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Chapter 1-5 Textbook notes

by: Hope Bell

Chapter 1-5 Textbook notes 1345

Marketplace > University of Houston Downtown > Geology > 1345 > Chapter 1 5 Textbook notes
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Chapter 1-5 Textbook notes
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Bell on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1345 at University of Houston Downtown taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Geology at University of Houston Downtown.


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Date Created: 08/04/16
GEOL 1345 Hope Bell Chapter 1: Review Questions (# 1, 3, 5, and 7); and Critical Thinking Questions (#1, 3, 5, and 7) Chapter 2: Review Questions (# 1, 3, 5, and 7); and Critical Thinking Questions (#1, 3, 5, and 7) Chapter 3: Review Questions (# 1, 3, 5, and 7); and Critical Thinking Questions (#1, 3, 5, and 7) Chapter 4: Review Questions (# 1, 3, 5, and 7); and Critical Thinking Questions (#1, 3, 5, and 7) Chapter 5: Review Questions (# 1, 3, 5, and 7); and Critical Thinking Questions (#1, 3, 5, and 7) CHAPTER 1 Review Questions  1-What is the second largest reservoir in the hydrosphere, and where is it located? o Glacial ice is the second largest reservoir in the hydrosphere and it covers much of Antarctica and Greenland.  3-Distinguish between weathering and erosion. o Weathering is the physical disintegration, chemical decomposition, or solution of exposed rock and erosion is the removal and transports of sediments by gravity, moving water, glaciers, and wind.  5-Define residence time and compare the residence time of a water molecule in the atmosphere with that of a water molecule in a glacial ice sheet. o Residence time is the average length of time for a substance in a reservoir to be replaced completely. The residence time of a water molecule varies from around only 10 days in the atmosphere compared to tens of thousands of years or longer in glacial ice sheets.  7-Identify the various sources of atmospheric water vapor. Which one of these is the principal source? o Various sources of water vapor include evaporation, sublimation, and transpiration. The principle source of water vapor is evaporation. GEOL 1345 Hope Bell Critical Thinking Questions  1-Describe how an understanding of the workings of the Earth system relates to our ability to predict how that system might respond to a large-scale disturbance. o By studying and understanding Earth’s system, we are more likely to be able to predict what will happen to Earth if a large scale disturbance occurred. This is because if we know how Earth normally runs we can predict what will happen if that system is disturbed by looking how different factors affect the Earth’s system (for example: massive flood basalts due to plate tectonics, meteorite impacts)  3-Identify and describe some of the major interactions between the hydrosphere and geosphere. o The hydrosphere (where water is present in the earth’s system) and geosphere (the land area of the earth’s system) have a symbiotic relationship where water is stored in oceans, rivers, glaciers, and lakes in the geosphere and this water is eventually turned into water vapor and is released into the atmosphere. Water returns to the geosphere through precipitation (rain, hail, or snow). This cycle of water transfer is known as the water cycle and is what makes Earth unique. Water is the only chemical components of the Earth system in that it is the only naturally occurring substance that co-exists in all three phases at normal temperatures and pressures near Earth’s surface.  5-About 99% of the water in the atmosphere occurs in the troposphere. Explain why. o The troposphere is where the atmosphere interfaces with the hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere and this is where most weather takes places. The average air temperature, in the troposphere, drops with increasing altitude so it is usually colder on mountaintops that in lowlands. Since the troposphere contains 75% of the atmosphere’s mass it also contains 99% of its water.  7-Explain how the ocean stabilizes Earth’s climate system. o The ocean plays an important role in shaping our climate and weather patterns. The ocean affects the earth’s climate by utilizing the sun’s energy. Warm ocean waters provide the energy to fuel storm systems that provide fresh water vital to all living things. Also, the ocean’s play a major role in the water cycle. The amount of precipitation falling on an area can affect its weather and climate. CHAPTER 2 Review Questions  1-What percentage of Earth’s surface is covered by ocean water? In which hemisphere is most land located? o 71% of Earth is covered by ocean water. The northern hemisphere has more land than the southern hemisphere does. GEOL 1345 Hope Bell  3-Describe the general origins of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Which type of rock composes most of Earth’s crust? o An igneous rock is volcanic in nature and is created from the cooling and crystallization of molten lava or magma. A sedimentary rock is a rock that is made up of lithified sediments that were weathered and eroded away from previous rock. Lastly, a Metamorphic rock is a sedimentary or igneous rock that has gone under extreme pressure and temperature over time. Most of Earth’s crust is igneous with some metamorphic rock locally.  5-Describe the general relationship between continental shelf width and tectonic activity in the continental margin? o The continental shelf width is narrowest where the continental margin is tectonically active and is widest where the continental margin is passive.  