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PSY 381 Notes Week 1

by: Tatum Notetaker

PSY 381 Notes Week 1 PSY 343

Marketplace > DePaul University > Psychology > PSY 343 > PSY 381 Notes Week 1
Tatum Notetaker
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About this Document

These cover the introductory material provided in class and online from week 1
Intro to Psychological Measurement
Douglas Cellar
Class Notes
Psychological Testing, history, TestBuilding




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatum Notetaker on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 343 at DePaul University taught by Douglas Cellar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Measurement in Psychology at DePaul University.


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Date Created: 08/04/16
Notes 9/8  The world of Testing o Source of standardized info for decision making – you’re getting the same information from a person (esp. if you give one person the same test twice) o Test info or scores can be very useful – can help determine different things in life such as whether a person is a good candidate for a job, if and where they go to college, etc. o Tests have and can be misused – sometimes aren’t as accurate as they could be o Tests are used widely – used for so many different factors in life (job interviews, educational value, etc.) o Very important to understand testing process – can help you get a better sense about whether a test is being used appropriately or what it’s use is, gaining technical knowledge  Major Categories of tests o Mental Ability Tests  Individually administered  Group administered  Other abilities o Neuropsychological tests o Achievement tests  Batteries  Single subject  Certification, licensing  Government-sponsored programs o Personality tests  Objective  Projective  Other approaches o Interests and Attitudes  Vocational interests  Attitude scales  Additional Ways to Categorize Tests o Paper and pencil vs. Performance o Speed vs. Power o Individual vs. Group Administered o Maximum vs. Typical Performance o Norm-referenced vs. Criterion-referenced  Uses and Users o Clinical o Educational o Personnel o Research  Major Assumptions o That humans have traits or characteristics; differences in these traits are important o That we can quantify these traits o That these traits are reasonably stable o That our measures relate to actual behavior  Basic Questions o Norms 2  How to interpret scores o Reliability  How stable are the scores? o Validity  What are we measuring? o Test Development  How are tests developed?  How to examine fairness? o Practical issues  Cost, time, flexibility, simplicity, etc.  Historical Periods o Remote Background (Up to 1840)  Philosopher’s concern for what was common  Oral examinations  Chinese civil service exam o Setting the Stage (1840-1880)  Concern for mental illness  Formal written exam  Darwin’s theory of evolution  Experimental psychology established o The Roots (1880-1915)  Key People:  Galton  Cattell  Binet  Spearman 3  Concern for reliability and quality of measurement o The Flowering (1915-1940)  Prolific publication of new tests  e.g., Stanford-Binet, Otis group tests, Thurstone’s primary mental abilities, Stanford Achievement Test, Woodworth Personal Data Sheet; MMPI, Rorschach, TAT; Strong and Kuder vocational interest measures; Attitude scales; Wechsler- Bellevue  Emergence of test publishers  E.g. World Book Co., Cooperative Test Service, Psychological Corp  Three Significant Corporations  Psychometrika, Ed & Psych Meas, Buros MMY o Consolidation (1940-1965)  More development of new or revised tests  Applications of testing in WWII, in clinical practice, the schools, and industry  Major books summarizing the field o Just Yesterday (1965-2000)  Item response theory vs. classical test theory  Legislative and judicial activism  Public criticism  Computers’ persuasive influence o And Now (2000- present) 4  Explosive increase in number of tests  Influence of managed care  Evidence-based practice  Online administration and reporting  Automated scoring  Major Forces o Factors that have shaped testing as it is practiced today o Not stages, as in history, but continuing, cumulative influences o Also other factors influencing specific types of tests (covered in other chapters) o The Scientific Impulse  The need to measure scientifically o Concern for the Individual  Nearly always an interest in individuals o Practical Applications  Most developments came from practice o Statistical Methodology  Interactive relationship with test development o Rise of Clinical Psychology  Testing closely tied to this emergence o Rise of Industrial-Organizational Psychology  Testing in organizations (corporations, military, nonprofits, federal, state, and municipal) o Computers  Computers vs. scanners 5  Statistical processing  Score reporting – interpretive reports  Test administration – online, computer adaptive  Definition of a test o A standardized process or device that yields information about a sample of behavior or cognitive processes in a quantified manner  How to build a simple test o Formulate the purpose of your test  A concise statement of purpose and audience for your measure o Consider preliminary design issues  Issues concern item type, item format, scoring, and interpretation o Prepare the items  Usually need four items, for review and analysis o Conduct the item tryout  Administer items to relevant sample of participants  Calculate item statistics, reliability, and conduct other relevant analyses  Complete standardization and other relevant research – develop norms and methods for interpreting scores  Prepare test manual 6


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