathematical genius, doctor, artistan, head priest of Heliopolis (son god Ra), related to Djoser -Son of the god path -highly educated -Columnar Entrance North Palace: Papyrus (northern delta region) King Huni: finished by Sneferu (son in law) Bent Pyramid, Dashur: Sneferu didn’t get buried their cause it wasn’t perfect Red Pyramid, White limestone: buried Sneferu th -30 year (20 years to build) Great Pyramids, Gizeh Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure (tallest man-made object at time, still wonder of world) Khufu: not solid rock- under chamber to fool thieves -construction during flood season- farmers get job building -Spirit boat: cedar wood, send mummies to grave Great Sphinx: lion/human. Thought to be Horus, telling you message of future Khafre: statue- Horus the living god -hieroglyphics: written to face him so when he becomes statue he knows right place -high relief Menkaure and khamerenebty: left foot forward- good luck -first wife: same height = respect/equal power -high relief Mimi and Sabu: break rules of left food -Arm around her. Woman shorter = less powerful Egyptian canon of proportions Seated Scribe, Saqqara: writing on papyrus. He is scribe he is educated. Leisurely job, still wealthy, status symbol Ka-Aper, Saqqara: wooden. Little bit of weight, staff. -nomarc: landed lord, owner of land Butcher: symbol, pharaoh will take servants to next world for his needs Mastaba of Ti: similar look to pharaoh = start to see loss of significance Relief of Saqqura: sculptures making statues -living person = twisted perspective -non-living =profile perspective Pepe II and Hid Mother, Queen Merye-ankhnes -tiny dude is pharaoh as child. Still looks like man -woman is temporary stand in until pharaoh is a man Middle Kingdom (11-14)+ -first intermediate period -Memphis: capitol -Thebes: new Nomarch arrives, powerful: decides he is also pharaoh (mentuhotep) Rock-cut tombs: mastabas weren’t working –thieves -cut inside of rock base mnt side (cave) Mentuhotep: Nomarch, claims to be pharaoh. Eventually unifies Egypt -Dier el Bahari- temple Amenehat III: pharaoh headgear. Facial emotion- meloncoly. Selfless Senusret III: no headgear, some emotion, heavy eyes Crown of Khummet: daughter of Amenmhat II Pectoral of Senusret II: common jewlry -falcon: Horus -Cobra: N Egypt -Vulture: S Egypt -Ankh -Women bending branches- thousand years -Sath- god of evil Hippo: Faience –ceramic, blue, hippos rep courage and bravery Second Intermedite Period (13-17) -middle kingdom ends -Hyksos “the shepherded Kings” -chariot -Domesticated Horse Ah-hoteps gold boat: ship of the desert Pectoral of Royal woman Mereret The New Kingdom (18) -Hatshepsut: female Pharaoh -Rameses II: loves to brag (died from tooth decay at 80/90) -Akenaten: Son of One god -Tutankhamun: son of Akenaten (died at 17) Hatshepsut with offering jars -headgear and goatee (must look like pharaoh) -married to previous pharaoh and became regent -priest class had to recognize you to become pharaoh (she bribed them) -planned daughter to be next pharaoh -feminine face -destroyer her artwork Temple of Ramses II: each figure is him. Small figures are his wives (tallest one is fav, first wife) Abu Simbel: Path -oct 21- feb 21: golden days to rep sun god Fresco paintings: wet plaster, pigments into wet plaster Great Temple of Amun at Karnak -Amun: traveling god (will find you and bring you back to Egypt) -inner part: sacred- only for priest and pharaoh -statues of gods -visitors area- pharaoh propaganda -Hypostyle hall: hieroglyphics- legends on columns Obelisk: needle-like column Senmut with Princess Nefrua: unity connected Tomb of Nebamun: higharchy scale, twisted, same rules, painting, nomarch -nude=slavery -eye facing front -dancing eating in tombs, visit dead -profile instead of twisted Akhenaton: breaks rules -shut down religion- monotheistic “one son, one god” (he was the son) -took power from priest class -moved capitol -new unique art style – representational -feminine body type- man-lady -god created man and woman- so he is both Nefertiti: (wife of Akhenaton), long neck, beautiful, most famous queen Tiye, Amarna style (representational) -mother. Attitude in face Akhenaten and Family: -holding daughters -pharaoh showing human emotion- fatherly -new body type shown -new rulers tired to destroy/forget about his art (ended up preserving it on accident) Tutankhamen: inner gold coffin -died at 17- only few years for pharaoh art work -mumification- took brain out of naval cavity –damaged skull (wasn’t murdered, had no proof, good theory because he was son of akhunaton- didn’t want him to do what he did) Howard Carter 1922: discovered his tomb -Burial chamber –sealed w/ clay –was never broken -treasury, food inside Death mask of Tutankhamen: placed over mummy head, gold and blue -returned to older styles of art Painted chest of Tutankhamen: portrayed him as great warrior Burial Chamber w/ King Ay: repeated Tutankhamen -shows preparation of Ka -Opening of mouth tool –mummies, let ka pass in and out Valley of the kings: burial site, hiding tombs in mnt Painted Papyrus Scroll- “book of the Dead” -found in tombs -story of passing through underworld- judgement (put hear in vessel, weigh it, if lighter than feather =good soul = paradise.) (if not –soul destroyed.) (but everyone’s was good) -Osyrus: king of underworld -magical artwork: helps them pass The Late Kingdom: Mentuemhet –pharaoh still looks like pharaoh, not a lot of art changes Sphinx of Taharqo –Arabian Mummy –Greek (face painted on front) =start to see egypt influence other civilizations Christianity: huge influence to Egypt –fast -intolerant to other religions -destroyed Egyptian culture (temples and art shut down)
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