7-Define Sea-Floor spreading and its significance for oceanic crust. o Sea floor spreading occurs at divergent plate boundaries when tectonic plates slowly move away from each other. As the plates separate less dense material below rises, cools, and new oceanic floor is created. Critical Thinking Questions  1-How does the lithosphere of the deep-ocean basins differ from the lithosphere of the continents? o The lithosphere of the deep-ocean basins consists of the oceanic crust and the overlying water and the lithosphere of the continents contains its land and the atmosphere above it.  3-Compare and contrast the geological characteristics of the continental margins of the west and east coast of North America. o The west coast of North America is referred to as a (tectonically) active continental margin, and the east coast is a passive continental margin. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common on the west coast of North America, but there are no active volcanoes on the east coast, and large-magnitude earthquakes are rare.  5-What conditions are required for violent volcanic eruptions in the continental margins? o There must be an active plate boundary. The convergent plate margins are the most intense areas of active magmatism above sea level at the present time. Most of world's violent volcanic activity occurs along these zones.  7-How does land subsidence influence mean sea level in coastal areas? o Land subsidence in coastal areas can cause the mean sea level to change. CHAPTER 3 Review Questions GEOL 1345 Hope Bell  1-Describe how hydrogen bonds form between neighboring water molecules. During which phase change of water are all hydrogen bonds broken? o Hydrogen bonds form between neighboring water molecules by opposite electrical charges. The positively charged Hydrogen pole of one water molecule attracts the negatively charged Oxygen pole of another water molecule. When liquid water changes to vapor (gaseous state), all hydrogen bonds are broken.  3-Identify and describe three phase changes of water during which latent heat is released to the environment. o Freezing, condensation, and deposition releases heat to the environment. When water freezes, latent (or hidden) heat is released to the environment. Condensations happens when more water molecules return to the water surface as a liquid than escape as vapor, net gain of liquid water mass results. An example of this is when water vapor condenses on the cold surface of an aluminum beverage can on a humid summer day. Lastly, Deposition is the process whereby water vapor becomes ice without first becoming a liquid. An example of this is formation of frost on a car window.  5-Distinguish between a maritime climate and a continental climate in terms of annual temperature range and name some U.S. or Canadian cities having these climates. o When a location has a maritime climate its climate is strongly influenced by the nearby sea so the summers are not too hot and winters are not too cold. Temperatures also do not vary much between day and night. A continental climate is more extreme, with greater temperature differences between day and night and between summer and winter. An example of maritime climate would be San Francisco, California. An example of a continental climate would be Wichita, Kansas.  7-For the ocean as a whole, what is the most abundant gas dissolved in seawater? What is the role of this gas in photosynthesis and cellular respiration? o The most abundant gas dissolved in seawater is CO2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes to photosynthesis because photosynthesis is the process where green plants use sunlight, water, a CO2 to manufacture their food and generate oxygen as a byproduct. In cellular respiration, organisms use dissolved oxygen and release carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Critical Thinking Questions  1-If ice were always denser than liquid water, speculate on some of the consequences. o If ice were always denser than liquid water, than the ice would sink to the bottom instead of float on the top. This would create a huge effect on albedo because the ice would be below the water and not reflect as it would if it was on top of the water. GEOL 1345 Hope Bell  3-Describe how changes in the phase of water bring about a transfer of heat energy within the Earth system. o When water changes phase, latent heat is either absorbed from the environment to break hydrogen bonds (melting, evaporation, sublimation) or released to the environment when hydrogen bonds form (freezing, condensation, deposition).  5-River water ultimately empties in to the ocean and yet the average salinity of river water is much less than the average salinity of sea water. Explain the difference. o Salts dissolved in seawater are derived from weathering and erosion of rock and sediment on land, chemical reactions between cold seawater and newly formed oceanic crust, and volcanic eruptions. River and streams deliver the products of terrestrial weathering and erosion to the ocean; this is the principal source of salt in the ocean. So in other words, river water is less saline because it transports sediments that chemically react with the sea water.  7-What is the significance of a seawater salinity of 24.7? o At a salinity of 24.7+ cooling seawater becomes denser down to its initial freezing temperature. Once sea ice forms, it floats because its density is lower than that of the seawater. CHAPTER 4 Review Questions  1-What is the relationship between the degree of sorting of a sediment deposit and the range in size exhibited by the individual sediments? Are well- sorted sediments more likely to be found in the continental margins or on the deep-ocean floor? Explain your answer. o Poorly sorted sediment has a wide range size of sediments whereas very well sorted sediment has more uniform sized sediments. Therefore, the more sorted the sediment is, the more uniform size the sediments will be. Well sorted sediments are more likely to be found in the deep-ocean floor (for example mudstone) because finer sediment can be traveled farther whereas as larger sediment loses velocity quicker and deposits near the continental margins.  3-What are the four major groups of marine sediments? Briefly describe the source of each sediment type? o Lithogenous- from rock o Biogenous- from organisms or their remains o Hydrogenous- precipitated from sea water o Cosmogenous- from outer space  5-A deep-ocean manganese nodule is an example of what type of marine sediment? Describe the ocean environment in which the largest nodules are found. o Deep-ocean manganese nodule is an example of a Hydrogenous sediment meaning they are precipitated from seawater. Rich manganese nodule deposits are found only in regions of the ocean far GEOL 1345 Hope Bell from shore, where input of lithogenous sediments is small and in unproductive areas where the rate of accumulation of biogenous particles is also low.  7-What are two types of pelagic deposits that are more than 30% biogenous by weight? Which type is unlikely to occur on the ocean floor at depths greater than about 4500 m below sea level? o Pelagic deposits that are more than 30% biogenous by weight are called either calcareous ooze or siliceous ooze depending on composition. Calcareous oozes accumulate on ocean bottom features having depths shallower than 4500 m, after 4500 m below sea level calcareous ooze is less likely to occur on the ocean floor. Critical Thinking Questions  1-What sequence of events could account for the presence of relatively coarse sediment on the deep-ocean floor? o An event such as a volcanic explosion can spur heavy sediments deep into the ocean floor. Without a great disruption like a volcano however strong turbidity current can bring some coarse sediment deep onto the ocean floor.  3-How might a lower pH of seawater affect the abundance of calcareous sediment that accumulates on the sea floor? o Lowering the pH to less alkaline and more acidic levels would cause more calcareous materials to dissolve in seawater thereby reducing the abundance of calcareous sediment on the seafloor.  5-What is the significance of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD)? How might ocean acidification affect the CCD? o The CCD is the depth of the ocean below which calcium carbonate shells and skeletons dissolve and do not accumulate. Since below the CCD waters are under saturated with respect to carbonate minerals, colder, and sufficiently acidic to dissolve carbonate shells and skeletons then ocean acidification would raise the CCD line closer to sea level than before.  7-How might abyssal storms affect the interpretation of past climatic episodes obtained from analysis of deep-sea sediment cores? o Abyssal storms scour the pelagic deposits on the ocean floor, generating moving clouds of suspended sediment and disrupting the orderly accumulation of sediments. The unorderly distribution of sediment in a core sample will make it much harder to correctly interpret the past climatic episodes. CHAPTER 5 Review Questions  1-Distinguish between weather and climate. GEOL 1345 Hope Bell o Climate is based on many yearly records of the weather. Weather is a short period of time look at the atmosphere. Both of them use the same concepts of wind, temperature, pressure, and so on.  3-Outside of the tropics, what is the relationship between the annual solar radiation cycle and the annual temperature cycle? How is this relationship influenced by proximity to large bodies of water? o The warmest day of the annual radiation cycle occurs after the summer solstice. The coldest day of the year takes place after the winter solstice. With continental climates, the temperature cycle happens in a shorter time. In contrast, with maritime climates, near large bodies of water, the annual temperature cycle is longer.  5-Define the photic zone and describe how its depth is affected by the concentration of suspended particles and dissolved organic matter in seawater. o The photic zone is the upper portion of the ocean in which solar radiation is detectable. Marine life depends directly or indirectly on sunlight and organic productivity in the ocean’s photic zone. Even the diverse community of animals living at greater depths on the ocean floor depends on organic particles produced within the photic zone that settle to the sea floor. Suspended particles and dissolved organic matter may block sunlight in the water and therefore change the depth of the photic zone.  7-Define latent heating and sensible heating and compare the importance of the two processes in transferring heat energy from Earth’s surface to atmosphere on a global average annual basis. o Latent heating refers to the transfer of heart energy from one place to another as a consequence of phase changes of water. Sensible heating is heat transfer via conduction and convection. The global distribution of incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation implies net radiational warming of Earth’s surface and net radiational cooling of Earth’s atmosphere. In response to this temperature gradient, heat is transferred from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere via latent heating and sensible heating. Critical Thinking Questions  1-How does the ocean moderate the climate of downwind coastal areas? o It has a moderate influence on the climate of downwind coastal areas for a few reasons. One, the ocean's water has a high specific heat and will absorb more heat. The downward winds near the ocean surface are amidst more average temperatures. Also, the ocean keeps temperatures moderate because it takes more energy for the temperature of the ocean to change. Finally, the absorption of heat, from the high specific heat of the ocean, helps keep the temperature from getting too high.  3-Speculate on how higher sea surface temperatures (SST) might impact Earth’s greenhouse effect. GEOL 1345 Hope Bell o Higher sea surface temperatures would increase the frequency and duration of hurricanes and El Niño events.  5-How do the subtropical anticyclones influence the salinity of surface ocean waters? o Low precipitation with high temperatures cause high rates of evaporation and therefore relatively high salinity of surface waters.  7-How does less ice cover in the Arctic Ocean affect the flux of water vapor from the ocean to the atmosphere? o Less ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase the flux of water vapor from the ocean to the atmosphere by warming of the atmosphere.


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